得内-高加索语系

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汉-高加索语系,亦作得内-高加索语系,或譯作達內-高加索語系,是一个提议中的大语系,包括汉藏语系布鲁夏斯基语叶尼塞语系北高加索语族以及北美的纳-德内语系。其存在还处在争议中,因为大部分的研究在20世纪90年代才开始展开。有时苏美尔语阿尔冈昆-瓦卡希语系也被归入其中。

語系樹建議[编辑]

斯塔罗斯金的觀點[编辑]

根據俄罗斯语言学家斯塔罗斯金及他的同事在《巴別塔計劃》的共同研究認為,德內-高加索語系的分支語言大約在以下日子以修訂語言年代學(Modified glottochronology來估算)裡分化[1]

1. 得内-高加索语系 (公元前8700年)
1.1. 納-得內語系
1.2. 漢-瓦斯科尼亞語系 (Sino-Vasconic languages,公元前7900年)
1.2.1. 瓦斯科尼亞語系 (Vasconic,見下段)
1.2.2. 漢-高加索語系 (公元前6200年)
1.2.2.1. 布鲁夏斯基语
1.2.2.2. 高加索-漢-葉尼塞語系 (公元前5900年)
1.2.2.2.1. 北高加索語系
1.2.2.2.2. 漢-葉尼塞語系 (公元前5100年)
1.2.2.2.2.1. 葉尼塞語系
1.2.2.2.2.2. 漢藏語系

Bengtson的觀點[编辑]

John D. Bengtson把巴斯克語高加索語布魯夏斯基語組合成為大高加索語系(Macro-Caucasian family)[2]。根據他的講法,現時要再加入其他語系為時尚早,因為研究尚未成熟。不過,他留意到蘇美爾語在地理上與其西支及東支分享着相同的等語線 [3]

1. 得内-高加索语系Dené-Caucasian
1.1. 大高加索語系(The Macro-Caucasian family)
1.1.1. 瓦斯科尼亞語系 (巴斯克語)
1.1.2. 北高加索語系
1.1.3. 布鲁夏斯基语(Burushaski)
1.2............................................ (Sumerian?)
1.3. 汉藏语系(Sino-Tibetan)
1.4. 叶尼塞语系(Yeniseian)
1.5. 納-得內語系(Na-Dené)

參看[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

參考書目[编辑]

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  • BENGTSON, John D., 2004. "Some features of Dene-Caucasian phonology (with special reference to Basque)." In Cahiers de l'Institut de Linguistique de Louvain (CILL): 33–54.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2003. "Notes on Basque Comparative Phonology." Mother Tongue 8: 21–39.
  • BENGTSON, John D., 2002. "The Dene-Caucasian noun prefix *s-." In The Linguist's Linguist: A Collection of Papers in Honour of Alexis Manaster Ramer, ed. by F. Cavoto, pp. 53–57. Munich: LINCOM Europa.
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  • BENGTSON, John D., 1999b. "Wider genetic affiliations of the Chinese language." Journal of Chinese Linguistics 27 (1): 1–12.*BENGTSON, John D., 1994. "Edward Sapir and the ‘Sino-Dene’ Hypothesis." Anthropological Science (Tokyo) 102: 207-230.
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  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1986b). Säugetiernamen des Haida und Tlingit: Materialien zu ihrer historischen Erforschung [Mammal names of Haida and Tlingit: materials to their historical investigation]. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 50)
  • PINNOW, Heinz-Jürgen (1985a). Sprachhistorische Untersuchung einiger Tiernamen im Haida (Fische, Stachelhäuter, Weichtiere, Gliederfüßer, u.a.) [Language-historical investigation of some animal names in Haida (fish, echinoderms, mollusks, arthropods, and others]. Nortorf: Völkerkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft. (Abhandlungen, Heft 39)
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  • RUHLEN, Merritt, 2001b. “Taxonomic Controversies in the Twentieth Century,” in New Essays on the Origin of Language, ed. by Jürgen Trabant and Sean Ward, Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter, 197–214.
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