单位换算

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单位换算是指通过乘以换算系数实现不同计量单位间的等换算。

换算技术[编辑]

过程[编辑]

单位换算过程与用户具体情况和预期目的相关。可能受法令、合同技术规格或其它出版物技术标准的限制。工程判断可能包括以下因素:

某些从一个单位系统需要不增减精度地向另一个单位体系严密转换第一个量度。有时被称为“软转换”。它不涉及更改被计量的物理配置。

与之相比,“硬转换”或“适应转换”可能不完全相等。它更改计量以适合在新体系内的有效数字与单位。它有时涉及项目的稍微不同的配置或尺寸替代。有时允许并使用标称值

换算系数[编辑]

此条目内不列出在公制单位国际单位制词头间的转换(例如:1 千克 = 1000 克, 1 毫克 = 0.001 克)。除非单位还有其他常见名称。

表格次序[编辑]

各表内的单位以其英文字词的字母顺序列出,突出显示SI单位(基本单位或导出单位)。

换算系数表[编辑]

此条目给出列于索引内的各个物理量数值转换系数列表。各物理量不同单位的数值以相应的SI术语表示并显示(某些仅有历史意义)。

图例
符号 定义
严格等于
近似等于
数字 表示数字无限循环(例如8.294369表示8.294369369369369
(H) 过去使用

长度[编辑]

长度
单位名称 符号 定义 与SI单位的关系
Å 1×10−10 m ≡ 0.1 nm
天文单位 AU 149597870700 m ≈ 地球与太阳之间的距离 149597870700 m [1]
Barleycorn(H)   = ⅓ in(参见上面关于舍入的说明) ≈ 8.46×10-3 m
玻尔,原子长度单位 a0 ≡ 氢的玻尔半径 5.2917720859×10−11 ± 3.6×10−20 m [2]
(英制)(cable length)   ≡ 608 ft ≈ 185.3184 m
链(国际)(cable length)   ≡ 1/10 海里 ≡ 185.2 m
链(美国)(cable length)   ≡ 720 英尺 = 219.456 m
测链 (chain) ch ≡ 66英尺(美国) ≡ 4 竿 (單位)英语rod (length)[3] 20.11684 m
腕尺(cubit)(H)   ≡ 从手指到肘部的距离 ≈ 18 in ≈ 0.5 m
厄爾(H) ell ≡ 45 in [4](通常在英格兰使用) = 1.143 m
fm ≡ 6 ft [4] = 1.8288 m
飛米 fm 1×10−15 m[4] 1×10−15 m
finger(长度单位)   ≡ 7/8 in = 0.022225 m
finger(长度单位)(服装)   ≡ 4½ in

= 0.1143 m
英尺 (Benoît)(H) ft (Ben) 0.304799735 m
英尺 (Cape)(H)   于 1859 年由法律规定为 1.033 英国英尺 0.314858 m
英尺 (Clarke's)(H) ft (Cla) 0.3047972654 m
英尺(印度)(H) ft Ind 0.304799514 m
英尺(国际) ft ≡ 0.3048 m ≡ 1/3 yd ≡ 12 英寸 ≡ 0.3048 m
英尺 (Sear's)(H) ft (Sear) 0.30479947 m
英尺(美国测量) ft(美国) 12003937 m [5] 0.304800610 m
french; charriere F 13 mm = 0.3 ×10-3 m
fur ≡ 10 测链 = 660 ft = 220 yd [4] = 201.168 m
hand   ≡ 4 in [4] ≡ 0.1016 m
英寸(国际) in ≡ 2.54 cm ≡ 1/36 yd ≡ 1/12 ft ≡ .0254 m
里格 (land) lea ≡ 3 美制英里 [3] = 4828.032 m
光日   ≡ 24 光时 2.59020683712×1013 m
光时   ≡ 60 光分 1.0792528488×1012 m
光分   ≡ 60 光秒 1.798754748×1010 m
光秒   ≡ 光在真空中1秒走过的距离 299792458 m
光年 ly ≡ 光在真空中365.25天走过的距离[6] = 9.4607304725808×1015 m
line ln ≡ 1/12 in [7] = 0.002116 m
link (Gunter's; Surveyor's) lnk ≡ 1/100 ch [4] ≡ 0.66 ft ≡ 7.92 in

