乌鸡油菌

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烏雞油菌
Polyozellus multiplex 34001.jpg
科學分類
界: 真菌界 Fungi
門: 擔子菌門 Basidiomycota
綱: 傘菌綱 Agaricomycetes
目: 革菌目 Thelephorales
科: 革菌科 Thelephoraceae
屬: Polyozellus
Murrill
種: 烏雞油菌 P. multiplex
二名法
Polyozellus multiplex
(Underw.) Murrill
異名
  • Cantharellus multiplex
  • Craterellus multiplex
  • Phyllocarbon yasudai
  • Thelephora multiplex
乌鸡油菌
查看產生下列表格的真菌學模板
真菌形态特徵
子實層上有脊狀構造
蕈傘是漏斗狀
子實層連接方式無規律或無適當分類
蕈柄裸露
孢印白色
菌根真菌
可食用

烏雞油菌學名Polyozellus multiplex),又名烏茸菌烏舞茸,是一種革菌科真菌。它們是單型的,即內只有它們一個物種。它的孢子臺形狀獨特,藍紫色的傘狀帽像是一束束的,底部皺褶至蕈柄

烏雞油菌的分類曾有多次改動,不論是在的層級。它們的生長地包括北美洲東亞溫帶針葉林。它們是可食用菌,現今也有栽種作商業用途。烏雞油菌內含生物活性的polyozellin,可以用來抑制胃癌

歷史及分類[编辑]

烏雞油菌最初是於1899年由Lucien M. Underwood所描述。他將之分類為雞油菌屬中的新物種,但指它有可能是屬於另一屬。[1]於1910年,William Murrill認為烏雞油菌的蕈柄結構獨特,並將之分類在全新的Polyozellus屬中。[2]於1920年,Curtis Gates Lloyd從日本獲得的烏雞油菌標本看為另一新物種,並命名為Phyllocarbon yasudai[3]

烏雞油菌曾被認為是陀螺菌的極端生長形態。

但是後來要到1937年在加拿大魁北克才再發現烏雞油菌的標本。[4]翌年,Paul Shope認為Polyozellus一屬是多餘的,並指烏雞油菌的孢子臺喇叭菌屬的不謀而合。[5]於1939年,Lee Overholts指前兩名學者都忽略了Calvin Kauffman於1925年就從洛磯山脈喀斯喀特山脈採集回來的標本的研究。[6]Calvin Kauffman相信烏雞油菌其實是生長在極端環境的陀螺菌,所以並不贊同將之分類在喇叭菌屬中。[7]Alexander H. Smith及Elizabeth Morse於1947年將烏雞油菌分類在雞油菌屬下新的Polyozellus組中,但仍指出它們有獨特於此屬的孢子[8]

1953年,今関六也發現烏雞油菌的孢子呈亞球形及有結節,是其他雞油菌屬所沒有的。而這種特徵卻在革菌科中非常普遍,加上烏雞油菌本身也像其他革菌科般呈深色、帶有強烈的氣味及含有革菌酸,所以他建議將烏雞油菌分類在新的Phylacteriaceae科中。[9]但這建議卻未得到學界的接受,例如川村清一於1954年就將之分類在革菌屬中。[10]

於2009年,真菌索引(Index Fungorum)[11]及MycoBank[12]都將烏雞油菌列在革菌科下。[13]屬名的希臘文意思是「很多分枝」[14]種小名則指「很多塊」,是參照其複雜的子實體結構而取的。[15]

特徵[编辑]

烏雞油菌獨特的傘狀帽

烏雞油菌是一種雞油菌[14]子實體呈扇或漏斗狀,在地上一束的生長,一束的直徑可以達1米[5][8],平均則有30厘米。[16]

個別的傘狀帽長闊各有3-5厘米,呈紫黑色,邊緣白色及藍綠色。[1]表面有多個同心的環狀絨毛,邊緣有一層纖細絨毛,帽散開及成波浪狀。底面有子實層,子實層呈薄而密的皺褶,一般呈與表面相同或較淡的顏色。[17]在不同的位點也有發現不同的顏色,例如在阿拉斯加的烏雞油菌都是呈烏黑色的,而底部呈深灰色。[18]

子實體可以高15厘米及闊10厘米。蕈柄呈深紫黑色,表面光滑無毛,且與基部融合。蕈柄闊1.5-2厘米及長達5厘米。菌髓呈深紫色,質感柔軟及易脆。孢子印是白色的。[19]

像烏雞油菌的灰喇叭菌

孢子接近球狀至橢圓形,表面有細小的結節覆蓋,大小約為6–8.5×5.5–8微米。[19]微觀下孢子是透明的,在氫氧化鉀下孢子會變為綠色。孢子並非澱粉質,所以在梅瑞氏染劑下不會轉變為藍色。囊狀體呈絲狀,闊3-4微米,長28-40微米。菌蓋皮層是由[菌絲]]組床,在氫氧化鉀下會轉變為橄欖綠色。它們有扣子體,但並非所有隔膜也有。[20]孢子臺的大小為32–38×5–6微米,有四個孢子。[8]

