古代近東

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
古代近東概览

古代近東古近東英文ancient Near East)是早期文明的發源地,即今中東一帶:美索不達米亞(今伊拉克土耳其東南部及敘利亞東北部)、古埃及(縱然埃及大部分地理上屬於非洲東北部)、古伊朗埃蘭米底帕提亞古波斯)、安那托利亞小亞細亞(今土耳其及亞美尼亞)、 黎凡特 (今敘利亞、黎巴嫩以色列巴勒斯坦國約旦)、馬爾他阿拉伯半島

古代近東見於近東考古學古代史的研究。古代近東始於前4千年蘇美爾文明的興起,至於何時終結,眾說紛紜:有指歷經銅器時代鐵器時代;亦有指直至前6世紀阿契美尼德王朝前4世紀亞歷山大大帝的征服為止。

古代近東被視為文明的發源地。該地域最早實行全年集約農業;向世界最傳播最早的書寫系統;先後發明陶輪車輪水車輪;建立最早的中央集權政府法典帝國;推行社會階級奴隸制;發動戰爭;以及為天文學數學等領域奠基。

外部連結[编辑]

  • The History of the Ancient Near East — A database of the prehistoric Near East as well as its ancient history up to approximately the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans ...
  • Vicino Oriente — Vicino Oriente is the journal of the Section Near East of the Department of Historical, Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences of Antiquity of Rome ‘La Sapienza’ University. The Journal, which is published yearly, deals with Near Eastern History, Archaeology, Epigraphy, extending its view also on the whole Mediterranean with the study of Phoenician and Punic documents. It is accompanied by ‘Quaderni di Vicino Oriente’, a monograph series.
  • Ancient Near East.net — an information and content portal for the archaeology, ancient history, and culture of the ancient Near East and Egypt
  • Freer Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution The Freer Gallery houses a famous collection of ancient Near Eastern artefacts and records, notebooks and photographs of excavations in Samarra (Iraq), Persepolis and Pasargadae (Iran)
  • The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery Archives The archives for The Freer Gallery of Art and Arthur M. Sackler Gallery houses the papers of Ernst Herzfeld regarding his many excavations, along with records of other archeological excavations in the ancient Near East.
  • Ancient Near East.org—a database of the prehistoric Near East as well as its ancient history up to approximately the destruction of Jerusalem by the Romans
  • Archaeowiki.org—a wiki for the research and documentation of the ancient Near East and Egypt
  • ETANA — website hosted by a consortium of universities in the interests of providing digitized resources and relevant web links
  • Resources on Biblical Archaeology
  • Ancient Near East Photographs This collection, created by Professor Scott Noegel, documents artifacts and archaeological sites of the ancient Near East; from the University of Washington Libraries Digital Image Collection
  • Near East Images A directory of archaeological images of the ancient Near East
  • Bioarchaeology of the Near East An Open Access journal