反应装甲

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在以色列已经披着反应装甲的M60A1主戰坦克.
俄製T-72的反应装甲

反应装甲英语Reactive armour)是一种主要通过爆炸来破坏射中炮弹以降低其攻击力的装备。

历史[编辑]

T-72主战坦克的反应装甲"DYNA".

反应装甲的设想最早由苏联人提出,但是反应装甲首次运用于实战则是1982年中东战争中的以色列。

二战后的反坦克炮弹和RPG之类反坦克武器大量用了成型装药技术,当射流擊中反應装甲時,反應裝甲會即時爆炸,藉由爆炸的反作用能量來反彈來襲之砲彈,進而保护坦克。此类反应装甲被称为爆炸式反应装甲(ERA),但也有一种反应装甲是非爆炸式的(NERA),此种装甲的设计是两层金属内有一个夹层由橡胶之类制作,当射流遇到内夹层时它会膨起从而使射流失效。有观点认为中国99式坦克的一种改型用的楔型装甲块就是此种构造。 [1]

目前世界上知名的反应装甲有俄国的接触系列,90年代美军测试中披挂接触-5装甲的T-72BM挡住了M829(基本型)的攻击,是目前唯一可信的美军弹药对俄国反应装甲测试。[2]

缺陷[编辑]

爆炸反应装甲因其原理,会产生装甲碎片向坦克周围飞散,对伴随坦克作战的步兵威胁较大,而非爆炸式的反应装甲则防御力不如爆炸反应装甲。

外部连接[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Protection Systems For Future Armoured Vehicles Protection Systems For Future Armoured Vehicles. [2008-08-10]. 
  2. ^ Jane's International Defence Review 7/1997, стр. 15: "IMPENETRABLE RUSSIAN TANK ARMOUR STANDS UP TO EXAMINATION "Claims that the armour of Russian tanks is effectively impenetrable, made on the basis of test carried out in Germany (see IDR 7/1996, p.15), have been supported by comments made following tests in the US. "Speaking at a conference on Future Armoured Warfare in London in May, IDR's Pentagon correspondent Leland Ness explained that US tests involved firing trials of Russian-built T-72 tanks fitted with Kontakt-5 explosive reactive armour (ERA). In contrast to the original, or 'light', type of ERA which is effective only against shaped charge jets, the 'heavy' Kontakt-5 ERA is also effective against the long-rod penetrators of APFSDS tank gun projectiles. "When fitted to T-72 tanks, the 'heavy' ERA made them immune to the DU penetrators of M829 APFSDS, fired by the 120 mm guns of the US M1 Abrams tanks, which are among the most formidable of current tank gun projectiles.