德國國內邊界

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德國國內邊界
Innerdeutsche Grenze
北、中德
Halt hier grenze.jpg
德國施拉格斯多夫的邊界設施
类型
邊界設防
高度
最高至4米(13英尺)
设施信息
运营单位
 东德
 西德
现状
大部分已拆除,少數維護作歷史古蹟。
历史
建造时间
1945年  (1945)
建造者
 东德
结构
鋼、混凝土
使用时间
1945–90
战役
冷戰
驻军状态
派駐單位
東側:

东德 國家人民軍
东德 史塔西(國家安全部)
东德 民警部門
西側:

德國 聯邦邊境防衛隊
德國 聯邦海關管理局
巴伐利亞 巴伐利亞邊境警察
英国 英國陸軍
英国 英國邊境勤務處
美國 美國陸軍

德國國內邊界,又稱兩德邊界德语innerdeutsche Grenzedeutsch–deutsche Grenze,最初也稱 Zonengrenze),即1949年至1990年間德意志民主共和國(東德)和德意志聯邦共和國(西德)二國的國界。它自波羅的海起至捷克斯洛伐克為止,總長1381公里(858英里),其中不包括意義相似的柏林圍牆

它在1945年7月1日正式設立,作為盟軍和蘇聯在德佔領區的界線。它的東側築有連綿高聳的金屬柵欄和圍牆、有刺鐵絲網、警鈴、壕溝、瞭望塔、自動餌雷及雷區,徹底阻絕人及車輛的穿越,是當代全世界防禦工程最浩大的國界。東德在國界部署了五萬名東德武裝衛兵鎮守,緊鄰上萬名西德、英國與美國兵力[1]。在國界二側的內陸,北大西洋公約組織華沙公約組織駐紮超過百萬的軍力,以備戰事一觸即發。

兩德邊界是溫斯頓·邱吉爾鐵幕」一喻的實體呈現,在冷戰期間分隔蘇聯和西方世界,同時也象徵著界隔二種截然不同的思想體系——資本主義共產主義。它由東德自1952年至1980年代晚期分期建成[2],旨在阻止東德居民大規模西移,遽聞約有一千人在邊界制度實行的45年間死於試圖越界[3]。邊界的設立造成兩德經濟和社會上的極大差異;東德人的生活尤其閉鎖、受限[4]

較為知名的柏林圍牆位在兩德邊界以東170公里(110英里)處、圍繞著西柏林,同樣建作屏障,但不如兩德邊界駐守嚴密,長度、規模也較小(雖然柏林全市被劃入蘇聯佔領區內,但事實上柏林在二次大戰後曾經大略由四個勢力分區佔領,因此出現資本主義勢力被共產主義勢力包圍的飛地現象)。1989年11月9日,東德政府宣布開放柏林圍牆及兩德邊界。隨後數天內,上百萬的東德居民湧入西德遊覽,其中數十萬人在後續數月間移居西德。隨著越來越多限制區跟進開放通行,邊境管制實質上成為草略的例行公事,長久分裂的兩德關係瑞典语Relationer mellan Västtyskland och Östtyskland也逐漸鬆綁、重新獲得定義。終於在1990年7月1日,兩德邊界在創設整整45年後被徹底廢除[5],兩德也在三個月後統一、正式結束長久以來的分裂。

兩德邊界的防禦建設有少部分順利保留至今。它的路線現被規劃為「歐洲綠帶」的一部份,沿著舊鐵幕、自北極圈起至黑海,連結各國的國家公園和自然保護區。緣舊邊界建有博物館和紀念碑,記錄德國分裂與統一的歷史[6]

發展[编辑]

緣起[编辑]

盟軍在戰後德國的佔領區,包括:蘇聯佔領區(紅色)、德國國內邊界(粗黑線)以及英美軍力於1945年7月撤離的區域(紫色)。省分界線是屬聯邦國建立以前的前納粹威瑪共和國

德國國內邊界起源於二次大戰時,同盟國將戰敗德國分區佔領的計畫[7]。盟軍隨後達成共識,依據十九世紀時德意志邦國和省份的領土邊界(1871年德意志統一後已普遍消失)進行劃分[8],分為三個佔領區,各占約三分之一的德國領土,即:西北方的英國佔領區、南方的美國佔領區以及東方的蘇聯佔領區。法國後來自英國和美國佔領區分割出佔領區,位於德國極西地區[9]

