哥特战争

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哥特戰爭
Erster und Zweiter Gotenkrieg.png
日期: 535–554
地点: 意大利、達爾馬提亞
結果: 拜占庭帝國勝利
領土變更: 西西里島意大利本土達爾馬提亞被拜占庭併吞,
參戰方
拜占庭帝國 東哥特人法蘭克人
指揮官和领导者
貝利薩留
蒙杜斯
約翰
納爾塞斯
貝薩
格曼努斯
利比里奧
狄奧達哈德
維提吉斯
伊爾迪巴德
托蒂拉
特亞

哥特戰爭歌德戰爭意大利语Guerra gotica拉丁语Bellum Gothicum英语Gothic War)發生在公元535到554年,是拜占庭帝國(東羅馬帝國)和東哥特王國於意大利達爾馬提亞薩丁島西西里島科西嘉島發生的戰爭。

這場戰爭分為兩個階段。第一階段(535年-540年)東羅馬帝國的貝利薩留進攻並佔領了意大利。第二階段(540/541年–553年)東哥特軍在托提拉率領下東山再起,經過長期的戰爭後,最後被納爾塞斯平定。納爾塞斯在554年擊退了法蘭克人和阿拉曼人的入侵。同年,查士丁尼頒布《國事詔書》(Pragmatic sanction),指定意大利的新政府。許多城市在意大利北部繼續抵抗,直到560年代初。

戰爭起因於東羅馬帝國皇帝查士丁尼欲收回昔日西羅馬帝國領土的雄心,自上個世紀的歐洲民族大遷徙後這些領土就落入蠻族的手中。戰爭的蹂躪後,意大利的人口大幅減少。結果拜占庭雖為這場戰爭的勝利者,卻沒有能力抵抗倫巴第人在568年的入侵,並因此失去了意大利大部分的土地。

背景[编辑]

東哥特王國[编辑]

526年的歐洲。(意大利文)
  東羅馬王國
  法蘭克王國
  勃艮第王國
  東哥特王國
  西哥特王國
  汪達爾王國

476年西羅馬帝國滅亡[注 1],奧多亞塞(Odoacer)廢黜皇帝羅慕路斯·奧古斯都並宣布自己為意大利王(rex Italiae)。由於奧多亞塞地位尚未穩固,所以他向東羅馬皇帝芝諾請求patricius(一為純粹的榮譽職位,又可解釋為宰相或代理官,奧多亞塞要求的為後者。),然而芝諾也才剛在476年從國內政爭中復辟,正值政治敏感期,所以並沒有同意。奧多亞塞之後宣布自己為意大利王(rex Italiae)。

另一方面,狄奧多里克是東歌德的族長,且與東羅馬帝國有著同盟部族[注 2] 的協定。因為幫助芝諾復辟有功,芝諾皇帝甚至賜予其"patricius"的稱號。不過一山不容二虎,隨著狄奧多里克的領地逐漸擴張,芝諾也漸漸感到不安。因此,當狄奧多里克提議進軍意大利攻打奧多亞塞時,芝諾立刻答應。

493年,狄奧多里克擊敗奧多亞塞。497年的協議確立東哥特王國的地位與意大利的歸屬。意大利仍屬於東羅馬帝國的領土,然而實質上處於近乎獨立的狀態。為了避免與東羅馬產生衝突,協議裡的限制狄奧多里克也嚴格遵守。例如:除非東羅馬皇帝同意否則不行使造幣權。使用羅馬帝國的法律,但自己發布"宣言"(edicta),高級官員亦可發布"詔書"(edictum)作為權宜。(僅僅是名稱上的不同,意義上與法律無異。)[2]狄奧多里克維持奧多亞塞的統治方式。意大利執政官仍存在,當普羅旺斯被拿下後,高盧執政官的職位也被重新起用。許多基層官職仍繼續由羅馬人擔任。不過狄奧多里克並沒有試圖打破哥特人和羅馬人的隔閡。信仰方面:羅馬人信仰迦克墩基督教, 哥特人信仰阿里烏教派。然而不像汪達爾人或早期西哥特人,此時擁有相當的宗教寬容。[3]

