中前不圆唇元音

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中前不圆唇元音
e
ɛ̝
国际音标编号 302 430
编码
HTML码 十进制 e​̞
Unicode 十六进制 U+0065 U+031E
X-SAMPA音标 e_o
声音

 

中前不圆唇元音 是在一些语言发音中出现的一种元音。 虽然IPA没有专门表示介于半闭的[e]和半开的[ɛ]间正中位置元音的符号,此音通常写作 ⟨e⟩. 而若欲准确表示,则可使附加符,如⟨⟩或⟨ɛ̝⟩ (前者更多见)。 一些汉学家韩学家则使用⟨⟩ (小字大写E, U+1D07, ᴇ)。

许多音系中“中元音区”(即非亦非)只有一个不圆唇元音的语言,通常将之发作真正的中元音(与半闭半开元音均有差异),包括西班牙语日语韩语希腊语土耳其语等。英语的许多方言亦有此音。然而,这点却并非能通用。例如,尽管都没有其他前不圆唇元音,但伊博语的是[e],而保加利亚语中则是[ɛ]

据称,分布于马来西亚和泰国的Kensiu语可以独一无二地区分仅在半闭、中和半开上有所差异的三个前不圆唇元音。[來源請求]

特征[编辑]

见诸语言[编辑]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan Alguerese sec [se̞k] 'dry' /ɛ/ and /e/ merge into [e̞] in these dialects. See Catalan phonology
Northern
Dutch Belgian[1] rib [rë̞p] 'rib' Centralized, typically transcribed as /ɪ/. It corresponds to [ɘ̟] in the Netherlands. See Dutch phonology
English Cardiff[2] square [skwe̞ː] 'square' Corresponds to /ɛə/ in RP.
Received Pronunciation bed [be̞d] 'bed' Many speakers pronounce a more open vowel [ɛ] instead. See English phonology
Southern English
Inland Northern American[3] bit [bë̞t̚] 'bit' Centralized, used in some dialects. Corresponds to [ɪ] in other dialects, in Scotland it can be [ɪ~ə] instead. See Northern Cities vowel shift
Scottish[4] [bë̞ʔ]
Yorkshire[5] play [ple̞ː] 'play'
Finnish[6] menen [ˈme̞ne̞n] 'I (will) go' See Finnish phonology
Greek φαινόμενο fainómeno [fe̞ˈno̞me̞no̞] 'phenomenon' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew[7] כן [ke̞n] 'yes' Hebrew vowels are not shown in the script, see Niqqud and Modern Hebrew phonology
Hungarian[8] hét [he̞ːt̪] 'seven' See Hungarian phonology
Japanese[9] 笑み [e̞mʲi] 'smile' See Japanese phonology
Korean[10] 베개 [pe̞ˈɡɛ] 'pillow' See Korean phonology
Norwegian Standard Eastern[11] nett [n̪ɛ̝t̪] 'net' Typically transcribed /ɛ/. See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Brazilian energia eólica [ẽ̞ne̞ɦˈʑi.ɐ e̞ˈɔɫikɐ] 'wind power' Unstressed vowel.[12] See Portuguese phonology
Romanian fete [ˈfe̞t̪e̞] 'girls' See Romanian phonology
Russian[13] человек [t͡ɕɪlɐˈvʲe̞k] 'person' Occurs only after soft consonants. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian[14] питање / pitanje [pǐːt̪äːɲ̟e̞] 'question' See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Spanish[15] bebé [be̞ˈβ̞e̞] 'baby' See Spanish phonology
Swedish Central Standard[16] häll [he̞l̪] 'flat rock' Typically transcribed as /ɛ/. Many dialects pronounce short /e/ and /ɛ/ the same. See Swedish phonology
Tagalog daliri [dɐˈliɾe̞] 'finger' See Tagalog phonology
Turkish[17] ev [e̞v] 'house' See Turkish phonology

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  2. ^ Coupland (1990:95)
  3. ^ Labov, William; Ash, Sharon; Boberg, Charles. A National Map of the Regional Dialects of American English. Department of Linguistics, University of Pennsylvania. 15 July 1997 [March 7, 2013]. 
  4. ^ Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  5. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:179)
  6. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005:60, 66)
  7. ^ Laufer (1999:98)
  8. ^ Szende (1994:92)
  9. ^ Okada (1991:94)
  10. ^ Lee (1999:121)
  11. ^ Vanvik (1979:13)
  12. ^ Corresponds to /ɛ/, or /ɨ/ and /i/ (where Brazilian dialects have [i ~ ɪ ~ e̞]), in other national variants. May be lowered to [ɛ̝ ~ ɛ] in amazofonia, nordestino, mineiro (MG) and fluminense (RJ) if not nasalized ([ẽ̞] does not corresponds to phoneme //), or be raised and merged to /e/ in sulista, paulistano, caipira and sertanejo.
  13. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:41)
  14. ^ Landau et al. (1999:67)
  15. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:256)
  16. ^ Engstrand (1999:140)
  17. ^ Zimmer & Orgun (1999:155)

参考书目[编辑]

  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin, Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers. 2006 
  • Coupland, Nikolas, English in Wales: Diversity, Conflict, and Change. 1990:  95, ISBN 1-85359-032-0 
  • Engstrand, Olle, Swedish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999:  140–142, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe, Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt, Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2005, 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis, The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press. 1969 
  • Landau, Ernestina; Lončarića, Mijo; Horga, Damir; Škarić, Ivo, Croatian, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999:  66–69, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Laufer, Asher, Hebrew, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association. 1999:  96–99 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok, Korean, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press. 1999:  120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Martínez-Celdrán, Eugenio; Fernández-Planas, Ana Ma.; Carrera-Sabaté, Josefina, Castilian Spanish, Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2003, 33 (2): 255–259, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001373 
  • Okada, Hideo, Japanese, Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 1991, 21 (2): 94–96, doi:10.1017/S002510030000445X 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn, A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing. 1999 
  • Szende, Tamás, Hungarian, Journal of the International Phonetic Alphabet. 1994, 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Vanvik, Arne, Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo. 1979, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo, Belgian Standard Dutch, Journal of the International Phonetic Association. 2005, 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Zimmer, Karl; Orgun, Orhan, Turkish, Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1999:  154–158, ISBN 0-521-65236-7