测链 (chain) 上组成链的环节 (link),下同
= 0.201168 m
link (Ramsden's; Engineer's) lnk ≡ 1 ft [4] = 0.3048 m
国际单位制基本单位 m ≡ 光在真空中1299792458秒走过的距离[8]
≈ 赤道至南极点或北极点距离的110000000
≡ 1 m
mickey   1200 in = 1.27×10−4 m
微米 µ 1×10−6 m
密耳 (mil; thou) mil 1×10−3 in 2.54×10−5 m
挪威/瑞典密耳 mil ≡ 10 km = 10000 m
地理英里(H) 6082 ft = 1853.7936 m
英里(国际) mi ≡ 80 测链 ≡ 5280 ft ≡ 1760 yd 1609.344 m
英里(战术或数据) 6000 ft 1828.8 m
英里(电报)(H) mi 6087 ft = 1855.3176 m
英里 (美国测量) mi 5280 美国测量英尺 ≡ (5280 × 12003937) m 1609.347219 m
nail(服装)   ≡ 2¼ in [4] = 0.057 15 m
纳米 nm 1×10−9 m 1×10−9 m
海里格 (nautical league) NL; nl ≡ 3 nmi [4] = 5556 m
海里 (Admiralty) NM (Adm); nmi (Adm) = 6080 ft = 1853.184 m
海里(国际) NM; nmi 1852 m [9] 1852 m
海里(美国1954年前) ≡ 1853.248 m ≡ 1853.248 m
pace   ≡ 2.5 ft [4]

= 0.762 m
plam   ≡ 3 in [4]

= 0.0762 m
秒差距 pc 与一个天文单位为一弧秒视差移位的恒星距离 3.085 677 82×1016 ± 6×106 m [10]
皮卡、派卡 (pica)   ≡ 12 点 由点量度决定。
(美英)[11][12] pt ≡ 1/72.272 in 0.000 351 450 m
點 (Didot; 欧洲) [12][13] pt ≡ 1/12 × 1/72 of pied du roi;

1878年后:
≡ 5/133 cm
0.000 375 97 m;

1878年后:
0.000 375 939 85 m
點 (PostScript) [11] pt ≡ 1/72 in = 0.000 352 7 m
點 (TeX) [11] pt ≡ 1/72.27 in = 0.000 351 4598 m
quarter   ≡ ¼ yd

= 0.2286 m
杆 (rod; pole; perch)(H) rd ≡ 16½ ft = 5.0292 m
Rope(H) rope ≡ 20 ft [4]

= 6.096 m
span(H)   ≡ 9 in [4]

= 0.2286 m
spat [14] ≡ 1×1012 m
stick(H)   ≡ 2 in = 0.0508 m
stigma; bicron (皮米) pm ≡ 1×10−12 m
(twip) twp 1/1440 in = 1.7638×10−5 m
x unit; siegbahn xu ≈ 1.0021×10−13 m [4]
(国际) yd ≡ 0.9144 m [5] ≡ 3 ft ≡ 36 in ≡ 0.9144 m

