德國國內邊界

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德國國內邊界
Innerdeutsche Grenze
北、中德
Halt hier grenze.jpg
德國施拉格斯多夫的邊界設施
種類 邊界設防
建造 1945年  (1945)
建造者  东德
結構/材料 鋼、混凝土
最高至4米(13英尺)
使用 1945–90
毀壞 1990年
現在狀況 大部分已拆除,少數維護作歷史古蹟。
控制  东德
 西德
駐軍 東側:

东德 國家人民軍
东德 史塔西(國家安全部)
东德 民警部門

西側:

德國 聯邦國境保護局
德國 聯邦海關服務部
巴伐利亞 巴伐利亞邊防警察
英国 英國陸軍
英国 英國邊境服務部
美國 美國陸軍

戰役/戰爭 冷戰

德國國內邊界,又稱兩德邊界德语innerdeutsche Grenzedeutsch–deutsche Grenze,最初也稱 Zonengrenze),即1949年至1990年間德意志民主共和國(東德)和德意志聯邦共和國(西德)二國的國界。它自波羅的海起至捷克斯洛伐克為止,總長1381公里(858英里),其中不包括意義相似的柏林圍牆

它在1945年7月1日正式設立,作為盟軍蘇聯在德佔領區的界線。它的東側築有連綿高聳的金屬柵欄和圍牆、有刺鐵絲網、警鈴、壕溝、瞭望塔、自動餌雷及雷區,徹底阻絕人及車輛的穿越,是當代全世界防禦工程最浩大的國界。東德在國界部署了五萬名東德武裝衛兵鎮守,緊鄰上萬名西德、英國與美國兵力[1]。在國界二側的內陸,北大西洋公約組織華沙公約組織駐紮超過百萬的軍力,以備戰事一觸即發。

兩德邊界是溫斯頓·邱吉爾鐵幕」一喻的實體呈現,在冷戰期間分隔蘇聯和西方世界,同時也象徵著界隔二種截然不同的思想體系——資本主義共產主義。它由東德自1952年至1980年代晚期分期建成[2],旨在阻止東德居民大規模西移,遽聞約有一千人在邊界制度實行的45年間死於試圖越界[3]。邊界的設立造成兩德經濟和社會上的極大差異;東德人的生活尤其閉鎖、受限[4]

較為知名的柏林圍牆位在兩德邊界以東170公里(110英里)處、圍繞著西柏林,同樣建作屏障,但不如兩德邊界駐守嚴密,長度、規模也較小(雖然柏林全市被劃入蘇聯佔領區內,但事實上柏林在二次大戰後曾經大略由四個勢力分區佔領,因此出現資本主義勢力被共產主義勢力包圍的飛地現象)。1989年11月9日,東德政府宣布開放柏林圍牆及兩德邊界。隨後數天內,上百萬的東德居民湧入西德遊覽,其中數十萬人在後續數月間移居西德。隨著越來越多限制區跟進開放通行,邊境管制實質上成為草略的例行公事,長久分裂的兩德關係也逐漸鬆綁、重新獲得定義。終於在1990年7月1日,兩德邊界在創設整整45年後被徹底廢除[5],兩德也在三個月後統一、正式結束長久以來的分裂。

兩德邊界的防禦建設有少部分順利保留至今。它的路線現被規劃為「歐洲綠帶」的一部份,沿著舊鐵幕、自北極圈起至黑海,連結各國的國家公園和自然保護區。緣舊邊界建有博物館和紀念碑,記錄德國分裂與統一的歷史[6]

發展[编辑]

緣起[编辑]

盟軍在戰後德國的佔領區,包括:蘇聯佔領區(紅色)、德國國內邊界(粗黑線)以及英美軍力於1945年7月撤離的區域(紫色)。省分界線是屬聯邦國建立以前的前納粹威瑪共和國

德國國內邊界起源於二次大戰時,同盟國將戰敗德國分區佔領的計畫[7]。盟軍隨後達成共識,依據十九世紀時德意志邦國和省份的領土邊界(1871年德意志統一後已普遍消失)進行劃分[8],分為三個佔領區,各占約三分之一的德國領土,即:西北方的英國佔領區、南方的美國佔領區以及東方的蘇聯佔領區。法國後來自英國和美國佔領區分割出佔領區,位於德國極西地區[9]

德國分區制度於1945年7月1日實行。由於最後數週在德國中部捷報頻傳、戰況進展出乎意料的順利,英美軍隊便先行佔領了部分原分配給蘇聯的地區。許多德國人於是在此西方軍力短暫停留期間,利用時機、在蘇聯前來接收其餘佔領區之前逃往西部[10]

