中國度量衡

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度量衡是傳統上對计量长度、容量、重量單位的统称。代表長度,代表容量,則代表重量。現代對度量衡的廣泛定義為任何表示物理量(如溫度時間)的單位

歷代度量衡制演變簡表[编辑]

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漢尺=約23.1cm
「唐尺」一寸,約等於3.7公分
度制
時代 單位換算 公制換算(厘米cm)
1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1尺 = 16.95, 1寸 =1.58
1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1尺 =19.1,1寸 = 1.58。楚国一尺 =22.7
戰國 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 231, 1尺 = 23.1, 1寸 =2.31, 1分 = 0.231;1铜尺 =23
1引 = 10丈, 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1引 = 2310, 1丈 = 231, 1尺 = 23.1, 1寸 = 2.31, 1分 = 0.231
1引 = 10丈, 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1引 = 2310, 1丈 = 231, 1尺 = 23.1, 1寸 = 2.31, 1分 = 0.231;一牙尺 = 23.3,王莽一货币尺 = 23.1;后汉一铜尺 = 23.6
三國 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 242, 1尺 = 24.2, 1寸 = 2.42, 1分 = 0.242;
西晉 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 242, 1尺 = 24.5, 1寸 = 2.42, 1分 = 0.242
東晉十六國 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 245, 1尺 = 24.5, 1寸 = 2.45, 1分 = 0.245;十六国前后赵一尺 =24.3,南齐一骨尺 =24.7,南梁一铜尺 =24.95
南北朝 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 南朝:1丈 = 245, 1尺 = 24.5, 1寸 = 2.45, 1分 = 0.245


北朝:1丈 = 296, 1尺 = 29.6, 1寸 = 2.96, 1分 = 0.296;一中尺 =27.9,王尺=26.7,后尺=34.75;西魏周王室用王尺,东魏北齐王室用后尺民间一尺=24.95

1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 296, 1尺 = 29.6, 1寸 = 2.96, 1分 = 0.296;一水尺 = 27.4.
1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分小尺:1丈 = 300, 1尺 = 30, 1寸 = 3, 1分 = 0.3


大尺:1丈 = 360, 1尺 = 36, 1寸 = 3.6, 1分 = 0.36;宗庙星历用尺一尺 = 24.75

五代十国 1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 300, 1尺 = 30, 1寸 = 3, 1分 = 0.3
1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 1丈 = 312, 1尺 = 31.2, 1寸 = 3.12, 1分 = 0.312
1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 裁衣尺:1尺 = 34, 1寸 = 3.4
量地尺:1尺 = 32.7, 1寸 = 3.27
营造尺:1尺 = 32, 1寸 = 3.2
1丈 = 10尺, 1尺 = 10寸, 1寸 = 10分 裁衣尺:1丈 = 355, 1尺 = 35.5, 1寸 = 3.55
量地尺:1丈 = 345, 1尺 = 34.5, 1寸 = 3.45
营造尺:1丈 = 320, 1尺 = 32, 1寸 = 3.2
  • 營造尺庫平制:1里 = 18引 = 180丈 = 360步 = 1800尺 = 1,8000寸 = 18,0000分 = 180,0000釐 = 1800,0000毫 = 576米
  • 市制:1里 = 15引 = 150丈 = 1500尺 = 1,5000寸 = 15,0000分 = 150,0000釐 = 1500,0000毫 = 500米

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两诏铜方升,秦朝颁行的标准量器,两侧刻有始皇二十六年和秦二世元年诏文。
量制
時代 單位換算 公制換算(毫升mL)
戰國 齊:1鐘 = 10釜, 1釜 = 4區, 1區 = 4豆, 1豆 = 4升
楚:1筲 = 5升
秦:1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升
三晉(韓、趙、魏):1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升
1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升 1斛 = 20000, 1斗 = 2000, 1升 = 200;商鞅变法1方升= 201
1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合, 1合 = 2龠, 1龠 = 5撮, 1撮 = 4圭 1斛 = 20000, 1斗 = 2000, 1升 = 200, 1合 = 20, 1龠 = 10, 1撮 = 2, 1圭 = 0.5
三國兩晉 1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 1斛 = 20450, 1斗 = 2045, 1升 = 204.5, 1合 = 20.45
南北朝 1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 1斛 = 30000, 1斗 = 3000, 1升 = 300, 1合 = 30
1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 開皇:1斛 = 60000, 1斗 = 6000, 1升 = 600, 1合 = 60

大業:1斛 = 20000, 1斗 = 2000, 1升 = 200, 1合 = 20

1斛 = 10斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 大:1斛 = 60000, 1斗 = 6000, 1升 = 600, 1合 = 60

