冥想

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冥想,心性鍛鍊法,在 瑜伽裡經常使用的,在佛教道教中則稱為打坐,在佛教也可称为坐禅。大致可分為兩種作法,一為將注意力集中一處不動,例如集中於身上脈輪咒語或身前的燭火等等。二為心裡觀想特定圖案景象維持不動,如複雜的曼陀羅圖案,有次序的顏色景象變換以及上師神明圖案等等。 通常必須先於第一作法得到成果再進行第二種作法,任何一種觀想或集中都有其特定效果與副作用,所以必須依賴有經驗的老師指導。

道家也有“独立守神,肌肉若一”、“精神不散”、“积精全神”、“守一”、“心斋”、“坐忘”之类的冥想方法。上清派强调登斋入靖、存思诸神形象等。

冥想的研究[编辑]

對冥想過程和效果的研究是神經學研究中的持續成長的次領域。[1] [2] [3] [4] [5][6] 現代科學技術,如功能性磁共振成像儀和腦電圖,已被用來觀察,當人們打坐時以及當人們規律打坐後,他們的身體和大腦怎麼變化。[2][7][8][9][10]

這些研究已經顯示,定期冥想操練的結果,造成身體明顯的變化。例如,理查德·戴維森和茲恩-津恩的一項研究顯示,八週正念為基礎的冥想訓練顯著地增進左側前大腦活動,這個活動與正向的情緒狀態有關。[11]正向情緒可以是一個技能,可以像學習騎自行車或彈鋼琴那樣的訓練來做到。[12]

自從1950年代以來,數以百計的冥想研究已經進行,但許多早期的研究是有缺陷的,因而產生不可靠的結果。[13] [14]更多最近的評論已經指出,許多這些缺陷是希望引導當前的研究,到一個更富有成效的路徑上。[15]更多的報告評估,進一步的研究需要導向對冥想的理論建構及對冥想的定義。[13] [16]

人們自古已在宗教傳統中操練冥想,特別是在寺院中。現在在西方也有許多非宗教性的冥想課程存在,包括正念為基礎的課程。[17]今天,正念為基礎的冥想課程已經在西方醫學和心理學界內流行,這主要是由於,這樣的過程對患有壓力相關健康狀況的患者,有觀察得到的、正面的影響。[11]

西方心理學中的冥想[编辑]

放鬆反應

赫伯特本森博士-身心醫學研究所(Mind-Body Medical Institute)的創辦人,這個研究所是隸屬於哈佛大學和波士頓幾個醫院。他報告說,冥想引起一系列統稱為“放鬆反應”的體內生化和物理變化。[18]這放鬆反應包括代謝變化,心臟跳動率,呼吸,血壓和大腦化學物質的變化。本森博士和他的團隊也在喜馬拉雅山脈的佛教寺院做臨床研究。[19]本森寫了放鬆反應這本書記錄冥想的好處,這在1975年時尚未廣為人知。[20]

冥想的平靜效果

根據在“心理學報”2006年3月的一篇文章,做冥想活動會讓腦電圖相關的活動放緩。[21]人類的神經系統是由副交感神經系統和交感神經系統組成,前者調控心臟速率、呼吸和其他不自主運動功能。後者則是要喚起身體對劇烈活動作準備。美國國家衛生研究院(NIH)有寫下以下敘述:“目前有被認為,某些類型的冥想可能有效,這是由於冥想減少交感神經系統活動及增加副交感神經系統的活動“,或者也可以說,冥想造成激發活動的減低以及增加了放鬆。

西方的治療用途和MBSR

做為減輕壓力和疼痛的一個方法,冥想已經進入醫療保健的主流。做為減輕壓力的一個方法,冥想已經被應用於醫院中的慢性或絕症個案,以減低因升高的壓力-包含已被壓抑的免疫系統-的複雜性。在醫學界,有越來越多人同意,心理因素,如壓力、緊張的確是身體缺乏健康的部分因素,在主流科學裡,有越來越多人對這個領域的研究提供資助。

2003年一項對MBSR課程-MBSR中的操練,包含對意識的不斷覺知而且不尋求壓抑念頭-的元分析(meta-analysis)統計研究得出一個結論:冥想可能對一個企圖處理臨床和非臨床問題的人是有用的。對幾種病的診斷,包括慢性疼痛,纖維肌痛,癌症患者和冠狀動脈疾病發現,MBSR是有幫助的。改善包含了身體和心理層面。[22]