同盟各國起初聯手協助德國成立同盟國管制理事會(ACC)[11],但最終因對德政治與經濟體制的未來走向理念不同而合作破裂。1949年5月,西方的三個佔領區合併成為自由選舉政府的德意志聯邦共和國(西德),蘇聯佔領區則成為德意志民主共和國(東德)、以共產主義統治[12]

從一開始,盟軍和西德就否認東德的合法性[13],僅視之為一個「既成事實」、一個缺乏自由公正選舉政府的共產主義 / 蘇維埃產物。西德政權認為,德國的公民身分與權利平等適用於東、西德居民。東德人民如果潛逃或被釋放到西德,理所當然可享有西德公民權利,包括居住權以及工作權;西德法律同樣適用於東德。由於渴望西德更自由、前景更為繁榮的生活,東德人民一直有著強烈的西遷動力[14]。另一方面,東德政府則定義自身為獨立存在的合法政權[15],視西德為敵方領土——企圖利用人民收復第三帝國失地,和東德的和平社會主義政府對立的資本主義、半法西斯主義政權[16]

1945–52年[编辑]

佔領初期,同盟國控制了佔領區之間的交通,管理西遷避難人潮、並防止前納粹官員和情報人員脫逃[17]。西方佔領區的管制隨著時間漸為鬆綁,但1946年,為防堵經濟、政治難民大量自蘇聯佔領區流出,西方和蘇聯佔領區之間的管制又再轉森嚴[18]。1945年10月至1946年6月之間,已有160萬德國人成功向西逃離蘇聯佔領區[19]

另見[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Faringdon (1986), pp. 282–84.
  2. ^ Faringdon (1986), p. 284.
  3. ^ McDougall (2004), p. 40.
  4. ^ Czuczka (2000-01-13).
  5. ^ The Record (1990-07-02).
  6. ^ Cramer (2008), pp. 8–9.
  7. ^ Buchholz (1994), p. 56.
  8. ^ Faringdon (1986), p. 282.
  9. ^ Weinberg (1995), p. 804.
  10. ^ Shears (1970), p. 29.
  11. ^ Osmańczyk; Mango (2004), p. 77.
  12. ^ Shears (1970), p. 36.
  13. ^ Joint statement of the Allied powers, 3 October 1954, quoted in Kindermann (1994), pp. 220–21.
  14. ^ Gress (1985), pp. 15–16.
  15. ^ Loth (2004), p. 274.
  16. ^ Schweitzer (1995), p. 50.
  17. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 6.
  18. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 9.
  19. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 8.

參考資料[编辑]

書目[编辑]