德國分區制度於1945年7月1日實行。由於最後數週在德國中部捷報頻傳、戰況進展出乎意料的順利,英美軍隊便先行佔領了部分原分配給蘇聯的地區。許多德國人於是在此西方軍力短暫停留期間,利用時機、在蘇聯前來接收其餘佔領區之前逃往西部[10]

同盟各國起初聯手協助德國成立同盟國管制理事會(ACC)[11],但最終因對德政治與經濟體制的未來走向理念不同而合作破裂。1949年5月,西方的三個佔領區合併成為自由選舉民主政府的德意志聯邦共和國(西德),蘇聯佔領區則成為德意志民主共和國(東德)、以共產主義統治[12]

從一開始,盟軍和西德就否認東德的合法性[13],僅視之為一個「既成事實」、一個缺乏自由公正選舉政府的共產主義蘇維埃產物。西德政權認為,德國的公民身分與權利平等適用於東、西德居民。東德人民如果潛逃或被釋放到西德,理所當然可享有西德公民權利,包括居住權以及工作權;西德法律同樣適用於東德。由於渴望西德更自由、前景更為繁榮的生活,東德人民一直有著強烈的西遷動力[14]。另一方面,東德政府則定義自身為獨立存在的合法政權[15],視西德為敵方領土——企圖利用人民收復第三帝國失地,和東德的和平社會主義政府對立的資本主義、半法西斯主義政權[16]

1945–52年[编辑]

佔領初期,同盟國控制了佔領區之間的交通,管理西遷避難人潮、並防止前納粹官員和情報人員脫逃[17]。西方佔領區的管制隨著時間漸為鬆綁,但1946年,為防堵經濟、政治難民大量自蘇聯佔領區流出,西方和蘇聯佔領區之間的管制又再轉森嚴[18]。1945年10月至1946年6月之間,已有160萬德國人成功向西逃離蘇聯佔領區[19]

另見[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Faringdon (1986), pp. 282–84.
  2. ^ Faringdon (1986), p. 284.
  3. ^ McDougall (2004), p. 40.
  4. ^ Czuczka (2000-01-13).
  5. ^ The Record (1990-07-02).
  6. ^ Cramer (2008), pp. 8–9.
  7. ^ Buchholz (1994), p. 56.
  8. ^ Faringdon (1986), p. 282.
  9. ^ Weinberg (1995), p. 804.
  10. ^ Shears (1970), p. 29.
  11. ^ Osmańczyk; Mango (2004), p. 77.
  12. ^ Shears (1970), p. 36.
  13. ^ Joint statement of the Allied powers, 3 October 1954, quoted in Kindermann (1994), pp. 220–21.
  14. ^ Gress (1985), pp. 15–16.
  15. ^ Loth (2004), p. 274.
  16. ^ Schweitzer (1995), p. 50.
  17. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 6.
  18. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 9.
  19. ^ Stacy (1984), p. 8.

參考資料[编辑]

書目[编辑]