正念冥想、安般念以及相關的技術,旨在為了引發洞察力而培養注意力,。一個更廣泛,更靈活的注意力可以更容易地了知情境,更容易在情感或道德上的困境中保持客觀,而且更容易達到的一個反應性的、創造性的覺知或心流(流暢,flow)的狀態。[23] 哈佛大學醫學院的研究也顯示,冥想過程中,實驗中的生理訊號顯示呼吸減緩,還有心臟跳動率和血含氧飽和度上升。[24]

對不同冥想方式的研究[编辑]

內觀禪修[编辑]

由耶魯大學,哈佛大學,麻薩諸塞州總醫院所做的​​一項研究顯示,冥想在大腦的特定區域增加灰腦質,並可能減緩自然老化過程中的大腦退化這一部分。

該實驗有20個人進行密集的佛教“內觀冥想”訓練,另15人則沒有打坐。腦部掃描顯示,那些打坐的人在腦部負責注意力和處理感覺輸入訊息部位的灰質厚度有增加。一些參與者每天打坐40分鐘,而其他人已經打坐多年。實驗結果顯示,腦厚度的變化依時間的冥想時間的長短變化。厚度的增加在0.004和0.008英寸(0.1016毫米- 0.2032毫米)之間。[25][26]

Zazen[编辑]

詹姆斯·奧斯汀博士-在美國科羅拉多大學的神經生理學家-在他的書"禪與腦"(Zen and the Brain)(奧斯汀,1999)中報告說,操練冥想禪 會“重組大腦中的電路”。透過使用功能性磁共振成像儀,測量大腦中血液流動的掃描技術,這已被確認。[need citation]

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ 打坐對一個人健康影響的研究在過去10年或15年已急劇增加。有一個達賴喇嘛的翻譯員接受採訪的視頻在這裡
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 連結網站目前非侵入性研究技術的能力已使人們得以前所未有的方式研究大腦裡認知與情感運作的本質... “Mind and Life Institute summary of Investigating the Mind" 2005 meetings between The Dalai Lama and scientists。
  3. ^ Venkatesh S, Raju TR,Shivani Y, Tompkins G, Meti BL (April 1997). "A study of structure of phenomenology of consciousness in meditative and non-meditative states". Indian J. Physiol. Pharmacol.41(2): 149–53 PMID 9142560.
  4. ^ ^ Peng CK, Mietus JE, Liu Y, et al. (July 1999). "Exaggerated heart rate oscillations during two meditation techniques". Int. J. Cardiol. 70 (2): 101–7. PMID 10454297
  5. ^ Lazar SW, Bush G, Gollub RL, Fricchione GL, Khalsa G, Benson H (May 2000). "Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation". NeuroReport 11 (7): 1581–5. PMID 10841380
  6. ^ Carlson LE, Ursuliak Z, Goodey E, Angen M, Speca M (March 2001). "The effects of a mindfulness meditation-based stress reduction program on mood and symptoms of stress in cancer outpatients: 6-month follow-up". Support Care Cancer 9 (2): 112–23. PMID 11305069
  7. ^ mindandlife.org
  8. ^ Davidson, Richard J.; Kabat-Zinn J, Schumacher J, Rosenkranz M, Muller D, Santorelli SF, Urbanowski F, Harrington A, Bonus K, Sheridan JF. (July–August 2003). "Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation". Psychosomatic Medicine 65 (4): 564–570. doi:10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3. PMID 12883106
  9. ^ Physiological Effects of Transcendental Meditation by Wallace @ http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/167/3926/1751 published in 1970
  10. ^ Kabat-Zinn, Jon; Lipworth L, Burney R. (1985). "The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain". Journal of Behavioral Medicine 8 (2): 163–190. doi:10.1007/BF00845519. PMID 3897551
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=14241580908681193794&hl=en&as_sdt=0,10 Alterations in brain and immune function produced by mindfulness meditation by Richard Davidson, Jon Kabat-Zinn and others
  12. ^ "Train Your Mind Change Your Brain" by Sharon Begley pages 229–242, in the chapter "Transforming the Emotional Mind"
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Ospina, M; Bond T (2007-01-06). [http://www.ahrq.gov/downloads/pub/evidence/pdf/meditation/medit.pdf "Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155"] (<a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Etext" title="Etext">etext</a>). Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. Retrieved 2012-01-27.
  14. ^ " The lack of statistical evidence, control populations and rigor of many of the early studies; the heterogeneity of the studied meditative states;and the difculty in controlling the degree of expertise of practitioners can in part account for the limited contributions made by neuroscience-oriented research on meditation." "Meditation and the Neuroscience of Consciousness: An Introduction" by Lutz, Dunne and Davidson
  15. ^ Ospina MB, Bond K, Karkhaneh M, et al. (December 2008). "Clinical trials of meditation practices in health care: characteristics and quality". J Altern Complement Med 14 (10): 1199–213. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:10.1089/acm.2008.0307. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> 19123875.
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  17. ^ The following was taken from <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MBSR" title="MBSR">MBSR</a>... "Jon Kabat-Zinn has said that his program has nothing at all to do with Buddhism, it is not spiritually based, and is therefore open to everyone no matter what life circumstances they are in.
  18. ^ Benson H (Dec 1997). "The relaxation response: therapeutic effect". Science 278 (5344): 1694–5. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> 9411784.
  19. ^ Cromie, William J. (18 April 2002). [http://web.archive.org/web/20070524212421/http:/www.hno.harvard.edu/gazette/2002/04.18/09-tummo.html "Meditation changes temperatures: Mind controls body in extreme experiments"]. Harvard University Gazette (President and Fellows of Harvard College via Internet Archive). Retrieved 11 December 2011.
  20. ^ Benson, Herbert, 1975 (2001). The Relaxation Response. HarperCollins. pp. 61–63. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number" title="International Standard Book Number">ISBN</a> <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0-380-81595-8" title="Special:BookSources/0-380-81595-8">0-380-81595-8</a>.
  21. ^ Cahn, Rael; John Polich (March 2006). [http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/bul/132/2/180/ "Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies"]. Psychological Bulletin 132 (2): 180–211. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> 16536641. Retrieved 2012-03-03.
  22. ^ Grossman, P.; Niemann, L.; Schmidt, S.; Walach, H. (2004). [http://www.epilepsiezentrum.uniklinik-freiburg.de/medmed/live/literatur/MBSR_MA_JPR_2004.pdf "Mindfulness-based stress reduction and health benefitsA meta-analysis"] (pdf). Journal of Psychosomatic Research 57 (1): 35–43. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_object_identifier" title="Digital object identifier">doi</a>:10.1016/S0022-3999(03)00573-7. <a href="https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PubMed_Identifier" title="PubMed Identifier">PMID</a> 15256293. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
  23. ^ [http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol3Iss1/Commentary.htm Commentary: In the Zone: A Biobehavioral Theory of the Flow Experience]
  24. ^ [http://www.massgeneral.org/bhi/assets/pdfs/publications/lazar_2000_neuroreport.pdf Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation]
  25. ^ [http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2005/11/051110215950.htm Meditation Associated With Increased Grey Matter In The Brain]
  26. ^ Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness by Sara W. Lazar et al. 2005 http://scholar.google.com/scholar?cluster=2473855192046828991&hl=en&as_sdt=0,10&as_vis=1

