地域大国

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地域大國或稱區域強權,指的是在國際關係中,一個在某個地理區域內擁有較大影響力的國家。[1] [2] 這些國家被認為是控制某個地區安全性的關鍵國家,[3] 它們所掌握的影響力與實力能夠讓它們成為一地區性霸主。

特性[编辑]

地域大國通常在某個地區具有影響力,但是通常情況下,它們的影響力還不足以影響整個世界。關於地域大國的定義目前還有一定的爭議,根據歐洲政治研究協會的定義,“地域大國是某個地理區域內在經濟上、軍事上處於主導地位,擁有控制該地區能力并在世界範圍內具有一定影響力的國家。它們運用自己的實力使自己成為,或強迫該地區其他國家承認自己是該地區的領導人。”[1]

而德國全球和區域研究所(German Institute of Global and Area Studies)則認為地域大國必須具有以下特點:

  1. 與該地區具有地緣性的聯繫;
  2. 符合一個地域大國的形象;
  3. 能夠在該地區實際思想上的影響力;
  4. 在人口、經濟、軍事、政治和意識形態上具有領先地位;
  5. 很高地融入該區域;
  6. 對地區性安全具有較高的掌控力;
  7. 能夠得到該地區其他國家,尤其是其他地域大國的接受和讚揚;
  8. 能夠很好地溝通地域和全球。[2]

一些國家既可以是大國,也可以是地域大國;同樣的,一些國家也可以既是中等強國,又是地域大國。

目前的地域大國[编辑]

以下國家是目前已經被大多數國際關係學和政治學學者、分析師或專家所認可的地域大國。這些國家在一定程度上滿足上述地域大國的標準,但是對於究竟是不是地域大國,不同的學者會有不同的意見。

東亞地區[编辑]

歐洲地區[编辑]

拉丁美洲地區[编辑]

西亞地區[编辑]

北美地區[编辑]

大洋洲地區[编辑]

南亞地區[编辑]

東南亞地區[编辑]

东非[编辑]

北非[编辑]

非洲南部[编辑]

西非[编辑]

參見[编辑]

腳註[编辑]

a 累范特地區的區域大國
b 波斯灣地區的區域大國

參考文獻[编辑]

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