原始人類語言

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原始人類語言(Proto-Human languageProto-Sapiens, Proto-World),又名原世界语,是一个假设於世界上存在的語言,並且是所有语言的最近共同祖先原始语,也是一个古老的原始语。

原始人類語言假設现今所有的现代语言,包括现代的语系和已消亡语言,皆起源於單一的一種语言。這種語言,被認為是人類的祖先當仍在東非時所使用的語言。尽管有无数的尝试,但是语言学家得出一些结论既,復原该语言的方法是可疑的,並且如果真有原世界语的话,原世界语也不太可能被復原。從近年對尼安德特人化石的研究,認為他們很可能亦有語言的能力,「原始人類語言」是否包含尼安德特人的語言亦變成了爭議之一。假若尼安德特人亦有其語言,有可能表明原先的單一語言假設的錯誤,但亦可能暗示人類的語言跟尼安德特人的語言還有一個更早期的祖先。

根據人類的發展歷史,語言學家推斷原始人類語言通行於約20萬到5萬年前。

魯蘭原始人類語言重建[编辑]

詞彙[编辑]

語言 誰? 什麼? 一/手指 手臂-1 手臂-2 彎膝/膝蓋 頭髮 陰道/外陰 味道/鼻子
科依桑 !kū ma /kam k´´ā //kɔnu //kū ≠hā //gom /ʼū !kwai č’ū
尼羅-撒哈拉 na de ball nki tok kani boko kutu sum buti čona
尼日爾-剛果 nani ni bala engi dike kono boko boŋgo butu
亞非 k(w) ma bwVr ak’wa tak ganA bunqe somm put suna
卡特維 min ma yor rts’q’a ert t’ot’ qe muql toma putʼ sun
達羅 yāv iraṇṭu nīru birelu kaŋ kay meṇḍa pūṭa počču čuṇṭu
歐亞 kwi mi pālā akwā tik konV bhāghu(s) bük(ä) punče p’ut’V snā
得内-高加索 kwi ma gnyis ʔoχwa tok kan boq pjut tshām putʼi suŋ
Austric o-ko-e m-anu ʔ(m)bar namaw ntoʔ xeen baγa buku śyām betik iǰuŋ
Indo-Pacific mina boula okho dik akan ben buku utu sɨnna
澳洲 ŋaani minha bula gugu kuman mala pajing buŋku puda mura
Amerind kune mana p’āl akwā dɨk’i kano boko buka summe butie čuna
來源:(Ruhlen 1994b:103)。符號V表示"元音,其原始確切的字符是未知的"(同上105頁)。點擊在最上面一行的符號可以改變字母順序的形式。

基於參考文獻(Ruhlen 1994b:105),列出原始人類語言的詞根:

  • ku = 'who'
  • ma = 'what'
  • pal = 'two'
  • akwa = 'water'
  • tik = 'finger'
  • kanV = 'arm'
  • boko = 'arm'
  • buŋku = 'knee'
  • sum = 'hair'
  • putV = 'vulva'
  • čuna = 'nose, smell'

參考文獻[编辑]

  • Bengtson, John D. and Merritt Ruhlen. 1994. "Global etymologies." In Ruhlen 1994a, pp. 277–336.
  • Bengtson, John D. 2007. "On fossil dinosaurs and fossil words." (Also: HTML version.)
  • Campbell, Lyle, and William J. Poser. 2008. Language Classification: History and Method. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Edgar, Blake. 2008 "Letter from South Africa." Archaeology 61.2, March–April 2008.
  • Gell-Mann, Murray and Merritt Ruhlen. 2003. "The origin and evolution of syntax." (Also: HTML version.)
  • Givón, Talmy. 1979. On Understanding Grammar. New York: Academic Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph. 1963. "Some universals of grammar with particular reference to the order of meaningful elements." In Universals of Language, edited by Joseph Greenberg, Cambridge: MIT Press, pp. 58–90. (In second edition of Universals of Language, 1966: pp. 73–113.)
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1966. The Languages of Africa, revised edition. Bloomington: Indiana University Press. (Published simultaneously at The Hague by Mouton & Co.)
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1971. "The Indo-Pacific hypothesis." Reprinted in Joseph H. Greenberg, Genetic Linguistics: Essays on Theory and Method, edited by William Croft, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 1987. Language in the Americas. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Greenberg, Joseph H. 2000-2002. Indo-European and Its Closest Relatives: The Eurasiatic Language Family. Volume 1: Grammar. Volume 2: Lexicon. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Klein, Richard G. and Blake Edgar. 2002. The Dawn of Human Culture. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • McDougall, Ian, Francis H. Brown, and John G. Fleagle. 2005. "Stratigraphic placement and age of modern humans from Kibish, Ethiopia." Nature 433.7027, 733–736.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. 1994a. On the Origin of Languages: Studies in Linguistic Taxonomy, Stanford: Stanford University Press.
  • Ruhlen, Merritt. 1994b. The Origin of Language: Tracing the Evolution of the Mother Tongue. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
  • Saussure, Ferdinand de. 1986. Course in General Linguistics, translated by Roy Harris. Chicago: Open Court. (English translation of 1972 edition of Cours de linguistique générale, originally published in 1916.)
  • Trombetti, Alfredo. 1905. L'unità d'origine del linguaggio. Bologna: Luigi Beltrami.
  • Trombetti, Alfredo. 1922-1923. Elementi di glottologia, 2 volumes. Bologna: Zanichelli.
  • Wells, Spencer. 2007. Deep Ancestry: Inside the Genographic Project. Washington, D.C.: National Geographic.
  • White, Tim D., B. Asfaw, D. DeGusta, H. Gilbert, G.D. Richards, G. Suwa, and F.C. Howell. 2003. "Pleistocene Homo sapiens from Middle Awash, Ethiopia." Nature 423:742–747.

外部連結[编辑]