 

27.   ^ Manocha R, Black D, Ryan J, Stough C, Spiro D, [1] "This study demonstrates a skin temperature reduction on the palms of the hands during the experience of mental silence, arising as a result of a single 10 minute session of Sahaja yoga meditation." [Changing Definitions of Meditation: Physiological Corollorary, Journal of the International Society of Life Sciences, Vol 28 (1), Mar 2010]

28.   ^ "Meditation boosts part of brain where ADD, addictions reside". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 

29.   ^ "Integrative body-mind training (IBMT) meditation found to boost brain connectivity". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2010-08-22. 

30.   ^ a b M. Beauregard & V. Paquette (2006). "Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns". Neuroscience Letters (Elsevier) 405 (3): 186–90. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2006.06.060. ISSN 0304-3940. PMID 16872743

31.   ^ Mystical Brain

32.   ^ a b c Lutz, Antoine. "Breakthrough study on EEG of meditation". Retrieved 2006-08-14. 

33.   ^ a b Sedlmeier, Peter; Eberth, Juliane; Schwartz, Marcus; Zimmerman, Doreen; Haarig, Frederik; Jaeger, Sonia; Kunze, Sonja (2012). "The Psychological Effects of Meditation: A Meta-Analysis". Psychological Bulletin 138 (6): 1139–1171. doi:10.1037/a0028168. 

34.   ^ Chen, Kevin W.; Christine C. Berger, Eric Manheimer, Darlene Forde, Jessica Magidson, Laya Dachman, C. W. Lejuez (June 2012). "Meditative Therapies for Reducing Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials". Depression and Anxiety 29 (7): 1–18. doi:10.1002/da.21964. 

35.   ^ Woolf, Kevin; Bisognano, John (2011). Nondrug Interventions for Treatment of Hypertension 13 (11). pp. 829–835. doi:10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00524.x. 

36.   ^ Schwartz, B.G.; French, W.J.; Mayeda, G.S.; Burstein; Economides, C.; Bhandari, A.K.; Cannom, D.S.; Kloner, R.A. (2012). "Emotional Stressors Trigger Cardiovascular Events: Review Article". International Journal of Clinical Practice 66 (7): 631–639. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2012.02920.x. 

