# 克罗内克积

## 定义

$A \otimes B = \begin{bmatrix} a_{11} B & \cdots & a_{1n}B \\ \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_{m1} B & \cdots & a_{mn} B \end{bmatrix}.$

$A \otimes B = \begin{bmatrix} a_{11} b_{11} & a_{11} b_{12} & \cdots & a_{11} b_{1q} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{11} & a_{1n} b_{12} & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{1q} \\ a_{11} b_{21} & a_{11} b_{22} & \cdots & a_{11} b_{2q} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{21} & a_{1n} b_{22} & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{2q} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots & & & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_{11} b_{p1} & a_{11} b_{p2} & \cdots & a_{11} b_{pq} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{p1} & a_{1n} b_{p2} & \cdots & a_{1n} b_{pq} \\ \vdots & \vdots & & \vdots & \ddots & & \vdots & \vdots & & \vdots \\ \vdots & \vdots & & \vdots & & \ddots & \vdots & \vdots & & \vdots \\ a_{m1} b_{11} & a_{m1} b_{12} & \cdots & a_{m1} b_{1q} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{11} & a_{mn} b_{12} & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{1q} \\ a_{m1} b_{21} & a_{m1} b_{22} & \cdots & a_{m1} b_{2q} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{21} & a_{mn} b_{22} & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{2q} \\ \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots & & & \vdots & \vdots & \ddots & \vdots \\ a_{m1} b_{p1} & a_{m1} b_{p2} & \cdots & a_{m1} b_{pq} & \cdots & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{p1} & a_{mn} b_{p2} & \cdots & a_{mn} b_{pq} \end{bmatrix}.$

### 例子

$\begin{bmatrix} 1 & 2 \\ 3 & 1 \\ \end{bmatrix} \otimes \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 3 \\ 2 & 1 \\ \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 1\cdot 0 & 1\cdot 3 & 2\cdot 0 & 2\cdot 3 \\ 1\cdot 2 & 1\cdot 1 & 2\cdot 2 & 2\cdot 1 \\ 3\cdot 0 & 3\cdot 3 & 1\cdot 0 & 1\cdot 3 \\ 3\cdot 2 & 3\cdot 1 & 1\cdot 2 & 1\cdot 1 \\ \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} 0 & 3 & 0 & 6 \\ 2 & 1 & 4 & 2 \\ 0 & 9 & 0 & 3 \\ 6 & 3 & 2 & 1 \end{bmatrix}$.
$\begin{bmatrix} a_{11} & a_{12} \\ a_{21} & a_{22} \\ a_{31} & a_{32} \end{bmatrix} \otimes \begin{bmatrix} b_{11} & b_{12} & b_{13} \\ b_{21} & b_{22} & b_{23} \end{bmatrix} = \begin{bmatrix} a_{11} b_{11} & a_{11} b_{12} & a_{11} b_{13} & a_{12} b_{11} & a_{12} b_{12} & a_{12} b_{13} \\ a_{11} b_{21} & a_{11} b_{22} & a_{11} b_{23} & a_{12} b_{21} & a_{12} b_{22} & a_{12} b_{23} \\ a_{21} b_{11} & a_{21} b_{12} & a_{21} b_{13} & a_{22} b_{11} & a_{22} b_{12} & a_{22} b_{13} \\ a_{21} b_{21} & a_{21} b_{22} & a_{21} b_{23} & a_{22} b_{21} & a_{22} b_{22} & a_{22} b_{23} \\ a_{31} b_{11} & a_{31} b_{12} & a_{31} b_{13} & a_{32} b_{11} & a_{32} b_{12} & a_{32} b_{13} \\ a_{31} b_{21} & a_{31} b_{22} & a_{31} b_{23} & a_{32} b_{21} & a_{32} b_{22} & a_{32} b_{23} \end{bmatrix}$.

## 特性

### 双线性和结合律

$A \otimes (B+C) = A \otimes B + A \otimes C \qquad \mbox{(if } B \mbox{ and } C \mbox{ have the same size)},$
$(A+B) \otimes C = A \otimes C + B \otimes C \qquad \mbox{(if } A \mbox{ and } B \mbox{ have the same size)},$
$(kA) \otimes B = A \otimes (kB) = k(A \otimes B),$
$(A \otimes B) \otimes C = A \otimes (B \otimes C),$

A $\otimes$ BB $\otimes$ A是排列等价的，也就是说，存在排列矩阵PQ，使得

$A \otimes B = P \, (B \otimes A) \, Q.$

### 混合乘积性质

$(\mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{B})(\mathbf{C} \otimes \mathbf{D}) = \mathbf{AC} \otimes \mathbf{BD}.$

$(\mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{B})^{-1} = \mathbf{A}^{-1} \otimes \mathbf{B}^{-1}.$

### 克罗内克和

$\mathbf{A} \oplus \mathbf{B} = \mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{I}_m + \mathbf{I}_n \otimes \mathbf{B}.$

### 谱

$\lambda_i \mu_j, \qquad i=1,\ldots,n ,\, j=1,\ldots,q.$

$\operatorname{tr}(\mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{B}) = \operatorname{tr} \mathbf{A} \, \operatorname{tr} \mathbf{B} \quad\mbox{and}\quad \det(\mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{B}) = (\det \mathbf{A})^q (\det \mathbf{B})^n.$

### 奇异值

$\sigma_{\mathbf{A},i}, \qquad i = 1, \ldots, r_\mathbf{A}.$

$\sigma_{\mathbf{B},i}, \qquad i = 1, \ldots, r_\mathbf{B}.$

$\sigma_{\mathbf{A},i} \sigma_{\mathbf{B},j}, \qquad i=1,\ldots,r_\mathbf{A} ,\, j=1,\ldots,r_\mathbf{B}.$

$\operatorname{rank}(\mathbf{A} \otimes \mathbf{B}) = \operatorname{rank} \mathbf{A} \, \operatorname{rank} \mathbf{B}.$

### 转置

$(A\otimes B)^T = A^T \otimes B^T.$

## 矩阵方程

$(B^\top \otimes A) \, \operatorname{vec}(X) = \operatorname{vec}(AXB) = \operatorname{vec}(C).$

## 參考文獻

1. ^ Pages 401–402 of Dummit, David S.; Foote, Richard M., Abstract Algebra. 2, New York: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.. 1999, ISBN 0-471-36857-1
2. ^ D. E. Knuth: "Pre-Fascicle 0a: Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms", zeroth printing (revision 2), to appear as part of D.E. Knuth: The Art of Computer Programming Vol. 4A
• Horn, Roger A.; Johnson, Charles R., Topics in Matrix Analysis, Cambridge University Press. 1991, ISBN 0-521-46713-6 .
• Jain, Anil K., Fundamentals of Digital Image Processing, Prentice Hall. 1989, ISBN 0-13-336165-9 .