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  • Allinson, Mark. Politics and popular opinion in East Germany, 1945–68. Manchester: Manchester University Press. 2000. ISBN 9780719055546. 
  • August, Oliver. Along the Wall and Watchtowers. London: Harper Collins. 1999. ISBN 0002570432. 
  • Baker, Frederick. The Berlin Wall. (编) Ganster, Paul; Lorey, David E. Borders and border politics in a globalizing world. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. 2004. ISBN 9780842051040. 
  • Bailey, Anthony. Along the edge of the forest. London: Faber & Faber. 1983. ISBN 0571131956. 
  • Berdahl, Daphne. Where the world ended: re-unification and identity in the German borderland. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press. 1999. ISBN 0520214773. 
  • Buchholz, Hanns. The Inner-German Border. (编) Grundy-Warr, Carl. Eurasia: World Boundaries Volume 3. World Boundaries (ed. Blake, Gerald H.). London: Routledge. 1994. ISBN 0415088348. 
  • Buckley Jr, William F. The fall of the Berlin Wall. Turning Points in History. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 2004. ISBN 9780471267362. 
  • Childs, David. The fall of the GDR. London: Pearson Education Ltd. 2001. ISBN 0582315689. 
  • Cramer, Michael. German-German Border Trail. Rodingersdorf: Esterbauer. 2008. ISBN 9783850002547. 
  • Dale, Gareth. Popular protest in East Germany, 1945–1989. London: Routledge. 2005. ISBN 9780714654089. 
  • Dennis, Mike. The Rise and Fall of the German Democratic Republic, 1945–90. Harlow: Longman. 2000. ISBN 9780582245624. 
  • Detjen, Marion. Die propagandistische Ausrichtung der Strafverfolgung von Fluchthelfern in der DDR und ihre Wirkung im Westen. (编) Marxen, Klaus; Weinke, Annette. Inszenierungen des Rechts: Schauprozesse, Medienprozesse und Prozessfilme in der DDR. BWV Verlag. 2006. ISBN 9783830512431. 
  • Faringdon, Hugh. Confrontation: the Strategic Geography of NATO and the Warsaw Pact. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Books. 1986. ISBN 0710206763. 
  • Freytag, Konrad. Germany's Security Policy and the Role of Bundeswehr in the Post-Cold War Period. (编) Trifunovska, Snežana (编). The Transatlantic Alliance on the Eve of the New Millennium. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. 1996. ISBN 9789041102430. 
  • Fröhling, Wolf Amadeus. Ick ooch: meine 20 Jahre DDR und die Folgen. Kampehl: Dosse. 2007. ISBN 9783981127935. 
  • Fulbrook, Mary. History of Germany, 1918-2000: the divided nation. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. 2002. ISBN 9780631232087. 
  • Gleye, Paul. Behind the wall: an American in East Germany, 1988–89. Carbondale, IL: SIU Press. 1991. ISBN 9780809317431. 
  • Gordon, Joseph S. East German psychological operations: a 1965 case study. (编) Gordon, Joseph S. Psychological operations: the Soviet challenge. Boulder, CO: Westview Press. 1988. ISBN 9780813373959. 
  • Gress, David. Peace and survival: West Germany, the peace movement, and European security. Stanford, CA: Hoover Press. 1985. ISBN 9780817980917. 
  • Hertle, Hans-Hermann. The Berlin Wall: Monument of the Cold War. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. 2007. ISBN 9783861534631. 
  • James, Howard. Introduction. (编) James, Howard; Stone, Marla. When the Wall came down: reactions to German unification. London: Routledge. 1992. ISBN 9780415905909. 
  • Jarausch, Konrad Hugo. The rush to German unity. New York City: Oxford University Press US. 1994. ISBN 9780195085778. 
  • Kindermann, Gottfried Karl. Chapter 12: Recent ROC-PRC unification policies in the light of the German experience. (编) Lin, Bih-jaw; Myers, James T. Contemporary China and the changing international community. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina Press. 1994. ISBN 9781570030246. 