37.   ^ Brook, Robert D; Lawrence J. Appel, Melvyn Rubenfire, Gbenga Ogedegbe, John D. Bisognano, William J. Elliott, Flavio D. Fuchs, Joel W. Hughes, Daniel T. Lackland, Beth A. Staffileno, Raymond R. Townsend and Sanjay Rajagopalan (April 2013). "Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association". Hypertension. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. Retrieved April 30, 2013. 

38.   ^ Brook,, Robert D; Lawrence J. Appel, Melvyn Rubenfire, Gbenga Ogedegbe, John D. Bisognano, William J. Elliott, Flavio D. Fuchs, Joel W. Hughes, Daniel T. Lackland, Beth A. Staffileno, Raymond R. Townsend and Sanjay Rajagopalan (April 22 2013). "Beyond Medications and Diet: Alternative Approaches to Lowering Blood Pressure : A Scientific Statement From the American Heart Association". Hypertension. doi:10.1161/HYP.0b013e318293645f. 

39.   ^ http://www.pnas.org/content/108/50/20254.long

40.   ^ Bhattathiry, M.P. "Neurophysiology of Meditation". Retrieved 2006-08-14. 

41.   ^ Chang, Kanf-Ming (2005-07-15). "Meditation EEG Interpretation based on novel fuzzy-merging strategies and wavelet features". Retrieved 2006-08-14. 

42.   ^ O'Nuallain, Sean. "Zero Power and Selflessness: What Meditation and Conscious Perception Have in Common". Retrieved 2009-05-30. 

43.   ^ Brown, Daniel, et al. "Differences in Visual Sensitivity Among Mindfulness Meditators and Non-Meditators". Perceptual and Motor Skills 1984: 727–733.

44.   ^ a b Tloczynski, Joseph, et al., "Perception of Visual Illusions by Novice and Longer-Term Meditators". Perceptual and Motor Skills 2000: 1021–1027.

45.   ^ Meditation acutely improves psychomotor vigilance, and may decrease sleep need. Prashant Kaul, Jason Passafiume, R C Sargent and Bruce F O'Hara. Behavioral and Brain Functions 2010, 6:47 doi:10.1186/1744-9081-6-47

46.   ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21711203

47.   ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18954193

48.   ^ a b c Meditation: An Introduction on the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine's webpage, NCAAM is a subdivision of NIH. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/meditation/overview.htm#meditation

49.   ^ From a clinical study of twenty-seven long term meditators, Shapiro found that subjects reported significantly more positive effects than negative from meditation. However, of the twenty-seven subjects, seventeen (62.9%) reported at least one adverse effect, and two (7.4%) suffered profound adverse effects. Among these we find: relaxation-induced anxiety and panic; paradoxical increases in tension; less motivation in life; boredom; pain; impaired reality testing; confusion and disorientation; feeling 'spaced out'; depression; increased negativity; being more judgmental; and, ironically, feeling addicted to meditation Shapiro 1992, cited in Perez-De-Albeniz, Alberto and Holmes, Jeremy. Meditation: concepts, effects and uses in therapy. International Journal of Psychotherapy, Mar 2000, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p49, 10p

50.   ^ Turner, Robert P.; Lukoff, David; Barnhouse, Ruth Tiffany & Lu, Francis G. Religious or Spiritual Problem. A Culturally Sensitive Diagnostic Category in the DSM-IV. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 1995; Vol.183, No. 7 435–444. Page 440.

51.   ^ Hayes, 1999, chap. 3; Metzner, 2005

52.   ^ Ospina p.130

53.   ^ Ospina MB, Bond TK, Karkhaneh M, Tjosvold L, Vandermeer B, Liang Y, Bialy L, Hooton N, Buscemi N, Dryden DM, Klassen TP. "Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research". Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155. (Prepared by the University of Alberta Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290-02-0023.) AHRQ Publication No. 07-E010. Rockville, MD: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. June 2007.

54.   ^ Manocha, Ramesh (2011-01-05). "Meditation, mindfulness and mind-emptiness" (etext). Acta Neuropsychiatrica. doi:10.1111/j.1601-5215.2010.00519.x. Retrieved 2011-07-26. 

科幻中的冥想[编辑]

星际迷航中,瓦肯人贝久人种族会使用冥想术,其中数瓦肯人最为知名。

瓦肯冥想[编辑]

瓦肯人每天睡前都会冥想大约一小时,以排除杂念,从而辅助掌控情感。

外部連結[编辑]