隨著一世登基以及阿凱西烏分裂(Acacian schism ,484–519年東西基督教會的一次分裂)的結束,意大利元老院的一些貴族成員開始和君士坦丁堡維持密切的關係以制衡哥特人。magister officiorum波艾提烏斯和其繼父在524的罷免與處決就是其中一個徵兆。

狄奧多里克於526年8月30日逝世,並由其外孫阿塔拉里克(Athalaric)繼位。由於他還是嬰兒,政權由他的母親阿瑪拉遜莎(Amalasuntha)攝政。 阿瑪拉遜莎深受古羅馬文化的影響,在對兒子的教育或個人感情上,均偏重東羅馬而非哥特[4]。這些行為讓哥特人很不悅,開始謀劃要對抗她。阿瑪拉遜莎意識到這些威脅,所以她將三個她認為最危險的謀反者以軍事為由送往北方的邊界,然而阿瑪拉遜莎發現他們(三個謀反者)仍繼續參與謀反。阿瑪拉遜莎因此做了一個冒險的決定,她寫信向新登基的查士丁尼一世尋求庇護,以期在必要時能逃離意大利。東羅馬同意了她的要求,甚至準備了旅程途中的招待所(此時東羅馬可能還不了解意大利的情勢)。阿瑪拉遜莎接著派出刺客刺殺上述提到的三個謀反者。最後刺殺行動成功完成,阿瑪拉遜莎繼續留在拉文納。[5] 534年,阿瑪拉遜莎的兒子死亡,她選擇了她的表弟狄奧達哈德(Theodahad)繼承王位。然而狄奧達哈德之後囚禁了她。查士丁尼得知這個消息後表態支持被囚的阿瑪拉遜莎,然而阿瑪拉遜莎仍在535年年初被謀殺。(據稱是在浴缸中被勒死。)[注 3]這成了東羅馬與東哥特開戰的理由或藉口。[7]

查士丁尼的準備[编辑]

533年,趁著汪達爾王朝內部的不和,查士丁尼派遣他最具才幹的大將貝利薩留前往收復北非的行省。這場汪達爾戰爭出乎意料的迅速且順利,也很可能提升了查士丁尼收復其他西方行省的決心。

貝利薩留被任命為總司令(stratēgos autokratōr)率領7,500名士兵攻打意大利。蒙杜斯被命為伊利里亞的軍司令官(magister militum per Illyricum)前去佔領哥特的行省達爾馬提亞。需提及的是貝利薩留,他所帶領的軍隊比在北非對抗汪爾達時少的多,而且還須面對實力更強的東哥特人。此外,查士丁尼暗中與法蘭克進行交涉,贈與黃金以換取其中立。[8]

貝利薩留征服哥特, 535–540[编辑]

西西里島與達爾馬提亞的淪陷[编辑]

貝利薩留第一次征服意大利的過程。

535年,基於戰略因素,貝利薩留進攻西西里島作為進攻意大利的後勤基地。因為東歌德族幾乎沒有派遣守軍,佔領很快就完成,唯一在巴勒摩發生的反抗也在12月底結束。因為達爾馬提亞的守備也很薄弱,在大約8、9月被蒙杜斯佔領。[9]

西西里島與達爾馬提亞淪陷後,狄奧達哈德變得有意願談判,他交給外交使節彼得一封和談的信,內容包括放棄西西里島並且有條件的投降。[注 4] 然而,彼得才到Albano就被召回。害怕查士丁尼拒絕第一封信裡的條款,所以狄奧達哈德交給彼得第二封信,信裡同意將意大利移交給東羅馬,條件是意大利每年1,200磅的黃金稅收。不過狄奧達哈德要求彼得發誓如果查士丁尼拒絕第一封信裡的條款,彼得才能交出第二封信。

查士丁尼拒絕第一封信並同意了第二封信。然而當彼得從君士坦丁回到羅馬,情勢已經改觀。 [12][13]

