- 25.6. 教会除了主耶稣基督以外没有别的元首：nor can 罗马教皇 in any sense be head thereof; but is that 敌基督, that man of sin and son of perdition, that exalts himself in the Church against Christ, and all that is called God.
- The London Baptist Confession of 1689:
- 26.4. 主耶稣基督 is the Head of the church, in whom, by the appointment of the Father, all power for the calling, institution, order or government of the church, is invested in a supreme and sovereign manner; neither can the Pope of Rome in any sense be head thereof, but is that antichrist, that man of sin, and son of perdition, that exalteth himself in the church against Christ.
Over the course of later medieval and early modern history violence against Catholics has broken out, often resulting in deaths, such as the torture of Saint John Ogilvie and execution of a Jesuit priest.
In the last 150 years, Irish immigration to Scotland increased dramatically and at the beginning of the immigration period Catholics were treated like second class citizens. However, as time has gone on Scotland has become much more open to other religions and Catholics have seen the formation of separate schools which still receive council funding. The Orange Order has grown in numbers in recent times however it is attributed to the rivalry between Rangers and Celtic football clubs as opposed to actual hatred of Catholicism .
Cooperation between The Kirk and the Catholic Church in Scotland has grown greatly in recent times as both churches are moving to eradicate sectarian violence from football and work together to fight poverty. The Moderator of the Church of Scotland and Cardinal Patrick O'Brien both attended a follow up to the G8 summit in May 2007.Scotland is considered by some to be the historic Catholic heartland of the modern day United Kingdom. 
Anti-clericalism has at times been violent, leading to murders and the desacration, destruction and seizure of church property.
Anti-clericalism in one form or another has existed through most of Christian history, and is considered to be one of the major popular forces underlying the 16th Century reformation. Some of the philosophers of the Enlightenment, including Voltaire, continually attacked the Catholic Church, its leadership and priests claiming moral corruption of many of its clergy. These assaults in part led to the suppression of the Jesuits, and played a major part in the wholesale attacks on the very existence of the Church during the French Revolution in the Reign of Terror and the program of dechristianization. Similar attacks on the Church occurred in Mexico and in Spain in20世纪。
France's Third Republic was cemented by anti-clericalism, the desire to secularise the State and social life, faithful to the French Revolution.
Mexico's Cristero War of 1926-1929 stemmed from Plutarco Elías Calles's denial of priests rights and martyred many Saints of the Cristero War. Events relating to this were famously portrayed in the novel The Power and the Glory by Graham Greene. The persecution of Catholics was most severe in the state of Tabasco under the Governor Tomás Garrido Canabal. Under the rule of Garrido many priests were killed, all Churches in the state were closed and priests were forced to marry or flee at risk of their lives.
François and Jean-Claude Duvalier's family dictatorship of Haiti wanted to weaken or control the Roman Catholic Church by bringing Vodou "openly into the political process", according to Michel S. LaGuerre in Voodoo and Politics in Haiti.
Anti-clericalism in Spain at the start of the Spanish Civil War resulted in the killing of almost 7,000 clergy, the destruction of hundreds of churches and the persecution of lay people in Spain's Red Terror.
Catholicism in Poland, the religion of the vast majority of the population, was persecuted under the Communist regime from the 1950s. Current Stalinist ideology claimed the Church and religion in general was about to disintegrate. To begin with Archbishop Wyszyński entered into an agreement with the Communist authorities, which was signed on 14 February 1950 by the Polish episcopate and the government. The Agreement regulated the matters of the Church in Poland. However in May of that year, the Sejm breached the Agreement by passing a law for the confiscation of Church property.
On 12 January 1953, Wyszyński was elevated to the rank of cardinal by Pius XII as another wave of persecution began in Poland. When the bishops voiced their opposition to state interference in ecclesiastical appointments, mass trials and the internment of priests began - the cardinal being among the number of its victims. On 25 September 1953 he was imprisoned at Grudziądz, and later placed under house arrest in monasteries in Prudnik near Opole and in Komańcza in the Bieszczady Mountains. He was not released until 26 October 1956.
Anti-Catholic stereotypes are a long-standing feature of Anglo-Saxon literary, sub-literary and even pornographic traditions. Gothic fiction is particularly rich in this regard with the figure of the lustful priest, the cruel abbess, the immured nun and the sadistic inquisitor appearing in such works as The Italian by Anne Radcliffe, The Monk by Matthew Lewis, Melmoth the Wanderer by Charles Maturin and "The Pit and the Pendulum" by Edgar Allan Poe. 
