印第安大屠殺

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印第安大屠殺通常指在歐洲人往美洲殖民時歐洲人屠殺北美原住民印第安人和印第安人屠殺歐洲白種移民的歷史。

概觀[编辑]

到底多少人死于這些種族屠殺是難以確定的。歷史學家William M. Osborn寫的《荒野邊疆:美國印地安戰爭中自詹姆斯鎮伤膝河的的暴行》 搜集了從1511年兩種族首次接觸到1890年西擴終止這段時間内、今日美國本土所有有記錄的歐印暴力衝突,並確認了7193人死于白人的暴行,9156人死于印第安人的暴行。Osborn定義的“暴行”限於謀殺,酷刑,殘害平民、傷者、俘虜的肢體器官。對“暴行”的定義不同也會導致統計數量的不同。

屠殺列表[编辑]

1500–1830[编辑]

日期 名稱 描述 來源
1539 Napituca Massacre 擊敗了Timucuan族武士, Hernando de Soto處決200人。這是歐洲人首次屠殺印第安人。 Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 286–291.
1540 10.18 Mabila Massacre Choctaw族向Hernando de Soto的探險復仇,殺死200名士兵和很多馬、豬,因爲白人燒毀了Mabila建築,殺死了2500名躲在僞裝村寨的武士[1] Duncan, E., Hernando de Soto, pp. 376–384; Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 15.
1541–42 Tiguex Massacres 入侵的西班牙人掠奪Tiguex人的住房、食品、服裝的Tiguex,強姦Tiguex女人。Tiguex族反抗。西班牙攻擊他們。Francisco Vázquez de Coronado率人圍攻Moho Pueblo,經過長達數月的圍困,他們殺害了200個逃難的戰士。 Sauer, C. Sixteenth Century North America, p. 141. Flint, R., No Settlement, No Conquest, pp. 144–153.
1599 1.22–1.24 Acoma Massacre 報復性殺害11名西班牙士兵,。Juan de Oñate懲罰性出征土著,在Acoma Pueblo戰鬥3天, 殺死約800人。西班牙國王 腓力二世 爲此懲罰了Oñate[2] Weber, D., The Spanish Frontier in North America, pp. 85–86.
1601 Sandia Mountains 新墨西哥州Sandia Mountains西班牙軍隊摧毀了3個印第安村莊。據西班牙記載,900 Tompiro印第安人被殺害。 [3]
1622 3.22 Indian massacre of 1622
(Jamestown Massacre)
在弗吉尼亞,Powhatan (Pamunkey)族殺死347名英國男女和兒童人,約佔當地英國移民的三分之一。 [4]
1623 5.12 Pamunkey Peace Talks 英國人在“和談會議”上鴆殺Powhatan族頭人,共約200人,用暴力打死50名土著. Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 47.
1637 5.26 Mystic Massacre In the Pequot War, English colonists commanded by John Mason, with Mohegan and Narragansett allies, launched a night attack on a large Pequot village on the Mystic River in present-day Connecticut, where they burned the inhabitants in their homes and killed all survivors, for total fatalities of about 600–700. Cave, A., The Pequot War, pp. 144–154.
1643 February 25 Pavonia Massacre In 1643 the Mohawk attacked a band of Wappinger and Tappan, who fled to New Amsterdam seeking the protection of New Netherland governor, William Kieft. Kieft dispersed them to Pavonia[5] and Corlears Hook. They were later attacked, 129 being killed. This prompted the beginning of Kieft's War, driven by mercenary John Underhill.[6][7] [8]
1643 August Massacre of Anne Hutchinson and her family As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, near the Split Rock (now northeastern Bronx in New York City), local Lenape (or Siwanoy) killed Anne Hutchinson, six of her children, a son-in-law, and as many as seven others (servants). Susanna, one of Hutchinson's daughters, was taken captive and lived with the natives for several years. LaPlante, E., American Jezebel, p. 231.
1644 March Pound Ridge Massacre As part of Kieft's War in New Netherland, at present day Pound Ridge, New York, John Underhill, hired by the Dutch, attacked and burned a sleeping village of Lenape, killing about 500 Indians. Steele, I., Warpaths, p. 116.