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ http://www.nature.com/news/the-astronomical-unit-gets-fixed-1.11416
  2. ^ "NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty."(2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved February 22, 2008.
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 National Institute of Standards and Technology General Tables of Units of Measurement
  4. ^ 4.00 4.01 4.02 4.03 4.04 4.05 4.06 4.07 4.08 4.09 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13 Lide, D. (Ed.). (1990). Handbook of Chemistry and Physics (71st ed). Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press. Section 1.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 National Bureau of Standards. (June 30, 1959). Refinement of values for the yard and the pound. Federal Register, viewed September 20, 2006 at National Geodetic Survey web site.
  6. ^ The International Astronomical Union and Astronomical Units
  7. ^ Klein, Herbert Arthur.(1988). The Science of Measurement: a Historical Survey. Mineola, NY: Dover Publications 0-4862-5839-4.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 The International System of Units, Section 2.1. 8, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006 [August 26, 2009] 
  9. ^ International System of Units, 8th ed. (2006), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Section 4.1 Table 8.
  10. ^ P. Kenneth Seidelmann, Ed. (1992). Explanatory Supplement to the Astronomical Almanac. Sausalito, CA: University Science Books. p. 716 and s.v. parsec in Glossary.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 Whitelaw, Ian. (2007). A Measure of All Things: The Story of Man and Measurement. New York: Macmillan 0-312-37026-1. p. 152.
  12. ^ 12.0 12.1 De Vinne, Theodore Low (1900). The practice of typography: a treatise on the processes of type-making, the point system, the names, sizes, styles and prices of plain printing types 2nd ed. New York: The Century Co. p. 142–150.
  13. ^ Pasko, Wesley Washington (1894). American dictionary of printing and bookmaking. (1894). New York: Howard Lockwood. p. 521.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 Rowlett, Russ, How Many? A Dictionary of Units of Measurement. 2005 
  15. ^ Thompson, A. and Taylor, B.N. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). National Institute of Standards and Technology Special Publication 811. p. 57.
  16. ^ 16.0 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 US Code of Federal Regulations, Title 21, Section 101.9, Paragraph (b)(5)(viii) [August 29, 2009] 
  17. ^ Barry N. Taylor, Ed.,NIST Special Publication 330: The International System of Units (SI) (2001 Edition), Washington: US Government Printing Office, 43,"The 12th Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures (CGPM)…declares that the word “litre” may be employed as a special name for the cubic decimetre".
  18. ^ CODATA Value: atomic uint of mass. (2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 16 September 2008.
  19. ^ The Swiss Federal Office for Metrology gives Zentner on a German language web page [1] and quintal on the English translation of that page [2]; the unit is marked "spécifiquement suisse !"
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 Pedersen O. (1983). "Glossary" in Coyne, G., Hoskin, M., and Pedersen, O. Gregorian Reform of the Calendar: Proceedings of the Vatican Conference to Commemorate its 400th Anniversary. Vatican Observatory. Available from Astrophysics Data System.
  21. ^ Richards, E.G., Mapping Time, Oxford University Press. 1998:  94–95, ISBN 0-19-850413-6 
  22. ^ Steel, Duncan, Marking Time, John Wiley & Sons. 2000:  46, ISBN 0-471-29827-1 
  23. ^ Tom Benson. (2010.) "Mach Number" in Beginner's Guide to Aeronautics. NASA.
  24. ^ CODATA Value: atomic unit of force. (2006). National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved September 14, 2008.
  25. ^ 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 Comité International des Poids et Mesures, Resolution 2. 1946 [August 26, 2009] 
  26. ^ 26.00 26.01 26.02 26.03 26.04 26.05 26.06 26.07 26.08 26.09 26.10 26.11 26.12 26.13 26.14 26.15 Barry N. Taylor, (April 1 995), Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811), Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, pp. 57–68.
  27. ^ Barry N. Taylor, (April 1995), Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI) (NIST Special Publication 811), Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office, p. 5.
  28. ^ International System of Units, 8th ed. (2006), Bureau International des Poids et Mesures, Section 4.1 Table 7.
  29. ^ The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty. 2006 [August 26, 2009] 
  30. ^ Robert G. Mortimer Physical chemistry,Academic Press, 2000 ISBN 0-12-508345-9, page 677
  31. ^ 31.0 31.1 31.2 NIST Guide to SI Units, Appendix B.9 [August 27, 2009] 
  32. ^ Standard for the Use of the International System of Units (SI): The Modern Metric System IEEE/ASTM SI 10-1997. (1997). New York and West Conshohocken, PA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers and American Society for Testing and Materials. Tables A.1 through A.5.
  33. ^ The NIST Reference on Constants, Units, and Uncertainty [August 28, 2009] 
  34. ^ Ambler Thompson & Barry N. Taylor. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). Special Publication 811. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 10.
  35. ^ 35.0 35.1 The International System of Units, Section 2.2.2., Table 3. 8, Bureau International des Poids et Mesures. 2006 [August 27, 2009] 
  36. ^ The NIST Guide to the SI (Special Publication 811), section 5.2. 2008 [August 27, 2009] 
  37. ^ Ambler Thompson & Barry N. Taylor. (2008). Guide for the Use of the International System of Units (SI). Special Publication 811. Gaithersburg, MD: National Institute of Standards and Technology. p. 5.
  38. ^ Comité international des poids et mesures, 2002, Recommendation 2 [August 27, 2009] 
Notes

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