憨第德

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憨第德
1759年版本的封面,塞壬出版,巴黎
塞壬出版於巴黎、1759年版本的封面,其寫著,「憨第德,或樂觀主義。譯自德國的雷爾夫博士。」[3][4]
作者 伏爾泰
原名 Candide, ou l'Optimisme
插圖 尚-米歇爾·莫羅
出版地 法國
語言 法文
類型 短篇哲學諷刺小說浪人小說教育小說
出版者 1759年:克拉默、馬克-米歇爾·雷、尚·諾斯、蘭伯特等人
出版日期 1759年1月[1][2]
媒介 出版
ISBN 不適用

憨第德》(法语Candide, ou l'Optimisme)是1759年,啟蒙運動時期哲學家伏爾泰所著的一部法國諷刺小說。這部中篇小說以一位名為憨第德的青年揭開序幕,其在伊甸園樂土過著受庇護的生活,並被他的老師潘格羅士灌輸予萊布尼茨式樂觀主義。然而,安逸的日子突然終止,伴隨著憨第德緩慢而痛苦的理想幻滅,見證、體驗了世間的巨大艱難。伏爾泰為憨第德做出結論,如不徹底的拒斥樂觀主義,擁護無解的準則,「我們必須深耕我們的心田」,代替潘格羅士的萊布尼茨式魔咒,「在千萬可能世界中最美好的地方,結局永遠會是美好的」。

《憨第德》以它諷刺的語調,以及它古怪、怪誕且緊湊的故事情節聞名。有著類似較嚴肅的教育小說浪人小說的情節,它滑稽地模仿了許多冒險與愛情的陳詞濫調,並以尖刻、風趣而不帶感情的筆調描寫其奮鬥過程。被論述的事情仍舊通常取材自歷史事件,例如七年戰爭1755年里斯本大地震[5]。當伏爾泰時代的哲學家們為罪惡問題爭辯不休時,這本小說裡的憨第德也不例外,儘管其更直接而滑稽。伏爾泰透過諷喻譏笑宗教信仰、神學家、政府、軍隊、哲學與哲學家;最顯著的,他抨擊萊布尼茨及他的樂觀主義。[6][7]

參考資料[编辑]

註釋[编辑]

  1. ^ Davidson (2005), p. 52–53
  2. ^ Williams (1997), p. 1–3
  3. ^ Wootton (2000), p. 1
  4. ^ Aldridge (1975), p. 251–254, 361
  5. ^ Mason (1992), p. 10
  6. ^ Davidson (2005), p. 54
  7. ^ Aldridge (1975), p. 260

參考書目[编辑]

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延伸閱讀[编辑]

  • Adorno, Theodor W. In Redmond, Dennis. Negative Dialectics. Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp Verlag. 1970 [2007-07-28]. 
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  • Henry, Patrick. Working in Candide's Garden. Studies in Short Fiction. 1977b年春季, 14 (2): 183–184. ISSN 0039-3789. EBSCO Accession Number 7153217. 
  • Henry, Patrick. Contre Barthes. Studies on Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century. 1987, 249 [2007-07-10]. 
  • Howells, R. J. "Cette Boucherie Héroïque": "Candide" as Carnival. The Modern Language Review. 1985.4, 80 (2): 293–303. doi:10.2307/3728662. 
  • Kirby, David. The new Candide or what I learned in the theory wars. Virginia Quarterly Review. 1993年夏季, 69 (3): p393, 15p. ISSN 0042-675X. EBSCO Accession Number 9308316577. 
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  • Marsh, Leonard. Voltaire's Candide. Explicator. 2004年春季, 62 (3): 144–146. ISSN 0014-4940. EBSCO Accession Number 13275608. 
  • Oake, Roger B. Review of "Voltaire and Candide". Comparative Literature. 1961年春季, 13 (2): 176–178. doi:10.2307/1768579. 
  • Scherr, Arthur. Voltaire's Candide. Explicator. 2001年冬季, 59 (2): 225. doi:10.2307/2913581. EBSCO Accession Number 4423176. 

外部連結[编辑]