The following peoples are believed to have spoken languages that were not Indo-European, although most on scanty evidence. Some of them were pre-Indo-Europeans, and some not. For some has been also proposed the definition of Peri-Indo-European.
- 伊利米人 Elymians
- 施尔登人 Sherden (proto-Sardinians)
- Balares (Balari)
- 西坎人 Sicani