中奧塔哥淘金潮

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
中奧塔哥淘金潮
Old gold workings, St. Bathans, Otago, New Zealand.jpg
Old gold workings, St. Bathans, 奧塔哥
Other names 中奧塔哥淘金潮, 克魯薩淘金潮
Centres Lawrence, on the Tuapeka River; Arrowtown; Kawarau Gorge; Naseby; Dunedin (nearest major port and city)
Discovery 1861年5月20日, 加布里埃爾隘谷
Duration 1861–1864
Prospectors 18,000
Persons
  • 加布里埃爾 (discoverer)
  • Bully Hayes (entrepreneur)
  • William Gilbert Rees (settler)
Legacy
  • Historic precincts of Dunedin and Oamaru
  • Dunedin Chinese community
  • University of Otago
  • Otago Goldfields Cavalcade
目前的黃金開採 Macraes Mine, East Otago

中奧塔哥淘金潮(又稱為奧塔哥淘金潮)發生於19世纪60年代,亦是紐西蘭最大的淘金潮。自從奧塔哥發現黃金後,快速吸引一波淘金者,有些是從美國加州和澳洲維多利亞省來的老經驗淘金者。

這波淘金熱從 Gabriel's Gully開始,後來漫延到整個奧塔哥中部,使但尼丁(Dunedin)快速擴張和商業化,成為當時紐西蘭的最大城。但是,只在短短數年內,多數的小型個人淘金者就離開了,取而代之的是長期商業化的金礦開採。

背景[编辑]

加布里埃爾隘谷在紐西蘭的位置
加布里埃爾隘谷
加布里埃爾隘谷
此隘谷以加布里埃爾· 里德命名

早期紐西蘭的淘金[编辑]

早在1842年的紐西蘭就已有發現金礦的紀錄,捕鯨船在科羅曼德半島以及附近的尼爾森都曾發現少量黃金。

1850年代,在Auckland有人提供500英鎊懸賞黃金的產區,那時正值加州淘金潮維多利亞淘金潮

1852年9月,木材商Charles Ring回應了懸賞,宣稱在科羅曼德爾(Coromandel)發現了金礦。短暫的淘金潮隨後在科羅曼德(Coromandel),Cape Colville水星灣(Mercury Bay)開始,因為僅有1500英鎊的金礦可供開採,風潮在3個月後就結束了。

1856年,科林伍德(Collingwood)附近的溪谷(Aorere Valley)有一波較成攻的淘金潮。約1500多人的淘金客在接下來的十年裡淘出150,000英鎊的黃金,然後金礦也差不多開採完了。此時期,奧塔哥也被發現含有金礦,然而因為地質較其他礦區不同,一開始並不受重視。

早期奧塔哥的淘金[编辑]

當地的原住民毛利人很早就知道奧塔哥有黃金,但是並不知道如何冶煉。

1851年10月,歐洲人首次發現奧塔哥的黃金,地點在帕默斯頓(Palmerston)附近的古德伍德(Goodwood)。[1]然而這次發現並沒有引起風潮。

1856年,馬陶拉河(Mataura River)和 Dunstan Range 有進一步的小型開採。

1861年初,在Lindis Pass發現的金礦終於引起注意,大量來自奧馬魯(Oamaru)的礦工前來入股其債權。直到兩個月後,更大的淘金潮才開始。

淘金潮的主要時期[编辑]

1862年淘金潮高峰時期加布里埃爾的隘谷

加布里埃爾隘谷[编辑]

加布里埃爾· 里德(c.1824–1894)是一個澳洲探礦者,他曾參與加州淘金潮維多利亞淘金潮。1861年5月20日,加布里埃爾在加布里埃爾隘谷(Gabriel's Gully)的河床發現金礦。 "在被道路覆蓋的淺灘上,我鏟出了大約兩英尺半的碎石,挖到了美麗的軟岩,並且,看見了如獵戶星座般的黃金閃耀在寒冷漆黑的夜晚。".[2]

市民透過1861年6月8日刊登在奧塔哥見證報的一封信,得知了里德這十天的勘探之旅以及他的發現。[3]一開始並沒有太大的反應,直到奧塔哥省議會的約翰·哈迪表示他和里德已經勘察了"31×5英里寬的區域,且每次挖掘的每個洞裡都發現了黃金。"[4]

在這樣的保證下,淘金潮開始。

淘金者的到来[编辑]

聖誕節已經有14,000的探礦者出現在 TuapekaWaipori地區[5]。當地人口在1861到1864年之間增加了400%,淘金客從萎縮的澳洲金礦蜂擁而來。[5]隨後導致中奧塔哥金礦的進一步發現。

