克利福德·格爾茨

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克利福德·格尔茨[1]Clifford Geertz,1926年8月23日-2006年10月30日),美國文化人类学家,象徵人類學代表人物。

生平[编辑]

Antioch College哈佛大学,于1956年取得博士学位。之后历任加州大学柏克萊分校芝加哥大学普林斯顿高等研究院

研究[编辑]

主要成就在於對於摩洛哥印尼包括爪哇峇里島等地的社會文化作了深入的田野調查研究,並以此為基礎,對文化、知識的性質提出新的看法。在他最重要的著作之一《文化的詮釋》中,他對於文化概念的深入探討和詮釋,包括如深層描述等概念,其影響超出人類學,而及於社會學文化史文化研究等方面。此外在另一部重要著作《地方知識》中,以實例來深入探討人類學對於個別地區的研究所獲得的種種知識,有其如何的意義。

理論背景[编辑]

1.文化概念

在《文化的詮釋》中的首篇文章:《深層描述》中,他開宗明義的指出他整本書的目的,以及他心目中的人類學研究應是如何。他的目的簡單的說是要更加精確的定義「文化」這個概念。就他而言他採取的是一符號學的取向,認為文化是人自己織出並居於其中的「意義之網」(這是引用德國社會學家Max Weber語)。而人類學的工作便是要找出這些「意義之網」究竟是什麼。至於人類學家是怎麼做到這一點,他引用英國哲學家吉爾伯特‧賴爾(Gilbert Ryle)著名的短語:「深層描述」(thick description)。想像一個男孩正為了向他的同伴暗示些什麼,而不停的擠眉弄眼;另一個男孩走進來,看到這一幕,便開始模仿起來,甚至還帶有點玩笑意味。我們怎麼知道這兩個動作事實上是不一樣的動作? 對他而言,如果我們是緊緊遵守行為主義的教條,換言之僅觀察行為本身,我們可能沒有辦法區辨這兩個動作哪裡不同。畢竟,他們都不過是眨眼的動作罷了。但關鍵就在這裡,我們之所以能夠知道這兩個動作不一樣,就在於我們掌握了這兩個男孩-行動者-的意圖(intention;或另一個Geertz喜歡的短語:what they are up to)。其中一個正運用了「擠眉弄眼」這一有特定意義結構支撐的行動在傳遞某些想法、意圖;而另一個僅僅是單純的模仿。

著作[编辑]

著作编年[编辑]

