入侵物种

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美國東南部受為日本藤物入侵,廣泛生長於喬治亞州亞特蘭大市,被視為入侵物種。

入侵物种Invasive species)是引进物种的一个子集。如果一个物种被人为引入一个其先前不曾自然存在过的地区,并具备了在无更多人为干预的情况下在当地发展成一定数量的能力,以至威胁到了当地生物的多样性成为当地公害,就可称之为「入侵物种」。

簡介[编辑]

虽然入侵物种经常被定义为被引进的并成为祸害的品种,但有些物种天生就能在特定的区域,在人类活动的影响下繁殖并成为当地的一个入侵品种。 澳大利亚东南部的杂色澳洲喜鹊(Pied Currawong)就是一个例子: 由于人类对当地景观的改变,使得杂色澳洲喜鹊的数量在20世纪急剧增长。杂色澳洲喜鹊捕食其他小型鸟类的雏鸟,使得该地区其他小型鸟类数量锐减。在夏威夷,一种称做"'ae'ae"的湿地植物(当地的假馬齒莧 )也被看成是一个有害物种---因为它们的快速增长覆盖了原本用做保护Hawaiian stilt(Himantopus mexicanus knudseni)的浅水塘,使得这些区域不再适合这种濒危鸟类的觅食. 当然,地球上所有的物种都有一个数量增减周期,一般来说这个都是在一定范围内进行波动的。这类变化一般是由环境上的各种因素变化导致,而其中以由人类活动所带来的地貌改变的影响显得最为突出。

入侵条件[编辑]

所有物种都是竞争中求生存的,但入侵物种有着其独特的特点使其超越本土物种。有时,这种优势体现在生长速度和繁殖速率上,有时,物种间更加直接的相互作用。

然而研究者不认为这个有着标定入侵物种的代表性。86%的入侵物种可以由这些特征来鉴别。另一项研究发现,入侵物种只占了有这些特征的物种中的很小的一部分,有这些特点的物种最终被认定为非入侵物种,从而需要其他的一些解释。

通常,入侵物种的共同特点有:

  • 高生长速度
  • 强大繁殖能力
  • 快速蔓延的能力
  • 表现性弹性(可以改变生长模式以适应现有环境)
  • 可耐受各种环境
  • 一个很广的食谱
  • 与人类有关

通常外来物种需要存活过种群低密度的时期,才有可能在新的地点变成入侵物种。种群数量很少的时候,外来物种很难繁殖并存活下来,所以一个物种也许需要很多次到达一个地点才可能在这里存活。而人类的周期性的往返活动,如船只在港口间的运输和汽车上下高速路,给了这些物种更多的机会。

当外来物种可以在争夺养料、阳光、空间、水或食物中战胜土著种,它便可能变成入侵物种。如果这些物种是在强烈的竞争或是巨大捕食压力中进化的,而新的环境中没有竞争者,这些入侵者就可以很快的增长。对于一个所有资源都被充分利用的生态系统,入侵物种每一点获利都是土著种的损失。然而,这种单方的竞争优越性导致的土著种最终灭绝并不是一蹴而就的,它们可以共存相当的一段时间,渐渐地当入侵物种的种群数量明显提升,慢慢适应了环境之后,竞争优势也变得明显了。

入侵物种往往可以利用那些土著种无法利用的资源,比如依靠强健根系可以利用的深层水资源,可以在之前没有物种的土壤类型中生存。刺山羊草(Aegilops triuncialis)被引进到加州的水保持度低,缺乏营养物质,高镁钙,且有重金属毒性的土壤中。这种土壤中一般植物密度都很低,但是山羊草可以在这里繁茂生长,排挤了这些土地中的土著种。

当物种使用化学或生物方式抑制竞争者生存时,这个过程就加速进行了。一种机制就是拮抗作用,即一种植物释放化学物质使得周围的土壤对于竞争物种无法生存。

改变生境的火灾状况是另一种促进方式。旱雀麦(Bromus tectorum)原产欧亚大陆,它不仅可以在火灾之后快速繁殖扩散,还可以通过产生大量的干燥碎屑增加火灾频率和强度,尤其在北美的火灾常发的季节。在旱雀麦广泛分布的地区,它显著的改变了当地的火灾频率以至于其他物种无法在这种高频火灾中存活下来,使得旱雀麦保持统治性并且不断扩展。

对于环境的物理形貌改变也是促进的模式之一。

历史观点[编辑]

案例[编辑]

台灣福壽螺是最有名的入侵物種之一。原本從南美洲引進要做為食用螺類,但因口感不佳而被棄養丟於水溝,但反而開始大量繁殖,對於農作物造成危害。另外吳郭魚是從新加坡引進的,雖然是常見的食用魚類,但是放養於水庫湖泊的吳郭魚由於攻擊性強,逐漸排擠其他水生動物的生存空間。

生物学控制[编辑]

亞洲虎蚊Aedes albopictus)正在叮咬人類。

生物学控制就是一种生物控制另一种生物,即引进当前入侵生物的天敌,使用天敌进行数量的控制,但该种方法的主要问题来自于引进的生物可能成为新的入侵生物,对当地的生态环境进一步地破坏。

生物地理學評價[编辑]

階段 特性
0 正常
I 外來
II 引入
III 在該地區上數位及集中度屬於罕見
IVa 普遍但罕見
IVb 集中但未支配
V 集中和出現支配

生物地理學評價將入侵物種分為五類。

其他条目[编辑]

外部链接[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

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