A second major discovery in 1862, close to the modern town of Cromwell, did nothing to dissuade new hopefuls, and prospectors and miners staked claims from the Shotover River in the west through to Naseby in the north. In November 1862 Thomas Arthur and Harry Redfern sneaked off from shearing for William Rees at Queenstown and looked for gold on the banks of the Shotover River armed with a butcher's knife and pannikin. Their discovery at Arthur's Point led to the largest rush that occurred in Otago.[6] Historic buildings at Queenstown such as Eichardt's Hotel, McNeill's Brewery, the Lake Lodge of Ophir, the Queenstown Police Station, and stone Courthouse were all begun as a response to the rapid influx. By the end of 1863, the real gold rush was over, but companies continued to mine the alluvial gold. The number of miners reached its maximum of 18,000 in February 1864.[7]

Life in mining communities[编辑]

Gold office of the Bank of New South Wales, St. Bathans, Central Otago

Read’s discovery of gold sparked news to Dunedin residents and intending immigrants, informing them of gold in this area. Many left their homes and families and traveled long distances for the hope of striking it rich. These goldfields all gave rise to the construction and development of mining towns and communities. At first, these communities were temporarily built, with shops, hotels and miners huts all made from basic canvas or calico material hoisted by timber (Carryer, 1994). As the scope of the goldfields became larger, communities settled and became more permanent. The temporary canvas stores, hotels and huts previously made, were reconstructed with timber and concrete. Evidence such as material artefacts, foundations of huts and buildings, and photographs from the Central Otago goldfields provide us with information about the labour and social roles of men and women in the 19th Century. A restored Chinese Village at Arrowtown is a popular tourist attraction.

Men in mining communities[编辑]

As the news of the first discovery of gold at Gabriel’s Gully reached the citizens of Dunedin and the rest of the world, prospectors immediately left their homes in search for gold. The majority of theses prospectors were men, including such, labourers and tradesmen, in their late teens and twenties (Ell, 1995). Like many of the gold prospectors, professional businessmen made their way to the goldfields to establish services for the miners. These included stores, such as post offices, banks, pubs, hotels and hardware stores. Here, men owned these businesses, often making more money than the miners.

Evidence[编辑]

Historical evidence of men as miners or businessmen in the 19th Century Central Otago goldfields is relevantly readily available. For mining men, this evidence is available in forms of literature, written records are available of when gold mines at specific locations were discovered, and by whom. Census statistics of the male population in these areas, and photographs of men at the goldfields mining are also available, all of which provide inferential evidence about the labour roles in these communities. This in turn provides information about labour and social roles within the community. Such information includes that of the ownership and management of stores and hotels, such as the bank and gold office at Maori Point (Bank of New Zealand) in the 1860s, managed by G. M. Ross (Hall-Jones, n.d.).

Archaeological evidence is also readily available. Excavations at various sites throughout Otago show evidence of an array of mining techniques, including ground sluicing, hydraulic sluicing and hydraulic elevating. Tailings (the materials left over after the removal of the uneconomic fraction (gangue) of the ore) also provide some of the archaeological evidence from Otago gold mine sites. Midden analysis from camp and settlement sites provides information about diet, with evidence of a preference for beef and lamb in the European camps, and a preference for pork within the Chinese camps.

Artefactual evidence found during excavations includes blue and white ceramics, cooking and eating utensils, metal objects, such as buttons, nails and tin boxes (flint boxes, tobacco boxes) and an exceedingly high number of alcohol glass bottles. It is possible these glass bottles were recycled, so archaeologists cannot draw definite conclusions as to alcohol consumption. Within the Chinese camps (such as the Lawrence Chinese camp) artefacts include gambling tokens and Chinese coins as well as celadon earthwares.

Although many men wrote diaries and memoirs about their lives in the mining communities, little mention or information was given about the significance of women’s labour and social roles. Archaeological evidence, however, suggests that many women on the goldfields took significant roles in both mining and the community in general.

Women in mining communities[编辑]

On the 19th century goldfields, women played significant social and labour roles, as wives, mothers, prostitutes, business women and ‘Colonial Helpmeets’ (wives who worked alongside their husbands) (Dickinson, 1993). Women within these communities were young and single, or married with a family. As gold was in the midst of discovery, many wives and children of the male prospectors did not travel in search of gold to begin with. These wives and children moved to the goldfields as towns developed with hotels, stores and schools. However, women were present on these goldfields from the very first discovery of gold in 1861, at Gabriel’s Gully. An example is Janet Robertson, who lived with her husband in a small cottage in Tuapeka. It was here in her cottage, where Gabriel Read wrote his discovery letter of gold to the Otago Provincial Council (Dickinson, 1993). As the news of this goldfield in Gabriel's Gully spread, prospectors engaged in the area, and Janet opened up her home, cooked meals and tended to the miners, as they passed through.