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  • Berdahl, Daphne. Where the world ended: re-unification and identity in the German borderland. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1999. ISBN 0520214773. 
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  • Childs, David. The fall of the GDR. London: Pearson Education Ltd. 2001. ISBN 0582315689. 
  • Cramer, Michael. German-German Border Trail. Rodingersdorf: Esterbauer. 2008. ISBN 9783850002547. 
  • Dale, Gareth. Popular protest in East Germany, 1945–1989. London: Routledge. 2005. ISBN 9780714654089. 
  • Dennis, Mike. The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic, 1945–90. Harlow: Longman. 2000. ISBN 9780582245624. 
  • Detjen, Marion. Die propagandistische Ausrichtung der Strafverfolgung von Fluchthelfern in der DDR und ihre Wirkung im Westen//In Marxen, Klaus; Weinke, Annette. Inszenierungen des Rechts: Schauprozesse, Medienprozesse und Prozessfilme in der DDR. BWV Verlag. 2006. ISBN 9783830512431. 
  • Faringdon, Hugh. Confrontation: the Strategic Geography of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Books. 1986. ISBN 0710206763. 
  • Freytag, Konrad. Germany's Security Policy and the Role of Bundeswehr in the Post-Cold War Period//Trifunovska, Snežana (编). The Transatlantic Alliance on the Eve of the New Millennium. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1996. ISBN 9789041102430. 
  • Fröhling, Wolf Amadeus. Ick ooch: meine 20 Jahre DDR und die Folgen. Kampehl: Dosse. 2007. ISBN 9783981127935. 
  • Fulbrook, Mary. History of Germany, 1918-2000: the divided nation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 2002. ISBN 9780631232087. 
  • Gleye, Paul. Behind the wall: an American in East Germany, 1988–89. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press. 1991. ISBN 9780809317431. 
  • Gordon, Joseph S. East German psychological operations: a 1965 case study//In Gordon, Joseph S. Psychological operations: the Soviet challenge. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1988. ISBN 9780813373959. 
  • Gress, David. Peace and survival: West Germany, the peace movement, and European security. Stanford, CA: Hoover Press. 1985. ISBN 9780817980917. 
  • Hertle, Hans-Hermann. The Berlin Wall: Monument of the Cold War. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. 2007. ISBN 9783861534631. 
  • James, Howard. Introduction//In James, Howard; Stone, Marla. When the Wall came down: reactions to German unification. London: Routledge. 1992. ISBN 9780415905909. 
  • Jarausch, Konrad Hugo. The rush to German unity. New York City: Oxford University Press US. 1994. ISBN 9780195085778. 
  • Kindermann, Gottfried Karl. Chapter 12: Recent ROC-PRC unification policies in the light of the German experience//In Lin, Bih-jaw; Myers, James T. Contemporary China and the changing international community. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. 1994. ISBN 9781570030246. 
  • Koop, Volker. "Den Gegner vernichten": die Grenzsicherung der DDR. Bonn: Bouvier. 1996. ISBN 9783416026338. 
  • Ladd, Brian. The ghosts of Berlin: confronting German history in the urban landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1998. ISBN 9780226467627. 
  • Ladd, Brian. The companion guide to Berlin. Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. 2004. ISBN 9781900639286. 
  • Lapp, Peter Joachim. Frontdienst im Frieden, die Grenztruppen der DDR: Entwicklung, Struktur, Aufgaben. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. 1986. ISBN 9783763753482. 
  • Loth, Wilfred. Europe, Cold War and coexistence, 1953–1965. London: Routledge. 2004. ISBN 9780714654652. 
  • Maddrell, Paul. Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945–1961. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0199267502. 
  • McAdams, James A. East Germany and detente: building authority after the wall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985. ISBN 9780521268356. 
  • McDougall, Alex. Youth Politics in East Germany: The Free German Youth Movement 1946–1968. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2004. ISBN 0199276277. 
  • Meyer, Michael. The Year that Changed the World. New York City: Scribner. 2009. ISBN 9781416558453. 
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  • Morris, Jan. Fifty years of Europe: an album. New York City: Villard. 1997. 71. ISBN 9780679416104. 
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  • Nothnagle, Alan L. Building the East German myth: historical mythology and youth propaganda in the German Democratic Republic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1990. ISBN 0472109464. 
  • Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony. Allied Control Council for Germany//Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements, volume 1. New York City: Routledge. 2004. ISBN 0415939216. 
  • Ritter, Jürgen; Lapp, Peter Joachim. Die Grenze: ein deutsches Bauwerk. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. 2007. ISBN 9783861534655. 
  • Rodden, John. Repainting the little red schoolhouse: a history of Eastern German education, 1945–1995. New York City: Oxford University Press US. 2002. ISBN 9780195112443. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. The Berlin Wall and the Intra-German border 1961–89. Fortress 69. Oxford: Osprey. 2008. ISBN 9781846031939. 
  • Schweitzer, Carl Christoph. Politics and government in Germany, 1944–1994: basic documents. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books. 1995. ISBN 9781571818553. 
  • Sebasteyen, Victor. Revolution 1989: the Fall of the Soviet Empire. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 2009. ISBN 9780297852230. 
  • Shackley, Theodore; Finney, Richard A. Spymaster: my life in the CIA. Dulles, VA: Brassey's. 2005. ISBN 9781574889154. 
  • Shears, David. The Ugly Frontier. London: Chatto & Windus. 1970. OCLC 94402. 
  • Stacy, William E. US Army Border Operations in Germany. US Army Military History Office. 1984. OCLC 53275935. 
  • Stokes, Raymond G. Constructing socialism: technology and change in East Germany 1945–1990. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2000. ISBN 9780801863912. 
  • Weber, Jürgen. Germany, 1945–1990: a parallel history. Budapest: Central European University Press. 2004. ISBN 9789639241701. 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard. A world at arms: a global history of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995. ISBN 0521558794. 

新聞[编辑]