Such gothic fiction may have inspired Rebecca Reed's Six Months in a Convent which describes her alleged captivity by an Ursuline order near Boston in 1832  Her claims inspired an angry mob to burn down the convent, and her narrative, released three years later as the rioters were tried, famously sold 200,000 copies in one month. In another bestselling fraudulent exposé, Awful Disclosures of the Hotel-Dieu Nunnery, Maria Monk claimed that the convent served as a harem for Roman Catholic priests, and that any resulting children were murdered after baptism. Col. William Stone, a New York city newspaper editor, along with a team of Protestant investigators, made inquiry into the claims of Monk, inspecting the convent in the process. Col. Stone's investigation concluded there was no evidence that Maria Monk "had ever been within the walls of the cloister".
Reed's book became a best-seller, and Monk or her handlers hoped to cash in on the evident market for anti-Catholic horror fiction by their offering. The tale of Maria Monk was, in fact, clearly modelled on the gothic novels that were popular in the early 19th century, a literary genre that had already been used for anti-Catholic sentiments in works such as Matthew Lewis' The Monk. Monk's story explores the genre-defining elements of a young, innocent woman being trapped in a remote, old, and gloomily picturesque estate; she learns the dark secrets the place contains, and after harrowing adventures makes her escape.  
In a chapter of Fyodor Dostoevsky's The Brothers Karamazov called The Grand Inquisitor, the Church convicts a resurrected Jesus Christ of heresy and is portrayed as a servant of Satan. (Interestingly the book is said to be well-liked by Pope Benedict XVI, former head of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, a successor office to the Supreme Sacred Congregation of the Roman and Universal Inquisition.)[來源請求] In Notes from Underground the main character thinks about making the world a better place by eliminating or overthrowing the Pope.
Dan Brown's best-selling novel The Da Vinci Code depicts the Roman Catholic Church as determined to hide the truth about Jesus Christ. An article in an April 2004 issue of National Catholic Register maintains that the "The Da Vinci Code claims that Catholicism is a big, bloody, woman-hating lie created out of pagan cloth by the manipulative Emperor of Rome". An earlier book by Brown Angels and Demons, depicts the Church as involved in an elemental battle with Freemasonry.
As well as standard Protestant polemics which likened Catholicism to the Anti-Christ and the Whore of Babylon other themes of modern anti-Catholic controversialists included accusations of paganism, idolatry and conspiracy theories which accuse the church of seeking world domination.
Standard Protestant polemics are represented by such writers as American evangelical author John Dowling, in his best-selling[來源請求] The History of Romanism. In this work he accused the Roman Catholic church of being 'the bitterest foe of all true churches of Christ--that she possesses no claim to be called a Christian church--but, with the long line of corrupt and wicked men who have worn her triple crown, that she is ANTI-CHRIST' (John Dowling, The History of Romanism 2nd edition, 1852, pp. 646-47). Template:TranF
背弃天主教的神父Charles Chiniquy著有50 Years In The Church of Rome和The Priest, the Woman and the Confessional（1885），也将罗马天主教描绘成异教。
Avro Manhattan's books, The Vatican's Holocaust (1986), The Vatican Billions (1983) and Vatican Moscow Alliance (1982) advance the view that the Church engineers wars for world domination.
Hislop's and Chiniquy's nineteenth century polemics and Avro Manhattan's work form part of the basis of a series of tracts by noted modern anti-Catholic and comic book evangelist Jack Chick who also accuses the papacy of supporting Communism, of using the Jesuits to incite revolutions, and of masterminding the Holocaust. According to Chick, the Catholic Church is the "Whore of Babylon" referred to in the Book of Revelation, and will bring about a Satanic New World Order before it is destroyed by Jesus Christ. Chick claims that the Catholic church infiltrates and attempts to destroy or corrupt all other religions and churches, and that it uses various means including seduction, framing, and murder to silence its critics. Drawing on the ideas of Alberto Rivera, Chick also claims that the Catholic Church helped to mould Islam as a tool to lure people away from Christianity in what he calls the Vatican Islam Conspiracy.
Richard Dawkins in his latest best-selling book The God Delusion (2006) asserts that a Catholic upbringing promotes guilt-trips referring (on page 167) to the "semi-permanent state of morbid guilt suffered by a Roman Catholic possessed of normal human frailty and less than normal intelligence" . Discussing the consequences of clerical sexual abuse in Ireland, he further suggests that "horrible as sexual abuse no doubt was, the damage was arguably less than the long-term psychological damage inflicted by bringing the child up Catholic in the first place" (p317).
The Catholic church has been a target for satire and humor, from the time of the Reformation to the present day. Such satire and humor ranges from mild burlesque to vicious attacks. Catholic clergy and lay organizations such as the Catholic League monitor for particularly offensive and derogatory incidences and voice their objections and protests.