Evidence of another significant woman present on the 19th Century Central Otago goldfields, was Susan Nugent-Wood, a well-known writer in the 1860s and 1870s. Nugent-Wood, her husband John, and their children moved to Otago in 1861, as prospectors of gold. Nugent-Wood worked on the goldfields of Central Otago in several official positions (Smith, 2007). She wrote stories based on her life and roles on the Central Otago goldfields. These provide accounts of labour and social aspects of mining and gender in the 19th Century.

As the majority of women within these mining communities were married, many became widows, as their husbands died during mining related activities or diseases. These women, whose husbands owned stores or hotels, adopted ownership rights (Ell, 1995). Many became well known throughout the communities, amongst visitors, passing miners and local citizens. Archaeological evidence of a widow, who took over ownership rights following her husbands’ death, was Elizabeth Potts. Potts was given a legitimate licence for the Victoria Hotel in Lawrence in 1869 (Tuapeka Times, 1869). This was recorded and published in the Tuapeka Times, 11 December 1869. This archaeological evidence provides information which suggests that women played significant labour and social roles within mining communities.

Excavation evidence[编辑]

An excavation report written by P. G. Petchey, from the Golden Bar Mine between the Macraes Flat and Palmeston, Otago, shows that located in front of the main mine workings of ca.1897, archaeological material was found. This material was a small heart-shaped brooch with 13 glass diamonds (Petchey, 2005). This archaeological evidence suggests that women were present at this site, and within the Golden Bar goldfield. The exact occupation of women from this evidence is unknown, but indicates that women were present on the goldfields during the 19th Century gold rush in Otago.

Another excavation report by Petchey from the Macraes Flat mining area, presents items of children’s toys such as marbles, and a china doll’s leg amongst ruins of a house site (Petchey, 1995). This evidence is also useful to suggest men and their families engaged in mining activities and social life on the goldfields in the 19th Century. Archaeological artefacts from 19th Century mining communities in Central Otago, suggest women and children were on site of the goldfields. It is unknown whether these artefacts belong to women who were miners or women who were domestic wives and mothers.

Aftermath[编辑]

Results[编辑]

The city of Dunedin reaped many of the benefits, briefly becoming New Zealand's largest town even though it had only been founded in 1848. Many of the city's stately buildings date from this period of prosperity. New Zealand's first university, the University of Otago, was founded in 1869 with wealth derived from the goldfields.

However, the rapid decline in gold production from the mid-1860s led to a sharp drop in the province's population, and while not unprosperous, the far south of New Zealand never rose to such relative prominence again.

Later gold rushes[编辑]

The Wakamarina River in Marlborough proved to have gold in 1862, and 6,000 miners flocked to the district. Although they found alluvial gold, there were no large deposits.

The West Coast of the South Island was the second-richest gold-bearing area of New Zealand after Otago, and gold was discovered in 1865-6 at Okarito, Bruce Bay, around Charleston and along the Grey River. Miners were attracted from Victoria, Australia where the gold rush was near an end. In 1867 this boom also began to decline, though gold mining continued on the coast for a considerable time after this. In the 1880s, quartz miners at Bullendale and Reefton were the first users of electricity in New Zealand.[8]

Southland also had a number of smaller scale gold rushes during the later half of the 19th century. The first goldmining in Southland took place in 1860 on the banks of the Mataura River and its tributaries (and later would help settlements such as Waikaia and Nokomai flourish). However the first "gold rush" wasn't until the mid-1860s when fine gold was discovered in the black sands of Orepuki beach. Miners followed the creeks up into the foothills of the Longwoods to where the richest gold was to be had. This activity led to the founding of mining settlements such as Orepuki and Round Hill (the Chinese miners and shop owners essentially ran their own town known colloquially to Europeans as "Canton").

Gold was long known to exist at Thames, but exploitation was not possible during the New Zealand land wars. In 1867 miners arrived from the West Coast, but the gold was in quartz veins, and few miners had the capital needed to extract it. Some stayed on as workers for the companies which could fund the processing.

Commercial extraction[编辑]

While gold production remained (relatively) high after the gold rush, the profits were soon made by companies instead of individual miners.
Macraes Gold mine and mill, 2007.

After the main gold rush, miners began laboriously reworking the goldfields. About 5,000 European miners remained in 1871, joined by thousands of Chinese miners invited by the province to help rework the area. There was friction not only between European and Chinese miners, which contributed to the introduction of the New Zealand head tax, but also between miners and settlers over conflicting land use.

