塞爾柱王朝

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塞爾柱王朝
Seljuqs Eagle.svg
國家 大塞爾柱帝國
魯姆蘇丹國
可薩汗國
頭銜
創立 10世紀 - 塞爾柱
解體

大馬士革:
1104 - Muhi ad-Din Baqtash被廢黜

大塞爾柱帝國:
1194 - 圖格魯勒三世被殺

魯姆蘇丹國:
1307 - 梅蘇德二世去世

塞爾柱王朝波斯語سلجوقيان‎ Saljūqīyān)是土耳其遜尼派穆斯林建立的王朝[1][2][3],吸收波斯​​文化,成為西方中世紀和中亞地區的土耳其-波斯文化[4][5]塞爾柱人建立大塞爾柱帝國魯姆蘇丹國,統治區域從安納托利亞延伸至波斯,也是第一次十字軍東征攻擊目標。

歷史[编辑]

塞爾柱人源自於烏古斯人分支[6][7][8][9],他們在9世紀生活於穆斯林世界邊緣,包含裏海北部和鹹海哈薩克草原突厥斯坦。在10世紀,由於各種事件發生,烏古斯人曾與穆斯林城市密切聯結。

當塞爾柱人的領袖與烏古斯人頭目葉護反目後,他從烏古斯分裂出來,移居於下錫爾河西岸(Jaxartes)。西元985年左右,塞爾柱人皈依了伊斯蘭教[10]。在11世紀,塞爾柱人從祖先的家園遷移到波斯呼羅珊省,他們因而遭遇伽色尼王國。塞爾柱人在1035年擊敗伽色尼王國。Toghril,Chaghri和Yabghu接受州長頭銜[11]。在1040年,塞爾柱人在丹丹坎會戰擊敗伽色尼軍隊[12],塞爾柱人之後建立一個帝國,後來被稱為大塞爾柱帝國。在塞爾柱帝國居住許多當地居民,在接下來的幾十年中與波斯文化和語言同化[13][14][15][16][17]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ "Turkish dynasty also spelled Seljuk ruling military family of the Oğuz (Ghuzz) Turkic tribes that invaded southwestern Asia in the 11th century and eventually founded an empire....".Encyclopedia Brittanica
  2. ^ "The Turkish groups of the greatest import in the history of Europe and W Asia were, however, the Seljuks and the Osmanli or Ottoman Turks, both members of the Oghuz confederations.".Encyclopedia Columbia
  3. ^ Saljuqs, Andrew Peacock, Encyclopaedia Iranica, (May 25, 2010)."A dynasty of Turkish origin that ruled much of Anatolia".Encyclopedia Iranica
  4. ^ Grousset, Rene, The Empire of the Steppes, (Rutgers University Press, 1991), 161,164; "..renewed the Seljuk attempt to found a great Turko-Persian empire in eastern Iran..", "It is to be noted that the Seljuks, those Turkomans who became sultans of Persia, did not Turkify Persia-no doubt because they did not wish to do so. On the contrary, it was they who voluntarily became Persians and who, in the manner of the great old Sassanid kings, strove to protect the Iranian populations from the plundering of Ghuzz bands and save Iranian culture from the Turkoman menace."
  5. ^ Nishapuri, Zahir al-Din Nishapuri (2001), "The History of the Seljuq Turks from the Jami’ al-Tawarikh: An Ilkhanid Adaptation of the Saljuq-nama of Zahir al-Din Nishapuri," Partial tr. K.A. Luther, ed. C.E. Bosworth, Richmond, UK. K.A. Luther: "... the Turks were illiteratre and uncultivated when they arrived in Khurasan and had to depend on Iranian scribes, poets, jurists and theologians to man the institution of the Empire"(pg 9)
  6. ^ Concise Britannica Online Seljuq Dynasty article
  7. ^ Merriam-Webster Online – Definition of Seljuk
  8. ^ The History of the Seljuq Turks: From the Jami Al-Tawarikh (LINK)
  9. ^ History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey – Stanford Shaw (LINK)
  10. ^ Michael Adas, Agricultural and Pastoral Societies in Ancient and Classical History, (Temple University Press, 2001), 99.
  11. ^ C.E. Bosworth, The Ghaznavids: 994-1040, (Edinburgh University Press, 1963), 242.
  12. ^ Tony Jaques, Dictionary of Battles and Sieges: F-O, (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2007), 476.
  13. ^ O.Özgündenli, "Persian Manuscripts in Ottoman and Modern Turkish Libraries", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK)
  14. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica, "Seljuq", Online Edition, (LINK): "... Because the Turkish Seljuqs had no Islamic tradition or strong literary heritage of their own, they adopted the cultural language of their Persian instructors in Islam. Literary Persian thus spread to the whole of Iran, and the Arabic language disappeared in that country except in works of religious scholarship ..."
  15. ^ M. Ravandi, "The Seljuq court at Konya and the Persianisation of Anatolian Cities", in Mesogeios (Mediterranean Studies), vol. 25–6 (2005), pp. 157–69
  16. ^ M.A. Amir-Moezzi, "Shahrbanu", Encyclopaedia Iranica, Online Edition, (LINK): "... here one might bear in mind that Turco-Persian dynasties such as the Ghaznavids, Saljuqs and Ilkhanids were rapidly to adopt the Persian language and have their origins traced back to the ancient kings of Persia rather than to Turkish heroes or Muslim saints ..."
  17. ^ F. Daftary, Sectarian and National Movements in Iran, Khorasan, and Trasoxania during Umayyad and Early Abbasid Times, in History of Civilizations of Central Asia, Vol 4, pt. 1; edited by M.S. Asimov and C.E. Bosworth; UNESCO Publishing, Institute of Ismaili Studies: "... Not only did the inhabitants of Khurasan not succumb to the language of the nomadic invaders, but they imposed their own tongue on them. The region could even assimilate the Turkic Ghaznavids and Seljuks (eleventh and twelfth centuries), the Timurids (fourteenth–fifteenth centuries), and the Qajars (nineteenth–twentieth centuries) ..."