Philip Jenkins, an 圣公会 historian, in The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (Oxford University Press 2005 ISBN 0-19-515480-0) maintains that some people who otherwise avoid offending members of racial, religious, ethnic or gender groups have no reservations about venting their hatred of Catholics. Earlier in the twentieth century, Harvard professor Arthur M. Schlesinger, Sr. characterized prejudice against the Catholics as "the deepest bias in the history of the American people" and Yale professor Peter Viereck once commented that "Catholic baiting is the anti-Semitism of the liberals." 
On a 巴西 holiday for Our Lady of Aparecida, in an episode known as the "Kicking of the Saint", a bishop of the Pentecostal Universal Church of the Kingdom of God repeatedly beat a statue of said patron saint. 884K QuickTime Movie
One group that has energetically brought the question of 反天主教 to the fore is the Catholic League for Religious and Civil Rights, an organization founded in 1975 by Virgil Blum, S J. Under the leadership of William Donohue, the Catholic League has organized protests over such entertainment offerings as Nothing Sacred, Priest, Dogma and Corpus Christi. In October 1999 they purchased a full-page advertisement in 纽约时报 denouncing Vanity Fair magazine for its alleged anti-Catholic slant. The Last Acceptable Prejudice  Donohue, in 2004,宣称“好莱坞被仇恨基督教、特别是仇恨天主教的犹太人长期控制。[...]好莱坞 likes anal sex.”
2006年10月，明尼苏达州的天主教上层领袖 took a rare step in collectively calling on 明尼苏达大学校长 Robert Bruininks to reconsider the university's plan to stage a controversial play that they viewed as anti-Catholic. "The Pope and the Witch", a satire depicting the pope as a paranoid, drug-addled idiot and the Vatican as corrupt, drew the ire this fall of a national Catholic group and some local bloggers. Archbishop Harry Flynn of the Archdiocese of St. Paul and Minneapolis, along with bishops from Crookston to Winona, wrote to Bruininks calling the play offensive to the state's 1.6 million Catholics. They urged Bruininks to rethink the staging of the play in March 2007.Dennis McGrath,圣保罗和明尼阿波利斯总教区的发言人，说他 couldn't recall a time when the state's bishops had made such a combined request. The University has indicated that it has no plans to stop the play from being performed. 
以色列的反天主教起源于1948年这个犹太人国家成立之时。当时有几个天主教徒占多数的村庄，例如Kafr Bir'im 和Iqrit ，都被以色列国防军用强制手段减少人口。1948年以后，天主教神父被驱逐出这个国家，许多教堂被占用、关闭或强迫出售。最近以色列拒绝
- ^ 1701 Act of Settlement
- ^ 英重大變革 王位繼承男女平等. 中央社. 2011年10月28日.
- ^ Scotland On Sunday: Nov. 2006: "Football rivalry boosts religious orders"
- ^ The Times Newspaper May 2006:A new link has been made between the Old Kirk and Scotland's Catholics...Scotland the heartland of the UK's Catholics.
- ^ Foster, J. R.; Jean Marie Mayeur, Madeleine Rebérioux. The Third Republic from Its Origins to the Great War, 1871-1914. Cambridge University Press. 1 February 1988: p. 84. ISBN 0-521-35857-4.
- ^ Patrick R O'Malley (2006) Catholicism, sexual deviance, and Victorian Gothic culture. Cambridge University Press
- ^ Franchot, Jenny. Two Escaped Nuns: Rebecca Reed and Maria Monk//Roads to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism. Berkeley, California (USA): The University of California Press. 1994. ISBN 0-520-07818-7.
- ^ Mannard, Joseph G. American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature. 1981. （原始内容存档于2002-10-21）.
- ^ Franchot, Jenny (1994). "Two Escaped Nuns: Rebecca Reed and Maria Monk", Roads to Rome: The Antebellum Protestant Encounter with Catholicism. Berkeley, California (USA): The University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07818-7
- ^ Mannard, Joseph G. American Anti-Catholicism and its Literature. 1981. （原始内容存档于2002-10-21）.
- ^ "No You Don't, Mr. Pope!": A Brief History of Anti-Catholicism in America, A Three Part Series Offered by the Saint Francis University's Catholic Studies at a Distance Program Delivered by Arthur Remillard, Assistant Professor of Religious Studies. Saint Francis University CERMUSA website, retrieved May 2007
- ^ Herberg, Will. "Religion in a Secularized Society: Some Aspects of America's Three-Religion Pluralism", Review of Religious Research, vol. 4 no. 1, Autumn, 1962, p. 37
- ^ Khalidi, Walid. "All that Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948.". IPS. 1992. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- ^ Gruber, Ruth. 以色列反对梵蒂冈选择巴勒斯坦总主教. The Jewish News Weekly. 1998-08-14.
- ^ 梵蒂冈谴责以色列Over Comments On 巴勒斯坦主教. Catholic World News. 1998-08-07.
