哲學、政治學及經濟學

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牛津大学是第一家提供此课程的大学,图为牛津大学贝利奥尔学院

哲學、政治學及經濟學英语Philosophy, Politics and Economics縮寫PPE)是一个受欢迎的跨学科本科研究学位,课程内容由三个学科组成。首家提供PPE学位的高等院校是牛津大学,而这个科目更培养了一大批知名的毕业生,如澳大利亚总理托尼·阿博特[1] 英国首相戴维·卡梅伦英国反对党领袖艾德·米利班德。在1980年代,约克大学根据牛津的模式创立了自己的PPE学位;随后,华威大学曼彻斯特大学以及其他英国大学也争相仿效。根据英國廣播公司讲法,这个学位“支配着英国的大众生活”("dominate[s] public life") [2]目前,世界上许多知名的大学也有提供本课程。

历史[编辑]

PPE学位1920年代创立于牛津大学[3]角色是作为一个西洋古典学的现代替代方案(因为当时人们认为哲学以及古代史课程已经不再适合那些将进入公共服务的学生)。它最初被称为现代经学Modern Greats)。[2][4]克里斯托弗·史特里指出本课程的出现是导致古典主义学习衰落的其中一个原因,因为古典主义者的政治生涯开始被现代经学的学习者取代。[5]

Dario Castiglione and Iain Hampsher-Monk更形容课程是英国政治思想发展的基础,因为它建立了政治与哲学之间的联系。在这之前,在牛津以及剑桥里,政治学往往只被当作现代史的分支般教授[6]

课程内容[编辑]

课程设计扎根于一个观点,就是必须透过几个互补的学术方向和分析框架去认识社会现象。在这方面,哲学的研习十分重要,因为它赋予了学生各种元数据,例如理智逻辑,并能促进道德上的反思。同时,政治学的学习也是必要的,因为它使学生认识管治社会的惯例和帮助解决共同行动的各种问题。最后,学习经济学在现代世界也是至关重要的,因为政治决策关乎经济事务,而政府的决策也往往受各种经济活动的影响。大部分牛津PPE学生会在二年级或三年级时退修其中一个科目。牛津大学目前共有超过600名本科生就读此课程,每年取录超过200人。[7]

学术界的意见[编辑]

牛津PPE毕业生Nick Cohen以及前课程导师Iain McLean认为课程的宽度对它的吸引力来说相当重要,特别是因为英国社会重视通才多于专才("because British society values generalists over specialists")。

一名牛津大学的政治学研究员和高级讲师Geoffrey Evans评论牛津的PPE课程,说它的成功以及高需求是一个国家行政背后的自我延续特色,并指出“总括来说,这显示了阶级系统如何运作。”("all in all, it's how the class system works")。在当前的经济系统中,他慨叹那些不能避免的不公平不断围攻和批评课程的收生水平以及毕业生令人羡慕的就业前景。这个观点作为一个父爱主义道德的反映,显示了政府以及人民们如何去理解社会阶层[2]

提供PPE课程的大学列表[编辑]

英国及爱尔兰[编辑]

美国及加拿大[编辑]

其他英联邦国家[编辑]

欧洲大陆[编辑]

中东及亚洲[编辑]

参见[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

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