在達爾馬提亞的索林(Salona),一支頗具規模的哥特軍隊前來收復,蒙杜斯的兒子因此在一場戰鬥中死亡。極為憤怒的蒙杜斯帶領軍隊攻擊並擊潰了哥特軍。然而,他在追擊戰裡受了致命傷,因為沒有人能勝任他的職位,羅馬軍隊撤退。不過哥特軍一開始也沒有進佔,因為他們也損失了指揮官,而且當地的羅馬居民亦不歡迎他們。[14]

這一連串事件發生在536年3月,狄奧達哈德得知這次勝利後,回絕並囚禁了查士丁尼的使節團。現在和平接收是不可能的了,查士丁尼派遣Constantianus去收復達爾馬提亞,並命令貝利薩留渡海進攻意大利。當Constantianus在Epidamnus準備軍隊的同時,哥特將軍Gripas進入索林。Constantianus之後領軍前往埃皮達魯斯(Epidaurus),Gripas因為防禦工事太過殘破而且不受當地居民歡迎,哥特將軍Gripas放棄剛到手的索林並且往北方撤退。Constantinianus佔領索林,然後重建了它的城牆。七日後,哥特軍撤出意大利。6月末,達爾馬提亞再次回歸羅馬帝國掌控。[15]

一段彼得被召回時與狄奧達哈德發生的對話:

"如果查士丁尼不滿意我提出的條件,接著會發生什麼事?"國王問。"你可能將面臨戰爭。"彼得說。"這樣公平嗎,我親愛的大使?""為什麼不?"彼得回應"這很公平,因為每個人都要誠實扮演自己的角色。""你的意思是?""你的興趣在哲學,"彼得說"然而查士丁尼是一個優秀的羅馬皇帝。兩者的不同是,哲學家不會造成他人的死亡,何況是大量的死傷,這特別是對一個避免染血的柏拉圖信徒而言。然而對於一個皇帝來說,試圖收復自己舊有的領土是很正常的。"[16]

歷史學家普羅科匹厄斯所記錄

維提吉斯的登基,首次羅馬圍城[编辑]

536年春末,貝利薩留橫渡墨西拿海峽進入意大利,俘虜國王維提吉斯。

The Roman army sacked Naples after a costly siege in November, and finally entered Rome unopposed in December. The rapidity of Belisarius' advance had taken the Goths by surprise, and the inactivity of Theodahad enraged them. After the fall of Naples he was deposed, and a new king selected. Vitiges left Rome and headed for Ravenna, where he married Amalasuntha's daughter Matasuntha and began rallying his forces against the invasion. Vitiges led a large force against Rome, where Belisarius, who did not have enough troops to face the Goths in the open field, had remained. This siege of Rome, the first of three in the Gothic War, lasted for a year, from March 537 to March 538. It featured several sallies and minor engagements, as well as several large-scale actions, but after reinforcements from Constantinople arrived in April 537 (1,600 Slavs and Huns)[17] and November 537 (5,000 men),[17] the defending Byzantines took the offensive. The Byzantine cavalry took several towns in the Goths' rear, which worsened their already-bad supply situation[18] and threatened Gothic civilians. Finally, the fall of Ariminum (modern Rimini), barely a day's march from Ravenna, to a Roman cavalry force, forced Vitiges to abandon the siege and withdraw.[19]

里米尼圍城,納爾塞斯抵達[编辑]

As Vitiges marched to the northeast, he strengthened the garrisons of various towns and forts along his way, in order to secure his rear, and then turned towards Ariminum. The Roman force of 2,000 horsemen[20] occupying it comprised some of Belisarius' finest cavalry, and Belisarius decided to replace them with an infantry garrison, so as to have them available at his side. However, their commander, John, refused to obey the orders of his commander, and remained at Ariminum.[21] The error of this was made plain when, shortly after, the Goths arrived. Although an initial assault failed, they proceeded to subject the city, which had few supplies, to a siege. At the same time, another Gothic army marched against Ancona. Although they routed the Roman forces in open battle, they ultimately failed to take the city's fortifications. At that time, new forces, 2,000 Herul foederati, under the Armenian eunuch Narses, arrived at Picenum.[22] Belisarius went to meet Narses, and when the two generals met in council, they disagreed on the course to be followed, with Narses supporting a direct relief expedition to Ariminum and Belisarius favouring a more cautious approach, but the arrival of a letter from John, which illustrated the immediate prospect of the city's fall, resolved the issue in favour of the former.[23] Belisarius divided his army in three parts, a seaborne force under his capable and trusted lieutenant Ildiger, another under the equally experienced Martin which was to arrive from the south, and the main force under himself and Narses, which was to arrive from the northwest. However, Vitiges learned of their coming, and, facing the prospect of being surrounded by superior forces, the Goths hurriedly withdrew to Ravenna.[24]

