哺乳动物听小骨进化

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哺乳动物的听小骨进化过程被认为是生物进化过程中最完备[1] 也是最重要的事件之一。这个进化事件的过程展现了大量的演变过程,并成为预适应和已有结构再作用的最佳范例。

在爬行动物中, 耳鼓与内耳是通过一根骨头(鼻小柱)连接在一起的,爬行动物上下颚之间的多块骨头在哺乳动物中没有发现。在哺乳动物进化的过程中,其中一块上颚骨(方块骨)和一块下颚骨(关节骨)失去了功用,但是被中耳借用来与鐙骨连接,形成了一串三个用来放大声音的听小骨。在哺乳动物中,这三块骨头叫做锤骨、砧骨和鐙骨。

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Allin EF. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear. J. Morphol. 1975-12, 147 (4): 403–437. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051470404. PMID 1202224. 

扩展阅读[编辑]

  • Allin EF, Hopson JA. Chapter 28: Evolution of the Auditory System in Synapsida ("Mammal-Like Reptiles" and Primitive Mammals) as Seen in the Fossil Record. (编) Popper AN, Webster DB, Fay RR. The Evolutionary biology of hearing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 1992: 587–614. ISBN 0-387-97588-8. 
  • Anthwal, Neal; Joshi, Leena; Tucker, Abigail S. Evolution of the mammalian middle ear and jaw: adaptations and novel structures. Journal of Anatomy. 2012, 221 (1): 1–96. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7580.2012.01526.x. 
  • Asher, Robert J. Evolution and belief: confessions of a religious paleontologist. Cambridge & New York: Cambridge University Press. 2012: 93–110, 196–200. ISBN 9780521193832. 
  • Rosowski JJ. Chapter 29: Hearing in Transitional Mammals: Predictions from the Middle-Ear Anatomy and Hearing Capabilities of Extant Mammals. (编) Popper AN, Webster DB, Fay RR. The Evolutionary biology of hearing. Berlin: Springer-Verlag. 1992: 615–632. ISBN 0-387-97588-8. 
  • Gould SJ. Chapter 6: An Earful of Jaw. Eight Little Piggies: reflections in natural history. New York: Norton. 1993. ISBN 0-393-03416-X. 
  • Hopson JA. The mammal-like reptiles: a study of transitional fossils. The American Biology Teacher. 1987-01, 49 (1): 16–26. doi:10.2307/4448410. JSTOR 4448410. 
  • Luo, Zhe-Xi, Kielan-Jaworowska Z, Cifelli RL. Chapter 3: Origin of mammals. Mammals from the age of dinosaurs: origins, evolution, and structure. New York: Columbia University Press. 2004. ISBN 0-231-11918-6. 
  • Luo, Zhe-Xi. Developmental Patterns in Mesozoic Evolution of Mammal Ears. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 2011, 42: 355–380. doi:10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-032511-142302. 
  • Manley GA, Sienknecht UJ. Chapter 2: The Evolution and Development of Middle Ears in Land Vertebrates. (编) Puria S, Fay RR, Popper AN. The Middle Ear: Science, Otosurgery, and Technology. Springer Handbook of Auditory Research. New York: Springer. 2013: 7–30. doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-6591-1_2. ISBN 978-1-4614-6590-4. 
  • Rougier GW, White JR. Chapter 6: Major Changes in the Ear Region and Basicranium of Early Mammals. (编) Carrano MT, Gaudin TJ, Blob RW, Wible JR. Amniote paleobiology: perspectives on the evolution of mammals, birds, and reptiles: a volume honoring James Allen Hopson. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 2006: 269–311. ISBN 0-226-09477-4. 
  • Shubin N. Chapter 10: Ears. Your inner fish: a journey into the 3. 5-billion-year history of the human body. New York: Pantheon Books. 2008. ISBN 0-375-42447-4.