- ^ Solheim, James. "Christian Leaders from Jerusalem Blocked From Attending Interfaith Meeting in London". Episcopal News Service. 2002-10-23.
- Anbinder; Tyler Nativism and Slavery: The Northern Know Nothings and the Politics of the 1850s 1992
- Bennett; David H. The Party of Fear: From Nativist Movements to the New Right in American History University of North Carolina Press, 1988
- Billingon, Ray. The Protestant Crusade, 1830-1860 (1938)
- Blanshard; Paul.American Freedom and Catholic Power Beacon Press, 1949
- Thomas M. Brown, "The Image of the Beast: Anti-Papal Rhetoric in Colonial America", in Richard O. Curry and Thomas M. Brown, eds., Conspiracy: The Fear of Subversion in American History (1972), 1-20.
- Steve Bruce, No Pope of Rome: Anti-Catholicism in Modern Scotland (Edinburgh, 1985).
- Elias Chacour: "Blood Brothers. A Palestinian Struggles for Reconciliation in the Middle East" ISBN 0-8007-9321-8 with Hazard, David, and Baker III, James A., Secretary (Foreword by) 2nd Expanded ed. 2003. (Archbishop of Galilee, born in Kafr Bir'im, the book covers his childhood growing up in the town. (The first six chapters of Blood Brothers can be downloaded here (the Nov 08, 2005 link).
- Robin Clifton, "Popular Fear of Catholics during the English Revolution", Past and Present, 52 ( 1971), 23-55.
- Cogliano; Francis D. No King, No Popery: Anti-Catholicism in Revolutionary New England Greenwood Press, 1995
- David Brion Davis, "Some Themes of Counter-subversion: An Analysis of Anti-Masonic, Anti-Catholic and Anti-Mormon Literature", Mississippi Valley Historical Review, 47 (1960), 205-224.
- Andrew M. Greeley, An Ugly Little Secret: Anti-Catholicism in North America 1977.
- Henry, David. "Senator John F. Kennedy Encounters the Religious Question: I Am Not the Catholic Candidate for President." Contemporary American Public Discourse. Ed. H. R. Ryan. Prospect Heights, IL: Waveland Press, Inc., 1992. 177-193.
- Higham; John. Strangers in the Land: Patterns of American Nativism, 1860-1925 1955
- Hinckley, Ted C. "American Anti-catholicism During the Mexican War" Pacific Historical Review 1962 31(2): 121-137. ISSN 0030-8684
- Hostetler; Michael J. "Gov. Al Smith Confronts the Catholic Question: The Rhetorical Legacy of the 1928 Campaign" Communication Quarterly. Volume: 46. Issue: 1. 1998. Page Number: 12+.
- Philip Jenkins, The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (Oxford University Press, New ed. 2004). ISBN 0-19-517604-9
- Jensen, Richard. The Winning of the Midwest: Social and Political Conflict, 1888-1896 (1971)
- Jensen, Richard. "'No Irish Need Apply': A Myth of Victimization," Journal of Social History 36.2 (2002) 405-429, with illustrations
- Karl Keating, Catholicism and Fundamentalism — The Attack on "Romanism" by "Bible Christians" (Ignatius Press, 1988). ISBN 0-89870-177-5
- Kenny; Stephen. "Prejudice That Rarely Utters Its Name: A Historiographical and Historical Reflection upon North American Anti-Catholicism." American Review of Canadian Studies. Volume: 32. Issue: 4. 2002. pp : 639+.
- Khalidi, Walid. "All that Remains: The Palestinian Villages Occupied and Depopulated by Israel in 1948." 1992. ISBN 0-88728-224-5.
- McGreevy, John T. "Thinking on One's Own: Catholicism in the American Intellectual Imagination, 1928-1960." The Journal of American History, 84 (1997): 97-131.
- J.R. Miller, "Anti-Catholic Thought in Victorian Canada" in Canadian Historical Review 65, no.4. (December 1985), p. 474+
- Moore; Edmund A. A Catholic Runs for President 1956.
- Moore; Leonard J. Citizen Klansmen: The Ku Klux Klan in Indiana, 1921-1928 University of North Carolina Press, 1991
- E. R. Norman, Anti-Catholicism in Victorian England (1968).
- D. G. Paz, "Popular Anti-Catholicism in England, 1850-1851", Albion 11 (1979), 331-359.
- Thiemann, Ronald F. Religion in Public Life Georgetown University Press, 1996.
- Carol Z. Wiener, "The Beleaguered Isle. A Study of Elizabethan and Early Jacobean Anti-Catholicism", Past and Present, 51 (1971), 27-62.
- Wills, Garry. Under God 1990.
- White, Theodore H. The Making of the President 1960 1961.