貝利薩留與納爾塞斯的不和[编辑]

The bloodless victory at Ariminum strengthened Narses' position vis-a-vis Belisarius, with many Roman generals, including John, turning their allegiance to him. In the council after the relief of Ariminum, the dissension came to the fore. While Belisarius was in favour of reducing the strong Gothic garrison of Auximum (modern Osimo) in their rear and relieving the siege of Mediolanum (see below), Narses favoured a less concentrated effort, including a campaign in Aemilia.[25] Belisarius, to his credit, did not allow matters to reach a full breach, and instead marched with Narses and John against Urbinum. The two armies encamped separately, and shortly afterwards, Narses, convinced that the town was unassailable and well supplied, broke camp and departed for Ariminum. From there he sent John to Aemilia, which was quickly subdued. Nevertheless, aided by the fortunate drying up of Urbinum's only water spring, the town fell to Belisarius soon after.[26] At any rate, the Roman army in Italy now followed two different commanders, and the results of this disunity were to become tragically clear in the failure to relieve Mediolanum.

Siege and sack of Mediolanum[编辑]

In April 538, Belisarius, petitioned by representatives from Mediolanum (Milan), then the second most populous and wealthy city in Italy after Rome, had sent a force of 1,000 men, under Mundilas, to the city. This force succeeded in securing the city and most of Liguria, except Ticinum (Pavia), with ease. However, Vitiges called upon the Franks for help, and a force of 10,000 Burgundians swiftly and unexpectedly crossed the Alps and together with the Goths under Uraias laid siege to the city, which was both ill-provisioned and undergarrisoned, since the already small Roman force had been dispersed as garrisons to the neighbouring cities and forts.[27] A relief force was dispatched by Belisarius, but its commanders, Martin and Uliaris, did not make any effort to help the besieged. Instead, they asked for further reinforcements, by the forces of John and the magister militum per Illyricum Justin, who operated in the nearby province of Aemilia. At this point, the dissensions in the Roman command exacerbated the situation, as John and Justin refused to move without orders from Narses, and even then, John fell ill and the preparations were halted. These delays proved fatal for the besieged city, which, after many months of siege, was reaching the point of starvation. The Goths offered Mundilas a guarantee that the lives of his soldiers would be spared if he surrendered the city, but, since no guarantee was offered for the civilian population, he refused, until, at about the end of March 539, his starving soldiers forced him to accept these terms. The Roman garrison was indeed spared, but the city's inhabitants were subjected to a general massacre, and the city itself was razed.[注 5][28]

Frankish invasion of northern Italy, fall of Auximum and Faesulae[编辑]

In the aftermath of this disaster, Narses was recalled, and Belisarius confirmed as supreme commander with absolute authority for Italy. At the same time, Vitiges sent envoys to the Persian court, hoping to convince Chosroes I to reopen hostilities with the Byzantines. That would force Justinian to concentrate the majority of his forces, including Belisarius, in the East, and allow the Goths to recover. The war would indeed come, but too late for Vitiges.[29] Belisarius, for his part, resolved to conclude the war by taking Ravenna. Prior to this, he had to deal with the two Gothic strongholds of Auximum and Faesulae (Fiesole).[30] While Martin and John hindered the Gothic army under Uraias to cross the River Po, a part of the army under Justin besieged Faesulae, and Belisarius himself undertook the siege of Auximum. While the sieges were under way, however, a large Frankish army under king Theudebert I crossed the Alps and came upon the Goths and the Byzantines encamped on the two sides of the Po. The Goths, thinking they had come as allies, were swiftly routed. The equally astonished Byzantines gave battle, were defeated and withdrew southwards into Tuscany. In the event, the Frankish invasion, which could have altered the course of the war, was defeated by an outbreak of dysentery, which caused great losses and forced the Franks to withdraw. Belisarius concentrated on taking the two besieged cities, which was accomplished when both garrisons were forced by starvation to capitulate in October or November 539.[31]