Attention turned to the gravel beds of the Clutha River, with a number of attempts to develop a steam-powered mechanical gold dredge. These finally met with success in 1881 when the Dunedin became the world's first commercially successful gold dredge.[9] The Dunedin continued operation until 1901, recovering a total of 17,000 ounces (530 kg) of gold.

The mining has had a considerable environmental impact. In 1920 the Rivers Commission estimated that 300 million cubic yards of material had been moved by mining activity in the Clutha river catchment. At that time an estimated 40 million cubic yards had been washed out to sea with a further 60 million in the river. (The remainder was still on riverbanks). This had resulted in measured aggradation of the river bottom of as much as 5 metres.[10]

Gold is still mined by OceanaGold in commercial quantities in Otago at one site - Macraes Mine inland from Palmerston, which started operations in 1990. Macraes Mine, an opencast hard rock mining operation, processes more than 5 million tonnes of ore per year and had extracted 1.85 million ounces (57,500 kg) of gold by 2004.[11]

The Otago gold rush in popular culture[编辑]

Numerous folk songs, both contemporary and more recent, have been written about the gold rush. Of contemporary songs, "Bright Fine Gold", with its chorus of "Wangapeka, Tuapeka, bright fine gold" (sometimes rendered "One-a-pecker, two-a-pecker") is perhaps the best known.[12] Most well-known of more recent songs is arguably Phil Garland's song Tuapeka Gold.[13]

Martin Curtis wrote a folk-style song about the gold rush called "Gin and Raspberry." The lyrics are written in the voice of an unsuccessful gold prospector who envies the success of the largest gold mine in the Cardrona valley at the time, the "Gin and Raspberry" (supposedly so named because the owner would call out, "Gin and raspberry to all hands!" whenever a bucket of mined material yielded an ounce of gold. The singer laments, "an ounce to the bucket and we'd all sell our souls/For a taste of the gin and raspberry." The song has had several recordings, particularly by Gordon Bok.[14][15]

Paul Metsers' song "Farewell to the Gold" is based loosely on a flood in July 1863, which killed 13 miners on the Shotover River.[16] The song has been recorded by many, including Nic Jones.

1976 New Zealand children's television drama series Hunter's Gold was set during the Central Otago Gold Rush.[17]

The Otago Goldfields Cavalcade has annually since 1991 retraced the routes of wagons across country to the Dunstan goldfields around Cromwell. The original route, which established Cobb & Co.'s coach service left Dunedin's Provincial Tavern on November 22, 1862. Cavalcade routes vary each year in late February so as to finish in a different host town.[18] In 2008 plans were made for a heritage trail including Arrowtown, Kawarau Gorge, Lawrence and the Dunedin Chinese Garden.[19]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Reed, A.H. (1956). The Story of Early Dunedin. Wellington: A.H. & A.W. Reed. p.257.
  2. ^ Miller, p. 757
  3. ^ Lindis Gold Fields. Otago Witness. 8 June 1861: (5) [27 July 2010]. 
  4. ^ Miller, p. 758
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 McLean & Dalley, p. 156
  6. ^ Miller, F.W.G."Golden Days Of Lake County". Whitcombe and Tombs, 1949, p43-44.
  7. ^ McKinnon, M. (ed.) (1997). New Zealand Historical Atlas: Ko Papatuanuku e Takoto Nei Auckland: David Bateman Ltd. pl.45. ISBN 1-86953-335-6
  8. ^ McKinnon, M. (ed.) (1997). New Zealand Historical Atlas: Ko Papatuanuku e Takoto Nei Auckland: David Bateman Ltd. pl.44. ISBN 1-86953-335-6
  9. ^ Gold in New Zealand: The Early Years (from New Zealand Mint website, retrieved 15 August 2006)
  10. ^ Channel morphology and sedimentation in the Lower Clutha River. Otago Regional Council. July 2008. ISBN 1-877265-59-4. 
  11. ^ Macraes Mine: Highlights (from the OceanaGold company website, retrieved 7 January 2007)
  12. ^ [1]. The Wangapeka River, in the northwestern South Island, was the site of another, smaller gold rush.
  13. ^ [2]
  14. ^ Lyrics and discography
  15. ^ A discussion of Cardrona that includes mining history
  16. ^ [3]
  17. ^ Hunter's Gold at nzonscreen.com.
  18. ^ Goldfields Cavalcade website
  19. ^ http://i.stuff.co.nz/national/521444/Plan-seeks-to-preserve-Otagos-Chinese-past