  • 1957 Ritual and Social Change: A Javanese Example. American Anthropologist 59(1):32-54.
  • 1959 Form and Variation in Balinese Village Structure. American Anthropologist 61:991-1012.
  • 1959 The Javanese Village. In Local, Ethnic, and National Loyalties in Village Indonesia. Ed. G. William Skinner. pp. 34–41. New Haven: Southeast Asian Program, Yale University.
  • 1960 Religion of Java. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 1961 The Rotating Credit Association: A "Middle Rung" in Development. Economic Development and Cultural Change 10:241-263.
  • 1962 Studies in Peasant Life: Community and Society. In Biennial Review of Anthropology 1961. Ed. Bernard J. Siegal. pp. 1–41. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • 1962 The Growth of Culture and the Evolution of Mind. In Theories of the Mind. Ed. J. Scher. pp. 713–740. New York: Free Press.
  • 1963 Agricultural Involution: The Process of Agricultural Change in Indonesia. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • 1963 Peddlers and Princes: Social Change and Economic Modernization in Two Indonesian Towns. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 1963 (editor) Old Societies and New States. New York: Free Press.
  • 1963 The Integrative Revolution: Primordial Sentiments and Civil Politics in the New States. In Old Societies and New States. Ed. Clifford Geertz. pp. 105–157. Glencoe: Free Press.
  • 1964 Ideology as a Cultural System. In Ideology and Discontent. Ed. David Apter. pp. 47–76. New York: Free Press.
  • 1965 The Social History of an Indonesian Town. Cambridge: MIT Press.
  • 1965 Modernization in a Muslim Society: The Indonesian Case, 201-211, in Robert O. Tilman (ed), Man, State, and Society in Contemporary South East Asia. London: Pall Mall.
  • 1966 Person, Time, and Conduct in Bali: An Essay in Cultural Analysis. Southeast Asia Program, Cultural Report Series. New Haven: Yale University.
  • 1966 Religion as a Cultural System. In Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. Ed. Michael Banton. pp. 1–46. ASA Monographs, 3. London: Tavistock Publications.
  • 1966 The Impact of the Concept of Culture on the Concept of Man. In New Views of the Nature of Man. Ed. J. Platt. pp. 93–118. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  • 1967 Politics Past, Politics Preset: Some Notes on the Contribution of Anthropology to the Study of the New States. European Journal of Sociology 8(1):1-14.
  • 1967 The Cerebral Savage: On the Work of Claude Levi-Strauss. Encounter 48(4):25-32.
  • 1967 Tihingan: A Balinese Village. In Villages in Indonesia. Ed. R. N. Koentjaraningrat. pp. 210–243. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.
  • 1967 Under the Mosquito Net. New York Review of Books, September 14.
  • 1968 Islam Observed: Religious Development in Morocco and Indonesia. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 136 pp.
  • 1968 Thinking as a Moral Act: Dimensions of Anthropological Fieldwork in the New States. Antioch Review 28(2):139-158.
  • 1972 Religious Change and Social Order in Soeharto's Indonesia. Asia 27:62-84.
  • 1972 The Wet and the Dry: Traditional Irrigation in Bali and Morocco. Human Ecology 1:34-39.
  • 1972 Deep Play: Notes on the Balinese Cockfight. Daedalus 101(1 Winter).
  • 1973 The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. New York: Basic.
  • 1973 Thick Description: Toward an Interpretive Theory of Culture. In The Interpretation of Cultures: Selected Essays. Clifford Geertz. pp 3–30. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1976 From the Native's Point of View. In Meaning in Anthropology. Eds. Keith H. Basso and Henry A. Selby. pp. 221–237. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press.
  • 1977 Found in Translation: On the Social History of the Moral Imagination. Georgia Review 31(4 Winter):788-810.
  • 1977 Curing, Sorcery, and Magic in a Javanese Town. In Culture, Disease, and Healing: Studies in Medical Anthropology. Ed. David Landy. pp. 146–153. New York: Macmillan Publishing.
  • 1979 [with Hildred Geertz and Lawrence Rosen] Meaning and Order in Moroccan Society: Three Essays in Cultural Analysis. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See his own contribution on "Suq: The Bazaar Economy in Sefrou" (pp. 123–225).
  • 1980 Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 1983 Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 Centers, Kings, and Charisma: Reflections on the Symbolics of Power. In Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. Clifford Geertz. pp. 121–146. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 "From the Native's Point of View": On the Nature of Anthropological Knowledge. In Local Knowledge: Further Essays in Interpretive Anthropology. Clifford Geertz. pp. 55–70. New York: Basic Books.
  • 1983 Notions of Primitive Thought: Dialogue with Clifford Geertz. In States of Mind. ed & comp Jonathan Miller. pp. 192–210. New York: Pantheon.
  • 1984 Anti-Anti-Relativism. 1983 Distinguished Lecture. American Anthropologist 82:263-278.
  • 1984 Culture and Social Change: The Indonesian Case. Man 19:511-532.
  • 1986 The Uses of Diversity. In Tanner Lectures on Human Values, Vol. 7. Ed. Sterling M. McMurrin. pp. 251–275. Cambridge and Salt Lake City: Cambridge University Press and University of Utah Press.
  • 1988 Works and Lives: The Anthropologist as Author. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

The four studies included in the book are:

  • "The World in a Text: How to Read Tristes Tropiques" (pp. 25–48).
  • "Slide Show: Evans-Pritchard's African Transparencies" (pp. 49–72).
  • "I-Witnessing: Malinowski's Children" (pp. 73–101).
  • "Us/not-Us: Benedict's Travels" (pp. 102–128).
  • 1989 Margaret Mead, 1901-1978. Biographical Memoirs 58:329-341. National Academy of Sciences.
  • 1990 History and Anthropology. New Literary History 21(2 Winter):321-335.
  • 1991 The Year of Living Culturally. New Republic, October 21, 30-36.
  • 1992 "Local Knowledge" and Its Limits: Some Obiter Dicta. Yale Journal of Criticism 5(2):129-135.
  • 1993 "Ethnic Conflict": Three Alternative Terms. Common Knowledge 2(3 Winter):54-65.
  • 1994 Life on the Edge. [Review of Tsing, In the Realm of the Diamond Queen]. New York Review of Books 41(7 April ):3-4.
  • 1995 After the Fact: Two Countries, Four Decades, One Anthropologist. [The Jerusalem-Harvard Lectures]. Cambridge and London: Harvard University Press.
  • 1995 Culture War. [Review essay on Sahlins, How "Natives" Think and Obeyesekere, The Apotheosis of Captain Cook]. New York Review of Books 42(19 November 30):4-6.
  • 2000 Available Light: Anthropological Reflections on Philosophical Topics. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
  • 2010 Life Among the Anthros and Other Essays edited by Fred Inglis (Princeton University Press; 272 pages)

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 世界人名翻译大辞典,中国对外翻译出版公司,1993年,第599、1052页

外部链接[编辑]