懈怠症

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精神病學裡面,[1] 懈怠症(dysaethesia aethiopica)是一個美國內科醫生塞繆爾.A.卡特賴特在1851年,作為對奴隸懶惰的原因而提出的理論,所聲稱的一種精神疾病。今天,懈怠症被視為偽科學的範例,[2]以及科學種族主義這個巨大思想的部份。[3]

歷史[编辑]

僅僅在非裔美國人之中存在,懈怠症 — "監視者稱作'壞事'(rascality)" — 以部份皮膚感覺的不敏感和"如此強烈愚蠢(hebetude)的智力缺陷,彷彿這個人半睡半醒一般"(so great a hebetude of the intellectual faculties, as to be like a person half asleep.)作為辨別的特徵。[4] 其他症狀包含了"醫療人員可以察覺的肌膚損傷,這些損傷時常出現而足夠作為症狀辨別"(lesions of the body discoverable to the medical observer, which are always present and sufficient to account for the symptoms.)[5][6]。卡特賴特指出懈怠症的存在是"相當清楚的,根據最直接且正向的證據",但是其他醫生並沒有注意到這疾病,因為他們的"注意力沒有充分針對黑人種族的疾病"(attention [had] not been sufficiently directed to the maladies of the negro race.")[4]

根據卡特賴特所說,懈怠症是"相較於在農田裡工作的奴隸,更普遍的出現於自行群集居住的自由黑人(free negroes)。並且僅僅會感染在飲食跟活動等等行為上面相近於自由黑人的奴隸。" — 事實上,卡特賴特表示, "幾乎所有的自由黑人,或多或少都患有此病,因為沒有白人在旁邊指導或者照顧他們。"[7]

卡特賴特認為懈怠症是"很容易治癒的,如果基於完整的生理原則加以治療。"[8] 肌膚的不敏感是這個疾病的其中一個症狀,因此皮膚應該被刺激:

最好刺激皮膚的方法是,首先,讓病患徹底的以溫水和肥皂洗淨;然後,以油脂塗滿全身,並且以寬皮鞭將油脂鞭打下來;接著讓病患在太陽底下進行某些粗重的工作。[8]

作家Vanessa Jackson注意到懈怠症之一的症狀是表皮的傷口,而且"最足智多謀的卡特賴特醫生決定了鞭打可以…治療此疾病。當然,有些懷疑是,是否鞭打本身是否是造成此疾病的傷口症狀真正的來源"[9]

卡特賴特表示,在規定的"療程"之後,奴隸會"看來對白人的強制權利感謝和感激…已經重新建立起他的感覺,和驅散了籠罩他智力的濃霧。"[8]

相關條目[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ Bernard J. Gallagher. The Sociology of Mental Illness. Prentice-Hall. 1987: 285. ISBN 0138211175. 
  2. ^ Mark Michael Smith. Mastered by the Clock: Time, Slavery, and Freedom in the American South. Chapel Hill, N.C.: University of North Carolina Press. 1997: 155 [2007-10-07]. ISBN 0807846937. 
  3. ^ Pilgrim, David. Question of the Month: Drapetomania. Jim Crow Museum of Racist Memorabilia. 2005.November [2007-10-04]. 
  4. ^ 4.0 4.1 Cartwright, Samuel A.. Report on the Diseases and Peculiarities of the Negro Race. DeBow's Review. 1851, XI [2007-10-04]. 
  5. ^ Paul Finkelman. Slavery & the Law. Rowman & Littlefield. 1997: 305. ISBN 0742521192. 
  6. ^ Rick Halpern, Enrico Dal Lago. Slavery and Emancipation. Blackwell Publishing. 2002: 273. ISBN 0631217355. 
  7. ^ Arthur L. Caplan, James J. McCartney, and Dominic A. Sisti. Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine. Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press. 2004: 35. ISBN 1589010140. 
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 8.2 Caplan et al., p. 37.
  9. ^ Vanessa Jackson. In Our Own Voice: African-American Stories of Oppression, Survival and Recovery in the Mental Health Systems (PDF). MindFreedom International. 5. 2002 [2007-10-07]. 

資料來源[编辑]

  • Samuel A. Cartwright, "Report on the Diseases and Physical Peculiarities of the Negro Race", The New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal 1851:691-715 (May).
    • Reprinted in DeBow's Review XI (1851). Available at Google Books and excerpted at PBS.org.
    • Reprinted in Arthur Caplan, H. Tristram Engelhardt, Jr., and James McCartney, eds, Concepts of Health and Disease in Medicine: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Boston: Addison-Wesley, 1980).
    • Reprinted in Arthur L. Caplan, James J. McCartney, Dominic A. Sisti, eds, Health, Disease, and Illness: Concepts in Medicine (Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University Press, 2004) ISBN 1589010140.

外部連接[编辑]