Capture of Ravenna and departure of Belisarius[编辑]

After these successes had eliminated potential threats to his rear, and freshly reinforced with troops from Dalmatia, Belisarius moved against Ravenna. Detachments were sent north of the Po, and the imperial fleet patrolled the Adriatic, cutting the city off from supplies. Inside the besieged Gothic capital, Vitiges received a Frankish embassy looking for an alliance, but after the events of the previous summer, no trust could be placed on the Franks' offers. Soon afterwards, an embassy came from Constantinople, bearing surprisingly lenient terms from Justinian. Anxious to finish the war and concentrate against the looming Persian war, the Emperor offered a partition of Italy: the lands south of the Po would be retained by the Empire, those north of the river by the Goths. The Goths readily accepted the terms, but Belisarius, judging this to be a betrayal of all he had striven to achieve, refused to sign, even though his generals disagreed with him.[32] Disheartened, the Goths resorted to a final plan. They offered to make Belisarius, whom they respected, the western emperor. Belisarius had no intention of accepting the role, but saw how he could use this situation to his advantage, and feigned acceptance. Thus, in May 540, Belisarius and his army entered Ravenna. The city was not looted, while the Goths were treated well and allowed to keep their properties. In the aftermath of Ravenna's surrender, several Gothic garrisons north of the Po surrendered. Others remained in Gothic hands, among which were Ticinum, where Uraias was based, and Verona, held by Ildibad. Soon after, Belisarius sailed for Constantinople, where he was refused the honour of a triumph. Vitiges was named a patrician and sent to a comfortable retirement, while the captive Goths were sent to reinforce the eastern armies.

The reigns of Ildibad and Eraric[编辑]

"If Belisarius had not been recalled, he would probably have completed the conquest of the peninsula within a few months. This, which would have been the best solution, was defeated by the jealousy of Justinian; and the peace proposed by the Emperor, which was the next best course, was defeated by the disobedience of his general. Between them they bear the responsibility of inflicting upon Italy twelve more years of war."
John Bagnell Bury
History of the Later Roman Empire, Vol. II, Ch. XIX

Belisarius' departure left most of Italy in Roman hands, but north of the Po, Ticinum and Verona remained unconquered. Soon after Belisarius' breach of faith towards them became apparent, the Goths, at the suggestion of Uraias, chose Ildibad as their new king. In Belisarius' wake, Justinian neglected to appoint an overall commander-in-chief. While the Roman armies and their commanders neglected their discipline and committed acts of plundering, and the newly established imperial bureaucracy made itself immediately unpopular by its oppressive fiscal demands,[33] Ildibad reestablished control over Venetia and Liguria. Ildibad decisively defeated the Roman general Vitalius at Treviso, but after having Uraias murdered because of a quarrel between their wives, he too was assassinated in May 541 in retribution. At this point, the Rugians, remnants of Odoacer's army who had remained in Italy and sided with the Goths, proclaimed one of their own, Eraric, as the new king. The choice was curiously assented to by the Goths.[34] Eraric however persuaded the Goths to start negotiations with Justinian, but secretly intended to hand over his realm to the Empire. The Goths perceived his inactivity for what it was, and turned to Ildibad's nephew, Totila (or Baduila), and offered to make him king. Ironically, Totila had already opened negotiations with the Byzantines, but when he was contacted by the conspirators, he assented. Thus, in the early autumn of 541, Eraric was murdered and Totila proclaimed king.[35]

哥特人的東山再起, 541–551[编辑]

早期哥特人的成功[编辑]

Totila was favoured in his intention to restore the Gothic realm by three factors: the outbreak of the great plague that devastated and depopulated the Roman Empire in 542, the beginning of a new Roman–Persian War, and the incompetence and disunity of the various Roman generals in Italy, which brought about his first success. After much urging by Justinian, the generals Constantian and Alexander combined their forces and advanced upon Verona. Through treachery they managed to capture a gate in the city walls, but then delayed so much by quarreling over the prospective booty that the Goths were able to recapture the gate, forcing the Byzantines to withdraw. Totila came up upon their camp near Faventia (Faenza), and with 5,000 men destroyed the Roman army.[36] Totila then marched down into Tuscany, where he besieged Florence. Three Roman generals, John, Bessas, and Cyprian marched to its relief, but in a battle at Mucellium, their forces, although numerically superior, were defeated and dispersed.