相似物種[编辑]

灰喇叭菌也像烏雞油菌般有黑色的子實體及光滑的子實層,但其肉較薄,子實體呈柱狀及灰至黑色。芳香喇叭菌傾向一束生長,但卻是呈橙色而不是藍色的。[21]釘菇的形狀及形態很像烏雞油菌,但肉質較厚,且是呈淺紫色至粉紅色。[13]

生長地及分佈[编辑]

烏雞油菌是外生根菌的,即菌絲與植物的根部共生,而菌絲一般不會穿透根部細胞[22][23]烏雞油菌生長在雲杉屬冷杉屬針葉林[24],尤其是在較高的海拔[25]它們很多時都於夏天冬天生長。[20]

烏雞油菌分佈在北部及山區,較少會見到。在美國緬因州俄勒岡州科羅拉多州阿拉斯加加拿大魁北克省英屬哥倫比亞[4][8][26]中國[27]日本韓國[28]其他真菌也有類似零散的分佈。[29]烏雞油菌也有在夏洛特皇后群島培植作商業用途。[30]

用途[编辑]

食用[编辑]

烏雞油菌是可以食用的[31],在亞洲各國如韓國日本中國都有出售。[27]北美洲,有時會採集它們作為娛樂[32]及商業而用途。[33]烏雞油菌的味道一般,帶有香味。[34]David Arora指它們的味道不及Craterellus[17]子實體可以風乾保存。[24]

生物活性物質[编辑]

polyozellin的鍵線式[35]

烏雞油菌可以分解出polyozellin,能抑制阿爾茨海默氏病中處理蛋白質脯氨酰內肽酶。所以科學家都希望透過研究這些物質來發展治療方法。[35]從烏雞油菌的抽取物中發現有類似polyozellin二苯并呋喃的衍生物,包括kynapcin-12[36]、-13、-28[37]、及-24。[38]

抗腫瘤[编辑]

烏雞油菌的描取物具有壓抑胃癌的效用。[27][39]只要吃低濃度(約0.5-1%)的烏雞油菌抽取物,就可以促進谷胱甘肽轉硫酶超氧化物歧化酶的活性,且可以增加穀胱甘肽的份量。這些抽取物也可以擴大腫瘤蛋白53基因表現。腫瘤蛋白53是一種重要的抑癌基因,可以保護基因組免受破壞。[27]polyozellin也具有抗癌的特性。[40][41]