  • Anderson, Jack. Why Have U.S. Army Men In Europe Defected Behind The Iron Curtain?. St. Petersburg Times. 14 June 1964 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Buschschluter, Siegfried. Trade in human beings costs Bonn dear. Guardian Weekly. 11 October 1981. 
  • Cowell, Alan. Beside the Autobahn, a Cold-War Memory Lane. The New York Times. 12 September 1996. 
  • Czuczka, Tony. Last East German communist boss going to jail unrepentant. Associated Press. 13 January 2000. 
  • Evans, Michael. Border watchdog, Thomas Jones, completes 30-year patrol. The Times. 15 February 1990. 
  • Fowle, Farnsworth. Dresden's Salvaged Treasures. The New York Times. 8 February 1981. 
  • Hall, Allan. Cold War legacy a haven for nature. The Age. 19 May 2008. 
  • Hooper, John. East Germany jailed 75,000 escapers. The Guardian. 7 August 2001 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Jackson, James O. The Revolution Came From the People. Time. 12 February 1990 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Jacoby, Jeff. The Wall came tumbling down. Boston Globe. 8 November 1989. 
  • Kellerhoff, Sven Felix; Banse, Dirk. "Zögern Sie nicht mit der Schusswaffe!". Berliner Morgenpost. 11 August 2007 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Koenig, Robert L. Unity replaces fence – German social, economic barriers next to fall. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 22 April 1990. 
  • Maguire, Helen. Leaving East Germany - as easy as Alpha, Bravo, Charlie?. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 20 October 2009 [25 October 2009]. 
  • McCartney, Robert J. E. Germany Relaxes Curbs on Working Citizens' Visits to West. The Washington Post. 16 April 1988. 
  • Mielke, Michael. Der Fall Gartenschläger. Berliner Morgenpost. 6 May 2002 [9 August 2009]. 
  • Mulligan, Hugh A. East German border appearance has changed. The Bulletin. The Associated Press. 28 October 1976 [3 August 2009]. 
  • Paterson, Tony. From Iron Curtain to Green Belt. Independent On Sunday. 17 May 2009. 
  • Staff. Scale of East German exodus revealed. BBC. 7 August 2001 [4 August 2009]. 
  • Staff. More Than 1,100 Berlin Wall Victims. Deutsche Welle. 9 August 2005 [8 August 2009]. 
  • Staff. "We Were Told to Stop Trespassing at All Costs". Deutsche Welle. 2 November 2006 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. East German defector seventh since Saturday. Gainesville Sun. The Associated Press. 3 September 1987 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Buff Boom. Los Angeles Times. 7 July 1977. 
  • Staff. Sie gaben ihr Leben für ihr Vaterland. Neues Deutschland. 13–14 August 1989. 
  • Staff. East German Doctor Swims To Freedom. St. Petersburg Times. United Press International (UPI). 4 August 1971 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Climber flees East Germany. Sunday Star-News. 28 August 1987 [25 October 2009]. 
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  • Staff. 'Forbidden Zone' Runs Across Opencast Site. The Manchester Guardian. 9 June 1952. 
  • Staff. East Germany Apologizes For Fatal Shooting of Italian. The New York Times. 7 August 1976. 
  • Staff. Homemade balloon carries 8 to freedom. The Prescott Courier. 17 September 1979 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Berlin reunites, borders fade. The Record (Bergen County). 2 July 1990. 
  • Staff. Escape Into East Germany Not Blocked by Wire, Mines. The Spokesman-Review. The Associated Press. 7 July 1963 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. History hits the wall – Tourists warm to Berlin's Cold War. The Sunday Telegraph (London). 30 May 2004. 
  • Staff. Sonntagsreden am Todesstreifen?. Thüringen Journal (Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk). 18 September 2009. 
  • Staff. Two Soldiers Go To E. Germany. The Times. 11 July 1959. 
  • Staff. Baltic Coast Made Border Zone. The Times. 21 July 1962. 
  • Staff. Two Families Flee From East Germany. The Times. 11 September 1964. 
  • Staff. Border "No Man's Land" Officially Declared Mine-Free. The Week in Germany (New York City: German Information Center). 13 May 1996. 
  • Thorson, Larry. Former German border almost free of mines. Austin American-Statesman. 11 November 1995. 
  • Walmer, Tracy. Wall's fall coaxes 2nd deserter back. USA Today. 14 February 1990. 

其他[编辑]

  • 傳單: Ministry of Federal Affairs, Displaced Persons and Refugees, Bonn. "Attention Demarcation Line!". Leaflet published c. mid-1960s.
  • 電影簡介: Synopsis of Grenzer (Filmstudio der Nationalen Volksarmee, 1981, dir. Reiner Bachmann, Jochen Hoffmann). Progress Film-Verleih, Berlin. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  • 政府檔案館: Bild 175-P05-00002-0001 (Picture 175-P05-00002-0001) in the collection of the Gesamtdeutsches Institut – Bundesanstalt für gesamtdeutsche Aufgaben (All-German Institut – Federal Institute for All-German Affairs). Photographer: n.a. Dated: c. 1961/7. Held in: Bundesarchiv Deutschland (Federal Archive of Germany) Last accessed: 26 October 2009.
  • 法律條文: Gesetz über die Staatsgrenze der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Law on the State Border of the German Democratic Republic) (25 March 1982)
  • 博物館展覽: Gedenkstätte Deutsche Teilung Marienborn (Memorial to the division of Germany in Marienborn).
  • 博物館展覽: Grenzmuseum Eichsfeld (Border Museum Eichsfeld).
  • 博物館展覽: Zonengrenze-Museum Helmstedt (Zonal Border Museum Helmstedt)
  • 博物館展覽: Grenzturm e.V, Kühlungsborn (Baltic Border Tower in Kühlungsborn). English German