Expedition in southern Italy and fall of Naples[编辑]

Instead of remaining in central Italy, where his forces were outnumbered and even a single defeat might prove disastrous, Totila decided to march south, where Roman garrisons were few and weak. He bypassed Rome, and very soon, the provinces of southern Italy were forced to recognize his authority. This campaign amply illustrates the crucial points of Totila's strategy: rapid movements to take control of the countryside, leaving the Byzantines in control of isolated strongholds, mostly on the coast, which could be reduced later. When a fortified location fell, its walls were usually razed so that it would no longer be of any military value. Furthermore, Totila followed a conscious policy of treating his captives well, thus enticing them to surrender rather than resist to the end, and actively tried to win over the Italian population to his side. At the same time, his operations led to a serious disruption of the imperial fiscal system in Italy, since the taxes were now flowing into Totila's coffers, and the Roman soldiers' pay suffered accordingly.

This policy is best exemplified by Totila's behaviour during the Siege of Naples, where he allowed the city to surrender on terms and displayed, in the words of J.B. Bury, "considerable humanity" in his treatment of the defenders: he nursed the famished citizens back to strength and then the Byzantine garrison was allowed safe departure.[37]

貝利薩留返回意大利[编辑]

Taking advantage of a five-year truce in the East, Belisarius was sent back to Italy with 200 ships[38] in 544, where he found that the situation had changed greatly. He failed to prevent the fall of Rome when it was besieged by Totila in 546, although he soon reoccupied it in 547. However, his second Italian campaign proved unsuccessful, thanks in no small part to his being starved of supplies and reinforcements by a jealous Justinian, if we adopt the view of Procopius. Rome was besieged a third time in 549 and captured by Totila, whose offers of peace were rejected by Justinian.

納爾塞斯征服意大利, 551–554[编辑]

A new Italian campaign was organized under Justinian's nephew Germanus Justinus. With the death of Germanus in 551, Narses took on Totila, and at the Battle of Taginae (552) Narses defeated and killed Totila. The Goths holding Rome capitulated, and at the Battle of Mons Lactarius, in October 553, Narses defeated Teias and the last remnants of the Gothic army in Italy.

Though the Ostrogoths were essentially defeated and driven out of Italy for good, Narses soon had to face other barbarians who were invading the Byzantine-occupied borders of northern Italy and southern Gaul. In 554, a massive army of about thirty thousand Franks and Alemanni invaded northern Italy and met the Byzantine army on the banks of the river Volturnus. The Roman legions under Narses formed up the central defenses, while several detachments of Herulian mercenaries controlled the flanks. In the Battle of the Volturnus, the Franks and Alemanni were driven back, suffering heavy losses.

戰後[编辑]

575年,東羅馬帝國(橙)與倫巴第王國(灰)。

拜占庭帝國在哥特戰爭中所獲得的勝利可說是得不償失。帝國因戰爭耗盡了對抗東方威脅所急需的資源。在意大利,戰爭摧毀了支撐城市社會的腹地,羅馬等城市被廢棄,進入了漫長的衰退期。這些不利條件使得貝利薩留無法長保意大利的領土。

君士坦丁死後三年,意大利本土落入日耳曼部落倫巴底的控制。

the mainland Italian territories fell into the hands of a Germanic tribe, the Lombards, leaving the Exarchate of Ravenna, a band of territory that stretched across central Italy to the Tyrrhenian Sea and south to Naples, along with parts of southern Italy, as the only remaining Imperial holdings. Justinian also managed to carve out an Imperial domain in Southern Hispania, but that too would be conquered by Germanic tribes a few decades later. After the Gothic Wars the Empire would entertain no more serious ambitions in the West. Rome itself would remain under imperial control until the Exarchate of Ravenna was finally conquered by the Lombards in 751. Some coastal areas of southern Italy would remain under East Roman influence, direct or indirect, until the late 11th century, while the interior would be ruled by Lombard dukes based at Benevento and later also at Salerno and Capua. In the 11th century both Lombard and Byzantine areas of southern Italy fell into Norman hands.