Trelease, A., Indian Affairs in Colonial New York; The Seventeenth Century, pp. 79–80.
1655 September 11–15 Peach Tree War In retaliation for Director-General of New Netherland Peter Stuyvesant's attacks to their trading partners and allies at New Sweden, united bands of natives attacked Pavonia, Staten Island, Colen Donck and other areas of New Netherland.
1675 September 18 Bloody Brook Massacre During King Philip's War, Indian warriors killed 60 soldiers of Deerfield, Massachusetts. [9]
1675 December 19 Great Swamp Massacre
(Great Swamp Fight)
Colonial militia attacked a Narragansett fort near South Kingston, Rhode Island. At least 40 warriors were killed and 300 women, children and elder men burnt in the village. [10]
1676 March 26 Nine Men's Misery During King Philip's War, warriors subjected nine captive soldiers to ritual torture and death. [11]
1676 May 10 Turner Falls Massacre
(Battle of Turner's Falls)
Captain William Turner and 150 militia volunteers attacked a fishing Indian camp at present-day Turner Falls, Massachusetts. At least 100 women and children were killed in the attack. [12]
1676 July 2 Rhode Island Militia volunteers under Major Talcott attacked a band of Narragansetts on Rhode Island, killing 34 men and 92 women and children. [13]
1680 August 10 Pueblo Revolt Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers, and drove other Spaniards from New Mexico. [14]
1689 August 5 Lachine massacre 1,500 Mohawk warriors attacked the small settlement of Lachine, New France and killed more than 90 of the village's 375 French residents, following widespread French attacks on Mohawk villages in present-day New York. [15]
1689 Zia Pueblo Governor Jironza de Cruzate destroyed the pueblo of Zia, New Mexico. 600 Indians were killed and 70 survivors enslaved. [16]
1690 February 8 Schenectady Massacre As part of the Beaver Wars, French and Algonquins destroyed Schenectady, New York, killing 60 Dutch and English settlers, including ten women and at least twelve children. [17]
1704 Apalachee Massacre Former Carolinia Governor James Moore launched a series of brutal attacks on the Apalachee villages of Northern Florida. They killed 1000 Apalachees and enslaved at least 2000 survivors. [18]
1704 February 29 Deerfield Massacre During Queen Anne's War, a force composed of Abenaki, Kanienkehaka, Wyandot and Pocumtuck, led by a small contingent of French-Canadian militia, sacked the town of Deerfield, Massachusetts, killing 56 civilians and taking more than 100 as captives. [19]
1713 March 20–23 Fort Neoheroka Militia volunteers and Indian allies under Colonel James Moore attacked Ft. Neoheroka, the main stronghold of the Tuscarora Indians. 200 Tuscaroras were burned to death in the village and 900–1000 others were subsequently killed or captured. [20][21]
1729 November 28 Natchez Massacre Natchez Indians attacked French settlements near present-day Natchez, Mississippi, killing more than 200 French colonists. [22]
1757 August 9 Battle of Fort William Henry Following the fall of Fort William Henry during the Seven Years' War, Indians allied with the French killed between 70 and 180 British and colonial prisoners. [23]
1759 October 4 St. Francis Raid During the Seven Years' War, in retaliation for the rumored murder of a captured Stockbridge man and detention of Captain Quinten Kennedy of the Rogers' Rangers, Major Robert Rogers led a party of approximately 150 English regulars, volunteers and Mahican into the village of Odanak, Quebec. They killed up to 30 Abenaki people, among them women and children, as confirmed via conflicting reports. [24]
1763 September 14 Devil's Hole Massacre During the Seven Years' War, Seneca allied with the French attacked a British supply train and soldiers just south of Fort Niagara. They killed 21 teamsters from the supply train and 81 soldiers who attempted to rescue the train. [25]
1763 December Killings by the Paxton Boys In response to Pontiac's Rebellion, frontier Pennsylvania settlers killed 20 peaceful Susquehannock. [26][27][28]
1764 July 26 Enoch Brown School Massacre Four Delaware killed a schoolmaster, 10 pupils and a pregnant woman. Two pupils were scalped but survived. [28]
1774 April 30 Yellow Creek Massacre Daniel Greathouse killed members of Chief Logan's family. [29]
1777 September 26 The Grave Creek Massacre A milita company under Captain William Foreman is ambushed and killed by Indians south of Wheeling, West Virginia. [來源請求]
1778 July 3 Battle of Wyoming During the American Revolutionary War, following a battle with rebel defenders of Forty Fort, Iroquois allies of Loyalist forces hunted and killed those who fled; they were later accused of using ritual torture to kill those soldiers who surrendered. These claims were denied by Iroquois and British leaders at the time. [30][31][32]