參考[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Underwood LM. A new Cantharellus from Maine. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club. 1899, 26 (5): 254–5. doi:10.2307/2477751. 
  2. ^ Murrill WA. Chanterel. North American Flora. 1910, 9: 167–71. 
  3. ^ Lloyd CG. Botanical notes. Mycological Writings. 1921, 6: 1066. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Mounce I, Jackson HAC. Two Canadian collections of Cantharellus multiplex. Mycologia. 1937, 29 (3): 286–8. doi:10.2307/3754283. 
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Shope PF. Further notes on Cantharellus multiplex. Mycologia. 1938, 30 (4): 372–4. doi:10.2307/3754462. 
  6. ^ Kauffman C. The fungus flora of Mt Hood, with some new species. Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters. 1925, 5: 115–48. 
  7. ^ Overholts LM. Cantharellus multiplex again. Mycologia. 1939, 31 (2): 231, 233. doi:10.2307/3754572. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Smith AH, Morse EE. The genus Cantharellus in the Western United States. Mycologia. 1947, 39 (5): 497–534. doi:10.2307/3755192. ISSN 00275514. 
  9. ^ Sawada M. Studies on pigment in fungi (I). On the distribution of thelephoric acid in fungi. Journal of the Japanese Forestry Society. 1952, 34: 110–3. 
  10. ^ Kawamura S. Icones of Japanese Fungi. Vol. 6. Tokyo: Kazama-Shobo. 1954. 638. 
  11. ^ Index Fungorum - genus record. CABI. [2009-09-02]. 
  12. ^ Stalpers J. (Curator). MycoBank: genus Polyozellus Murrill 1910. International Mycological Association. 03-09-2009 [2009-09-02]. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Pilz D, Norvell L, Danell E, Molina R. Ecology and management of commercially harvested chanterelle mushrooms. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-576. Portland, OR: Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station. 2003 [2009-09-23]. 
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Homola RL. Cantharelloid fungi of Maine. Maine Naturalist. 1993, 1 (2): 5–12. doi:10.2307/3858219. 
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  18. ^ Arora D. All that the Rain Promises and more: a Hip Pocket Guide to Western Mushrooms. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press. 1991. 12. ISBN 0-89815-388-3. 
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  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Bigelo HE. The cantharelloid fungi of New England and adjacent areas. Mycologia. 1978, 70 (4): 707–56. doi:10.2307/3759354. ISSN 00275514. 
  21. ^ Sundberg W, Bessette A. Mushrooms: A Quick Reference Guide to Mushrooms of North America (Macmillan Field Guides). New York: Collier Books. 1987. 52. ISBN 0-02-063690-3. 
  22. ^ Stamets P. Mycelium Running: How Mushrooms Can Help Save the World. Berkeley, Calif: Ten Speed Press. 2005. 34. ISBN 1-58008-579-2. 
  23. ^ Lee S-S, Kim D-H, Chung H-C. Ectomycorrhizal roots collected from the bases of the four edible basidiocarps around Mt. Wol-Ak. Mycobiology. 2000, 28 (1): 27–32. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Bessette A, Fischer DH. Edible Wild Mushrooms of North America: a Field-to-Kitchen Guide. Austin: University of Texas Press. 1992. 31. ISBN 0-292-72080-7. 
  25. ^ Ammirati JF, McKenny M, Stuntz DE. The New Savory Wild Mushroom. Seattle: University of Washington Press. 1987. 31. ISBN 0-295-96480-4. 
  26. ^ Pomerleau R, Cooke WB. The cantharelloid fungi of New England and adjacent areas. Mycologia. 1978, 70 (4): 707–56. doi:10.2307/3759354. 
  27. ^ 27.0 27.1 27.2 27.3 Lee IS, Nishikawa A. Polyozellus multiplex, a Korean wild mushroom, as a potent chemopreventive agent against stomach cancer. Life Sciences. 2003, 73 (25): 3225–34 [2009-07-05]. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.06.006. PMID 14561527. 
  28. ^ Imazeki R. Polyozellus multiplex and the family Phylacteriaceae. Mycologia. 1953, 45 (4): 555–61. 
  29. ^ Yang ZL. Diversity and Biogeography of Higher Fungi in China//In Xu J. Evolutionary Generics of Fungi. Norfolk, U.K.: Horizon Bioscience. 2005: 35–61. ISBN 978-1-904933-15-1. 
  30. ^ Kroeger P, Ceska O, Roberts C, Kendrick B. Fungi of Haida Gwaii. E-Flora BC. 2007 [2009-07-07]. 
  31. ^ Miller HR, Miller OK. North American Mushrooms: a Field Guide to Edible and Inedible Fungi. Guilford, Conn: Falcon Guide. 2006. 323. ISBN 0-7627-3109-5. 
  32. ^ Castellano MA, O'Dell T. Management Recommendations for Survey and Management. Fungi. U.S. Dept. of Management. Bureau of Land Management. 1997 [2009-08-23]. 
  33. ^ Berch SM, Cocksedge W. Commercially important wild mushrooms and fungi of British Columbia: what the buyers are buying. Technical Report 006. Victoria, Britih Columbia: British Columbia Ministry of Forests Science Program. 2003: 1, 5. ISBN 0-7726-4932-4. 
  34. ^ Tylukti EE. Mushrooms of Idaho and the Pacific Northwest Vol 2. Non-gilled Hymenomycetes. Moscow, Idaho: The University of Idaho Press. 1987: 64–65. ISBN 0-89301-097-9. 
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 Hwang JS, Song KS, Kim WG, Lee TH, Koshino H, Yoo ID. Polyozellin, a new inhibitor of prolyl endopeptidase from Polyozellus multiplex. The Journal of Antibiotics. 1997, 50 (9): 773–7. PMID 9360624. 
  36. ^ Lee HJ, Rhee IK, Lee KB, Yoo ID, Song KS. Kynapcin-12, a new p-terphenyl derivative from Polyozellus multiplex, inhibits prolyl endopeptidase. The Journal of Antibiotics. 2000, 53 (7): 714–9. PMID 10994814. 
  37. ^ Kim SI, Park IH, Song KS. kynapcin-13 and -28, new benzofuran prolyl endopeptidase inhibitors from Polyozellus multiplex. The Journal of Antibiotics. 2002, 55 (7): 623–8. PMID 12243451. 
  38. ^ Song KS, Raskin I. A prolyl endopeptidase-inhibiting benzofuran dimer from Polyozellus multiflex. Journal of Natural Products. 2002, 65 (1): 76–8. doi:10.1021/np010194b. 
  39. ^ Lull C, Wichers HJ, Savelkoul HF. Antiinflammatory and immunomodulating properties of fungal metabolites. Mediators of Inflammation. 2005, 2005 (2): 63–80 [2009-07-05]. doi:10.1155/MI.2005.63. PMC 1160565. PMID 16030389. 
  40. ^ Kim JH, Lee JS, Song KS, Kwon CS, Kim YK, Kim JS. Polyozellin isolated from Polyozellus multiplex induces phase 2 enzymes in mouse hepatoma cells and differentiation in human myeloid leukaemic cell lines. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 2004, 52 (3): 451–5. doi:10.1021/jf034748n. PMID 14759131. 
  41. ^ Jin XY, Lee SH, Kim JY, Zhao YZ, Park EJ, Lee BS, Nan JX, Song KS, Ko G, Sohn DH. Polyozellin inhibits nitric oxide production by down-regulating LPS-induced activity of NF-κB and SAPK/JNK in RAW 264.7 cells. Planta Medica. 2006, 72 (9): 857–9. doi:10.1055/s-2006-946640. PMID 16783701. 

外部連結[编辑]

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