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ 東、西羅馬帝國是現代的說法,狄奧多西一世將羅馬帝國繼承給他的兩個兒子分治後,東、西羅馬帝國仍使用"羅馬帝國"的國號。
    憲政觀點,朱利葉斯·尼波斯才是西羅馬的繼承者,而羅慕路斯只是個篡位者(或其父親歐瑞斯特的傀儡)。
    綜合以上,沒有一個"西羅馬帝國"可以滅亡;理論上,朱利葉斯·尼波斯在480年的死亡才標示帝國的完結。[1]
  2. ^ 由拉丁文Foederatus直譯而來,是羅馬帝國與蠻族保持的一種同盟關係,羅馬保證在帝國內提供蠻族居住區域,蠻族則與羅馬軍隊共同作戰。由於是僱傭關係,羅馬方面提供酬勞,蠻族依約不侵擾羅馬領土。
  3. ^ 難以得知為何狄奧達哈德允許阿瑪拉遜莎被殺害,查士丁尼的表態已確實由仲介人彼得傳達給他,開戰也非他所希冀的結果。[6]
  4. ^ 詳細內容包括:1.每年贈送東羅馬一個重300磅的黃金皇冠。2.在需要時提供東羅馬3000人的哥特軍。3.未經羅馬帝國的准許,不可將元老院議員及天主教會神職人員殺害或充公其財產。4.不可私自授予貴族或元老院議員的顯位,除非帝國同意。5.在競技場裡的告示不可將狄奧達哈德的名諱置於羅馬帝國皇帝之前。6.狄奧達哈德的雕像必須有羅馬帝國皇帝的雕像在其右側。[10][11]
  5. ^ 普羅科匹厄斯給出300,000名成年男子被殺的數據,但實際不可能這麼多。無論如何,至少有數萬人被殺害,剩下的淪為奴隸,而城市被徹底摧毀。

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ Bury (1923),Vol. I, Ch. XII, p.408
  2. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIII, p.453–455
  3. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIII, p.456-459
  4. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 159
  5. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 160–161
  6. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 165
  7. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 163–165
  8. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 170–171
  9. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 170-171
  10. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, The Author's Notes No. 62
  11. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico VI p. 51
  12. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.VI
  13. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 172–173
  14. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 174
  15. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.VII p. 65-69
  16. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII p. 173
  17. ^ 17.0 17.1 J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 218
  18. ^ According to Procopius (BG II.VII), the imperial navy cut off the Goths from any seaborne supplies.
  19. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 194
  20. ^ J. Norwich, Byzantium: The Early Centuries, 219
  21. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XI
  22. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XIII
  23. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 198
  24. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 198–199
  25. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 200
  26. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 201
  27. ^ Procopius, De Bello Gothico I.XII
  28. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, pp. 203–205
  29. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 205–206
  30. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 207
  31. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 209
  32. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XVIII, p. 211
  33. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIX, p. 227
  34. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIX, p. 228
  35. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIX, p. 229
  36. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIX, p. 230
  37. ^ Bury (1923), Vol. II, Ch. XIX, p. 231–233
  38. ^ J. Norwich, A Short History of Byzantium, 77

來源[编辑]

主要來源[编辑]

次要來源[编辑]

  • 愛德華·吉本, 羅馬帝國衰亡史 Vol. IV, Chapters 41 & 43[1]
  • Hughes, Ian. Belisarius:The Last Roman General. Yardley, PA: Westholme Publishing, LLC. 2009. ISBN 978-1-59416-528-3. 
  • Cumberland Jacobsen, Torsten. The Gothic War. Westholme. 2009. 

外部鍵結[编辑]