  • Koop, Volker. "Den Gegner vernichten": die Grenzsicherung der DDR. Bonn: Bouvier. 1996. ISBN 9783416026338. 
  • Ladd, Brian. The ghosts of Berlin: confronting German history in the urban landscape. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 1998. ISBN 9780226467627. 
  • Ladd, Brian. The companion guide to Berlin. Rochester, NY: Boydell & Brewer. 2004. ISBN 9781900639286. 
  • Lapp, Peter Joachim. Frontdienst im Frieden, die Grenztruppen der DDR: Entwicklung, Struktur, Aufgaben. Koblenz: Bernard & Graefe. 1986. ISBN 9783763753482. 
  • Loth, Wilfred. Europe, Cold War and coexistence, 1953–1965. London: Routledge. 2004. ISBN 9780714654652. 
  • Maddrell, Paul. Spying on Science: Western Intelligence in Divided Germany 1945–1961. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2006. ISBN 0199267502. 
  • McAdams, James A. East Germany and detente: building authority after the wall. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1985. ISBN 9780521268356. 
  • McDougall, Alex. Youth Politics in East Germany: The Free German Youth Movement 1946–1968. Oxford: Clarendon Press. 2004. ISBN 0199276277. 
  • Meyer, Michael. The Year that Changed the World. New York City: Scribner. 2009. ISBN 9781416558453. 
  • Moncourt, André; Smith, J. The Red Army Faction, a Documentary History: Volume 1: Projectiles for the People. Oakland, CA: PM Press. 2009. ISBN 9781604860290. 
  • Morris, Jan. Fifty years of Europe: an album. New York City: Villard. 1997: 71. ISBN 9780679416104. 
  • Müller-Enbergs, Helmut. Innere Sicherheit: Grenztruppen, MfS, Volkspolizei, Wehrerziehung and Zivilschutz. (编) Judt, Matthias. DDR-Geschichte in Dokumenten. Ch. Links Verlag. 1988. ISBN 9783861531425. 
  • Nothnagle, Alan L. Building the East German myth: historical mythology and youth propaganda in the German Democratic Republic. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. 1990. ISBN 0472109464. 
  • Osmańczyk, Edmund Jan; Mango, Anthony. Allied Control Council for Germany. Encyclopedia of the United Nations and international agreements, volume 1. New York City: Routledge. 2004. ISBN 0415939216. 
  • Ritter, Jürgen; Lapp, Peter Joachim. Die Grenze: ein deutsches Bauwerk. Berlin: Ch. Links Verlag. 2007. ISBN 9783861534655. 
  • Rodden, John. Repainting the little red schoolhouse: a history of Eastern German education, 1945–1995. New York City: Oxford University Press US. 2002. ISBN 9780195112443. 
  • Rottman, Gordon L. The Berlin Wall and the Intra-German border 1961–89. Fortress 69. Oxford: Osprey. 2008. ISBN 9781846031939. 
  • Schweitzer, Carl Christoph. Politics and government in Germany, 1944–1994: basic documents. Providence, RI: Berghahn Books. 1995. ISBN 9781571818553. 
  • Sebasteyen, Victor. Revolution 1989: the Fall of the Soviet Empire. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 2009. ISBN 9780297852230. 
  • Shackley, Theodore; Finney, Richard A. Spymaster: my life in the CIA. Dulles, VA: Brassey's. 2005. ISBN 9781574889154. 
  • Shears, David. The Ugly Frontier. London: Chatto & Windus. 1970. OCLC 94402. 
  • Stacy, William E. US Army Border Operations in Germany. US Army Military History Office. 1984. OCLC 53275935. 
  • Stokes, Raymond G. Constructing socialism: technology and change in East Germany 1945–1990. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. 2000. ISBN 9780801863912. 
  • Weber, Jürgen. Germany, 1945–1990: a parallel history. Budapest: Central European University Press. 2004. ISBN 9789639241701. 
  • Weinberg, Gerhard. A world at arms: a global history of World War II. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 1995. ISBN 0521558794. 