August 31 Stockbridge Massacre A battle of the American Revolutionary War that rebel propaganda portrayed as a massacre. [33]
November 11 Cherry Valley Massacre British and Seneca forces attacked the fort and village at Cherry Valley, New York, killing 16 rebel troops and more than 30 settlers. [34]
1781 September 1 Dietz Massacre During the Revolution, Iroquois allied with the British attacked the home of Johannes Dietz, Berne, New York, killing and scalping Dietz, his wife, their daughter-in-law, four children of their son's family, and a servant girl. [35][36]
1782 March 8 Gnadenhütten massacre During the Revolution, Pennsylvania militiamen massacred nearly 100 non-combatant Christian Lenape, mostly women and children; they killed and scalped all but two young boys. [37][38]
1782 May 10 Corbly Family Massacre During the Revolution, Indians allied with the British attacked the family of John Corbly, a Christian minister in Greene County, Pennsylvania. His wife and three of their children were killed; and two daughters were scalped, but survived. The Reverend Corbly escaped. Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine, R.R. Bowker Co., 1925, Item notes: v. 59 1925 January–June p. 234
1812 August 15 Fort Dearborn Massacre
(Battle of Fort Dearborn)
During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed American soldiers and settlers evacuating Fort Dearborn (site of present-day Chicago, Illinois). In all, 26 soldiers, two officers, two women and 12 children, and 12 trappers and settlers hired as scouts, were killed. [39]
September 10 Zimmer Massacre During the War of 1812, four settlers were killed in an attack believed to be by aggrieved Lenape, in Ashland County, Ohio. Howe, Henry., Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Volume 1 .pp. 257–258, 1907
September 15 Copus Massacre During the War of 1812, Northwest Indians attacked the Ashland County, Ohio homestead of Rev. James Copus, killing three militiamen and one settler; and wounding two militiamen and a settler's daughter; settlers killed two Indians. Howe, Henry., Howe's Historical Collections of Ohio, Volume 1 .pp. 258–259, 1907
1813 January 22 River Raisin Massacre During the War of 1812, Indians allied with the British killed between 30 and 60 Kentucky militia after their surrender. [40]
August 18 Dilbone Massacre During the War of 1812, an Indian allegedly killed three settlers (David Garrard and Henry Dilbone and wife) in Miami County, Ohio. Settlers later killed the Indian they suspected of the murders. Sutton, R., The History of Shelby County Ohio, p. 122 published 1883
August 30 Fort Mims Massacre After Creek were attacked by US forces in the Battle of Burnt Corn (which the Creek won), a band of Red Sticks sacked Fort Mims, Alabama, killing 400 civilians and taking 250 scalps. This action brought the US into the internal Creek War, at the same time as the War of 1812. [41]
November 18 Hillabee Massacre Tennessee troops under General White launched a dawn attacked on an unsuspecting Creek town (the village leaders were engaged in peace negotiations with General Andrew Jackson). About 65 Creek Indians were shot or bayoneted. [42]
November 29 Autossee Massacre
(Battle of Autossee)
Georgia Militia General Floyd attacked a Creek town on Tallapoosa River, in Macon County, Alabama, killing 200 Indians before setting the village afire. [43]
1818 April 22 Chehaw Affair During the First Seminole War, U.S. troops attacked a non-hostile Muscogee village, killing an estimated 10 to 50 men, women and children. [44]
1824 March 22 Fall Creek Massacre Six settlers in Madison County, Indiana killed and robbed eight Seneca. One suspect escaped trial and another was a witness at subsequent trial. Of those charged with murder, one man was hanged January 12, 1825, and two were hanged June 2, 1825. The last defendant was pardoned at the last minute. Wikipedia Article
1826 Dressing Point Massacre A posse of Anglo-Texan settlers massacred a large community of Karankawa Indians near the mouth of the Colorado River in Matagorda Co., Texas. Between 40 and 50 Karankawas were killed. [45][46]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ "De Soto's Trail: Courage and Cruelty Come Alive"
  2. ^ "Conquistador Statue Stirs Hispanic Pride and Indian Rage"
  3. ^ Riley, Carroll, L., Rio del Norte: People of the Upper Rio Grande from Earliest Times to the Pueblo Revolt, University of Utah Press, 2007, p. 252, ISBN 978-0-87480-496-6
  4. ^ Jamestown: Legacy of the Massacre of 1622 | Americans at War: 1500–1815 Summary
  5. ^ Wm Kieft and Pavonia
  6. ^ Winkler, David F. Revisiting the Attack on Pavonia. New Jersey Historical Society. 1998年. 