小:1斛 = 20000, 1斗 = 2000, 1升 = 200, 1合 = 20

1 = 2斛,1斛 = 5斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 1 = 67000,1斛 = 33500, 1斗 = 6700, 1升 = 670,1合 = 67
1 = 2斛,1斛 = 5斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 1 = 95000,1斛 = 47500, 1斗 = 9500, 1升 = 950,1合 = 95
1 = 2斛,1斛 = 5斗, 1斗 = 10升, 1升 = 10合 1 = 100000,1斛 = 50000, 1斗 = 10000, 1升 = 1000,1合 = 100
  • 營造尺庫平制:1石 = 2斛 = 10斗 = 100升 = 1000合 = 1,0000勺 = 3160立方寸 = 103.54688公升
  • 市制:1市石(dàn) = 10市斗 = 100市升 = 1000市合(gě) = 1,0000勺 = 10,0000撮 = 100公升

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衡制
時代 單位換算 公制換算(公克g)
戰國 楚:1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖
趙:1 = 120斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖
魏:1鎰 = 10釿,1釿 = 20兩
秦:1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖
1斤 = 250,1兩 = 15.6,1銖 = 0.65
1石 = 30000,1斤 = 250,1兩 = 15.6,1銖 = 0.65
1鎰 = 315,1釿 = 31.5
1石 = 30360,1鈞 = 7590,1斤 = 253,1兩 = 15.8,1銖 = 0.66
1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 1石 = 30360,1鈞 = 7590,1斤 = 253,1兩 = 15.8,1銖 = 0.66
1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 西漢:1石 = 29760,1鈞 = 7440,1斤 = 248,1兩 = 15.5,1銖 = 0.65
東漢:1石 = 26400,1鈞 = 6600,1斤 = 220,1兩 = 13.8,1銖 = 0.57
三國 1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 1石 = 26400,1鈞 = 6600,1斤 = 220,1兩 = 13.8,1銖 = 0.57
兩晉 1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 1石 = 26400,1鈞 = 6600,1斤 = 220,1兩 = 13.8,1銖 = 0.57
南北朝 1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 南齊:1斤 = 330,梁、陳:1斤 = 220;
北魏、北齊:1斤 = 440,北周:1斤 = 660
1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 24銖 大:1石 = 79320,1鈞 = 19830,1斤 = 661,1兩 = 41.3
小:1石 = 26400,1鈞 = 6600,1斤 = 220,1兩 = 13.8
1石 = 4鈞,1鈞 = 30斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 10錢,1錢 = 10分 1石 = 79320,1斤 = 661,1兩 = 41.3,1錢 = 4.13,1分 = 0.41
1石 = 120斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 10錢,1錢 = 10分 1石 = 75960,1斤 = 633,1兩 = 40,1錢 = 4,1分 = 0.4
1石 = 120斤,1斤 = 16兩,1兩 = 10錢,1錢 = 10分 1石 = 70800,1斤 = 590,1兩 = 36.9,1錢 = 3.69,1分 = 0.37
  • 營造尺庫平制:1斤 = 16兩 = 160錢 = 1600分 = 1,6000釐 = 16,0000毫 = 596.816克
  • 市制:1斤 = 16兩 = 160錢 = 1600分 = 1,6000釐 = 16,0000毫 = 160,0000絲 = 500克

面積[编辑]

滿洲國大同三年時憲書p49度量衡
  • 營造尺庫平制:1頃 = 100畝 = 1000分 = 1,0000釐 = 10,0000毫 = 60,0000方尺 = 6,1440平方米
  • 市制:1頃 = 100畝 = 1000分 = 1,0000釐 = 10,0000毫 = 60,0000平方尺 = 66666 23 平方米

現況[编辑]

現時中國大陸是以公制為主,輔以市制台灣以公制和台制為主。

港澳[编辑]

香港澳門,由於長時期為英國葡萄牙屬地,並沒有受市制改革影響;雖然政府曾大力推廣十進制,但民間仍然沿用司馬斤(和英制公制同時使用);「1=100斤、1斤(和清朝官府庫平制不太一樣,司馬斤相等於604.79克,庫平制1斤相等於596.82克)=16兩、1兩(37.7994克)=10錢、1錢=10分」等換算仍廣泛用於糧食中藥材買賣至今。貴金屬買賣使用金衡兩,即37.429克[1]

參見[编辑]

參考來源[编辑]

中國央視國際2004年07月22日17:11

注釋[编辑]

  1. ^ http://shopsmart.consumer.org.hk/shopsmart/tr/hi_dr_abalone_hint.html
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