TOEFL TPO19 listening lecture3
Ok, today we are going to continue our discussion of plant life in coastal salt marshes 5 of North America. Salt marshes are among the least inviting environments for plants. The water is salty, there is little shade and the ocean tide comes in and out, constantly flooding the marsh, so the variety of plants found in salt marshes is limited, but there is a plant genus that thrives there, the Spartina. In fact, the Spartina genus is the dominant plant found in salt marshes. You can find one type of the Spartina, Saltmarsh Cordgrass, growing in low marsh areas. In higher marsh areas, you are likely to find a Spartina commonly called Salt-meadow Hay. So how is the Spartina able to survive in an envrionment that would kill most plants? well, it is because salt marsh grasses have found ways to adapt to the conditions there.
First of all, they are able to withstand highly saline conditions. One really interesting adaptation is the ability to reverse the process of osmosis6
. Typically, the process of osmosis works... Well, when water moves through the wall of a plant cell, it will move from the side containing water with the lowest amount of salt into the side containing the highest amount of salt. so imagine what would happen if a typical plant suddenly found itself in salt water, the water contained in the plant cells, that is water with very little salt would be drawn out toward the seawater, water with a lot of salt. So you can see the fresh water contained in the plant will be removed and the plant will quickly lose all its water and dehydrate. But what about the Spartinas, well, they allow a certain amount of salt to enter their cells, bringing the salt content of the water within the plant, to a slightly higher concentration than that of the surrounding seawater. So instead of fresh water moving out of the plant cells, salt from the seawater enters, reverse osmosis, and this actually strengthens the cells.
Another adaptation to the salty environment is the ability to excrete excess salt back to the environment. That’s why you might see a Spartina shimmering in the sunlight. What’s reflecting the light is not salt from seawater that has evaporated, although that’s a good guess. But it is actually the salt that came from within the plant. Pretty cool, eh? You can really impress your friends and family with that little? The next time you are in a salt marsh.
But coping with salt is not the only challenge for plants in the salt marsh. Soil there is dense and very low in oxygen, so Spartinas have air tubes, air enters through tiny openings on the leaves, the tubes provide direct pipe line for oxygen, carrying it down the leaves through the stems and into the roots, where it is needed. If you pull up a Spartina, you might even notice some reddish mud on some of the roots, this is caused by oxygen reacting with iron sulfide in the soil, and it produces iron oxide or rust.
Now, although the Spartinas have adapted several chemical and physical mechanisms that allow them to thrive in salt water and to feed oxygen to their roots. There is yet another aspect of the harsh environment that they have to adapt to, the force of tides and occasional violent storms. Wind and water are constantly crashing into these plants. So as you might have guessed, they have developed a means of solidly anchoring themselves into the soil. How? They have tough sort of underground stems called rhizome, rhizomes from one plant grow through the muddy soil and interlock with those of other nearby plants, the plants form a kind of colony, a community that will thrive and perish together. Because alone as single plants, they cannot survive. \
Of course the plants in these colonies also need tough resilient stems above the soil, stems that can bent a lot but not break as water constantly crashes into them. So in addtion to the interlocking underground rhizomes, they have yet another adaptation, and it is ... well, we are back to reverse osmosis again, by adjusting the osmotic pressure so that the cells are always fully inflated, the plant is able to withstand great pressure befor snapping, so Spartinas may look like simple marsh grass, but they are really a wonder of chemistry, physics and structural engineering that allows them to survive and even thrive in an evironment in which most plants will wilt7 and die within hours.