  7. ^ Beck, Sanderson. New Netherland and Stuyvesant 1642–64. 2006年. 
  8. ^ Churchill 1997, p. 198
  9. ^ Find A Grave website
  10. ^ Ellis, George W., Morris, John E., King Philip's war, Grafton Historical Series, The Grafton Press, 1906, pp. 152–155
  11. ^ [Nine Men's Misery]
  12. ^ Mandell, Daniel R., King Philp's war: the conflict over New England, Chelsea House Publishers, 2007, p. 100, ISBN 978-0-7910-9346-7
  13. ^ Kiernan 2007, p. 239
  14. ^ Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
  15. ^ George, Charles; Douglas Roberts. A History of Canada. Boston: The Page Company (no copyright in the United States). 1897年: 93–94. 
  16. ^ Preucel, Robert W. , Archaeologies of the Pueblo revolt: identity, meaning, and renewal in the Pueblo world, University of New Mexico Press, 2007, p. 56, ISBN 978-0-8263-2247-0
  17. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 33
  18. ^ Gallay 2003, pp. 147–148
  19. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 48
  20. ^ Gallay 2003, p. 284
  21. ^ Read, Milton , The tar heel state: a history of North Carolina, University of South Carolina Press, 2005, pp. 36–37, ISBN 978-1-57003-591-3
  22. ^ Barnett, James F., The Natchez Indians: a history to 1735, University Press of Mississipi, 2007, p. 105, ISBN 978-1-57806-988-0
  23. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 224
  24. ^ Bruchac, Marge, [1] Reading Abenaki Traditions and European Records of Rogers' Raid], August 2006, pp. 3–4
  25. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 260
  26. ^ Taylor, Alan, American Colonies, New York: Viking Press, 2001
  27. ^ "A Narrative of the Late Massacres...", Benjamin Franklin's account of the massacre and criticism of the Paxton Boys
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 "A Disquisition Portraying the History Relative to the Enoch Brown Incident", Greencastle Museum
  29. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 106
  30. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 181
  31. ^ Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission | The Battle of Wyoming and Hartley's Expedition
  32. ^ Wallace, Paul A. W., Indians in Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Historical & Museum Commission, 2007, 200 pages, pp. 162–164, ISBN 978-0-89271-017-1
  33. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 246
  34. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 321
  35. ^ Priest, Josiah, Stories of the Revolution, first published 1836
  36. ^ Dietz Massacre
  37. ^ Tuscarawas
  38. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 57
  39. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 231
  40. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 20
  41. ^ Konstantin 2002, p. 245
  42. ^ Heidler D.S., Heidler J.T., Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, Naval Institute Press, 2004, p. 239, ISBN 978-0-87436-968-7
  43. ^ McKenney, T.L., Indian Tribes of America, Applewood Books, 2010, p. 307, ISBN 978-1-4290-2265-1
  44. ^ Andrew Jackson Learns of the Chehaw Affair The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History
  45. ^ Kiernan 2007, p. 239
  46. ^ Himmel 1999, p. 50