新聞[编辑]

  • Anderson, Jack. Why Have U.S. Army Men In Europe Defected Behind The Iron Curtain?. St. Petersburg Times. 14 June 1964 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Buschschluter, Siegfried. Trade in human beings costs Bonn dear. Guardian Weekly. 11 October 1981. 
  • Cowell, Alan. Beside the Autobahn, a Cold-War Memory Lane. The New York Times. 12 September 1996. 
  • Czuczka, Tony. Last East German communist boss going to jail unrepentant. Associated Press. 13 January 2000. 
  • Evans, Michael. Border watchdog, Thomas Jones, completes 30-year patrol. The Times. 15 February 1990. 
  • Fowle, Farnsworth. Dresden's Salvaged Treasures. The New York Times. 8 February 1981. 
  • Hall, Allan. Cold War legacy a haven for nature. The Age. 19 May 2008. 
  • Hooper, John. East Germany jailed 75,000 escapers. The Guardian. 7 August 2001 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Jackson, James O. The Revolution Came From the People. Time. 12 February 1990 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Jacoby, Jeff. The Wall came tumbling down. Boston Globe. 8 November 1989. 
  • Kellerhoff, Sven Felix; Banse, Dirk. "Zögern Sie nicht mit der Schusswaffe!". Berliner Morgenpost. 11 August 2007 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Koenig, Robert L. Unity replaces fence – German social, economic barriers next to fall. St. Louis Post-Dispatch. 22 April 1990. 
  • Maguire, Helen. Leaving East Germany - as easy as Alpha, Bravo, Charlie?. Deutsche Presse-Agentur. 20 October 2009 [25 October 2009]. 
  • McCartney, Robert J. E. Germany Relaxes Curbs on Working Citizens' Visits to West. The Washington Post. 16 April 1988. 
  • Mielke, Michael. Der Fall Gartenschläger. Berliner Morgenpost. 6 May 2002 [9 August 2009]. 
  • Mulligan, Hugh A. East German border appearance has changed. The Bulletin. The Associated Press. 28 October 1976 [3 August 2009]. 
  • Paterson, Tony. From Iron Curtain to Green Belt. Independent On Sunday. 17 May 2009. 
  • Staff. Scale of East German exodus revealed. BBC. 7 August 2001 [4 August 2009]. 
  • Staff. More Than 1,100 Berlin Wall Victims. Deutsche Welle. 9 August 2005 [8 August 2009]. 
  • Staff. "We Were Told to Stop Trespassing at All Costs". Deutsche Welle. 2 November 2006 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. East German defector seventh since Saturday. Gainesville Sun. The Associated Press. 3 September 1987 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Buff Boom. Los Angeles Times. 7 July 1977. 
  • Staff. Sie gaben ihr Leben für ihr Vaterland. Neues Deutschland. 13–14 August 1989. 
  • Staff. East German Doctor Swims To Freedom. St. Petersburg Times. United Press International (UPI). 4 August 1971 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Climber flees East Germany. Sunday Star-News. 28 August 1987 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Nudes warm up the Cold War. The Age. 18 August 1975. 
  • Staff. 'Forbidden Zone' Runs Across Opencast Site. The Manchester Guardian. 9 June 1952. 
  • Staff. East Germany Apologizes For Fatal Shooting of Italian. The New York Times. 7 August 1976. 
  • Staff. Homemade balloon carries 8 to freedom. The Prescott Courier. 17 September 1979 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. Berlin reunites, borders fade. The Record (Bergen County). 2 July 1990. 
  • Staff. Escape Into East Germany Not Blocked by Wire, Mines. The Spokesman-Review. The Associated Press. 7 July 1963 [25 October 2009]. 
  • Staff. History hits the wall – Tourists warm to Berlin's Cold War. The Sunday Telegraph (London). 30 May 2004. 
  • Staff. Sonntagsreden am Todesstreifen?. Thüringen Journal (Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk). 18 September 2009. 
  • Staff. Two Soldiers Go To E. Germany. The Times. 11 July 1959. 
  • Staff. Baltic Coast Made Border Zone. The Times. 21 July 1962. 
  • Staff. Two Families Flee From East Germany. The Times. 11 September 1964. 
  • Staff. Border "No Man's Land" Officially Declared Mine-Free. The Week in Germany (New York City: German Information Center). 13 May 1996. 
  • Thorson, Larry. Former German border almost free of mines. Austin American-Statesman. 11 November 1995. 
  • Walmer, Tracy. Wall's fall coaxes 2nd deserter back. USA Today. 14 February 1990. 

其他[编辑]

  • 傳單: Ministry of Federal Affairs, Displaced Persons and Refugees, Bonn. "Attention Demarcation Line!". Leaflet published c. mid-1960s.
  • 電影簡介: Synopsis of Grenzer (Filmstudio der Nationalen Volksarmee, 1981, dir. Reiner Bachmann, Jochen Hoffmann). Progress Film-Verleih, Berlin. Retrieved 6 August 2009.
  • 政府檔案館: Bild 175-P05-00002-0001 (Picture 175-P05-00002-0001) in the collection of the Gesamtdeutsches Institut – Bundesanstalt für gesamtdeutsche Aufgaben (All-German Institut – Federal Institute for All-German Affairs). Photographer: n.a. Dated: c. 1961/7. Held in: Bundesarchiv Deutschland (Federal Archive of Germany) Last accessed: 26 October 2009.
  • 法律條文: Gesetz über die Staatsgrenze der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik (Law on the State Border of the German Democratic Republic) (25 March 1982)
  • 博物館展覽: Gedenkstätte Deutsche Teilung Marienborn (Memorial to the division of Germany in Marienborn).
  • 博物館展覽: Grenzmuseum Eichsfeld (Border Museum Eichsfeld).
  • 博物館展覽: Zonengrenze-Museum Helmstedt (Zonal Border Museum Helmstedt)
  • 博物館展覽: Grenzturm e.V, Kühlungsborn (Baltic Border Tower in Kühlungsborn). English German