关键路径

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PERT(项目评估和检查技术)项目中,5个里程碑(10到50个)和六项项目(A到F)。项目有两个关键路径:活动B和C,或者A, D和F –在快速跟踪情况下,项目最短时间为7个月。活动E是次重要的,有1个月的浮动时间

关键路径法(Critical Path Method,CPM),又稱為要徑法,是计划项目活动中用到的一种算术方法。[1]對於有效的計劃管理而言,關鍵路徑是一個十分重要的工具。與計畫評核術(Project Evaluation and Review Techniqu,PERT)非常類似。要徑法所使用的估計作業時間是單一或確定的,而計畫評核術則是使用機率性的估計作業時間。這兩種技術經常混合使用,簡稱CPM/PERT。

历史[编辑]

关键路径法(CPM)是一种项目模型技术,在1950年代由杜邦的Morgan R. Walker和James E. Kelley提出。[2] Kelley and Walker related their memories of the development of CPM in 1989.[3] Kelley attributed the term "critical path" to the developers of the Program Evaluation and Review Technique which was developed at about the same time by Booz Allen Hamilton and the US Navy.[4]关键路径法最早由杜邦公司在1940到1943年间实行,直接导致了曼哈顿计划的成功。[5]

CPM可用于各类项目,包括建筑、空间和军事、软件开发、研究项目、产品研发、工程s、工厂维护等等。任何具有独立活动的项目都可采用数学分析。尽管原始的CPM项目不再应用,但这个术语可用于任何分析项目网络逻辑图的方法。

基本技术[编辑]

使用CPM的基本技术[6] [7]是建设一个包括以下方面的项目:

  1. 列出完成项目的所有活动(一般通过工作分解图),
  2. 每个活动完成需要的时间
  3. 项目之间的依赖性

参见[编辑]

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ Kelley, James. Critical Path Planning and Scheduling: Mathematical Basis. Operations Research, Vol. 9, No. 3, May–June, 1961. 
  2. ^ Kelley, James; Walker, Morgan. Critical-Path Planning and Scheduling. 1959 Proceedings of the Eastern Joint Computer Conference. 
  3. ^ Kelley, James; Walker, Morgan. The Origins of CPM: A Personal History. PMNETwork 3(2):7-22. 
  4. ^ Newell, M; Grashina, M. The Project Management Question and Answer Book. American Management Association. 2003. 98. 
  5. ^ Thayer, Harry. Management of the Hanford Engineer Works in World War II, How the Corps, DuPont and the Metallurgical Laboratory fast tracked the original plutonium works. ASCE Press, pp. 66-67. 1996. 
  6. ^ Samuel L. Baker, Ph.D. "Critical Path Method (CPM)" University of South Carolina, Health Services Policy and Management Courses
  7. ^ Armstrong-Wright, MICE, A. T. Critical Path Method: Introduction and Practice. Longman Group LTD, London, 1969, pp5ff. 

更多阅读[编辑]

  • Project Management Institute. A Guide To The Project Management Body Of Knowledge 3rd. Project Management Institute. 2003. ISBN 1-930699-45-X. 
  • Klastorin, Ted. Project Management: Tools and Trade-offs 3rd. Wiley. 2003. ISBN 978-0-471-41384-4. 
  • Heerkens, Gary. Project Management(The Briefcase Book Series). McGraw–Hill. 2001. ISBN 0-07-137952-5. 
  • Kerzner, Harold. Project Management: A Systems Approach to Planning, Scheduling, and Controlling 8th. 2003. ISBN 0-471-22577-0. 
  • Lewis, James. Fundamentals of Project Management 2nd. American Management Association. 2002. ISBN 0-8144-7132-3. 
  • Milosevic, Dragan Z. Project Management ToolBox: Tools and Techniques for the Practicing Project Manager. Wiley. 2003. ISBN 978-0-471-20822-8. 
  • O'Brien, James J.; Plotnick, Fredric L. CPM in Construction Management, Seventh Edition. McGraw Hill. 2010. ISBN 978-0-07-163664-3. 
  • Woolf, Murray B. Faster Construction Projects with CPM Scheduling. McGraw Hill. 2007. ISBN 978-0-07-148660-6.