单性生殖

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中间为单性生殖的只有雌性个体的物种新墨西哥鞭尾蜥Cnemidophorus neomexicanus),两边为有性生殖的物种,左为雄性小斑纹鞭尾蜥(C. inornatus),右为雌性西部鞭尾蜥(C. tigris)。新墨西哥鞭尾蜥为二者自然杂交产生的物种。

单性生殖又称为孤雌生殖,是动物植物子,不经过受精过程,而单独发育成后代的生殖方式,区别于无性生殖

单性生殖一般发生在多种植物无脊椎动物中,但也有一些脊椎动物如某些爬行动物[1](如钩盲蛇红尾蚺科摩多巨蜥哀鳞趾虎新墨西哥鞭尾蜥),在一些特殊的[2]鲨鱼品种(如窄头双髻鲨条纹斑竹鲨黑边鳍真鲨)中也会出现[3]。如水蚤蜜蜂蒲公英和一些禾类中,这些现象为“天然单性生殖”,人为的刺激未受精卵发育,成为“人工单性生殖”,曾经实验过将青蛙番茄等成功地进行单性生殖,可以完整地保留母体性状。

单性生殖的后代如果全为雄性,称为“产雄单性生殖”,例如蜜蜂产育雄蜂,就是一种产雄单性生殖;如果后代全为雌性,称为“产雌单性生殖”,例如夏季蚜虫繁殖,新墨西哥鞭尾蜥的繁殖等。

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Halliday, Tim R.; Kraig Adler (eds.). Reptiles & Amphibians. Torstar Books. 1986: p. 101. ISBN 0-920269-81-8. 
  2. ^ Savage, Thomas F. A Guide to the Recognition of Parthenogenesis in Incubated Turkey Eggs. Oregon State University. September 12, 2005 [2006–10–11]. 
  3. ^ "Female Sharks Can Reproduce Alone, Researchers Find", Washington Post, Wednesday, May 23, 2007; Page A02

参考文献[编辑]

  • Dawley, Robert M. & Bogart, James P. (1989). Evolution and Ecology of Unisexual Vertebrates. Albany, New York: New York State Museum. ISBN 1-55557-179-4.
  • Fangerau H. (2005). Can Artificial Parthenogenesis sidestep ethical pitfalls in human therapeutic cloning? A historical perspective, Journal of Medical Ethics 31, 733-735
  • Futuyma, Douglas J. & Slatkin, Montgomery. (1983). Coevolution. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-228-3.


  • Maynard Smith, John. (1978). The Evolution of Sex. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29302-2.
  • Michod, Richard E. & Levin, Bruce R. (1988). The Evolution of Sex. Sunderland, Mass: Sinauer Associates. ISBN 0-87893-459-6.
  • Phillip C. Watts, Kevin R. Buley, Stephanie Sanderson, Wayne Boardman, Claudio Ciofi and Richard Gibson. (2006). Parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons. Nature 444, 1021-1022
  • Schlupp, I. (2005) The evolutionary ecology of gynogenesis. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 36: 399-417.
  • Simon, Jean-Christophe, Rispe, Claude & Sunnucks, Paul. (2002). Ecology and evolution of sex in aphids. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 17, 34-39.
  • Stearns, Stephan C. (1988). The Evolution of Sex and Its Consequences (Experientia Supplementum, Vol. 55). Boston: Birkhauser. ISBN 0-8176-1807-4.

外部链接[编辑]