搜索与歼灭

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
美国士兵正在搜索越共游击队员

搜索并歼灭(Search and destroy),是一种在越南战争中被广泛使用的軍事戰略。简单地说,搜索并歼灭的流程是:利用直升机垂直起降飞机投放地面部队至指定地点,「搜索」出敌军,「歼灭」之,随即迅速撤退至后方。这种战术的实施很大程度上归功于空骑突袭英语air assault(air assault)战术的成熟,这是一种基于直升机垂直起降飞机的全新战术。[1]搜索并歼灭被认为是理想的应对对丛林游击战的战术。与其相对的传统战术是清扫并坚守英语clear and hold(clear and hold),简单地说,即「攻击」并占领敌军所在战略地点,(通过修筑战壕等方法)加固之,并无限期地「坚守」该地。从理论上来说,由于单纯的占领土地并不适用与越南战争反共产主义联盟一方,美军选择了打消耗战,通过「搜索并歼灭」的战术削弱越共实力。这样一来,死亡人数英语body count的对比就成为了检验此战术成果的工具。另外,搜索并歼灭行动往往需要遵守严格的规定。

在越战中的实际运用[编辑]

在上将威廉·威斯特摩兰(William C. Westmoreland)关于越战的的计划中,搜索与歼灭行动是第二阶段计划关键的进攻手段。在他的三阶段计划中,首先减缓越共渗透越南的步伐;然后由守转攻,消灭敌人;最后协助南越政府重建越南。与清扫并坚守行动一起,搜索与歼灭行动主要计划在1966至1967年间的第二阶段计划中实施。

具体的说,搜索与歼灭行动一般会派遣数量为数个排、连或者规模更大的战斗分遣队的美军至村庄中的越共越南人民军潜伏地点。一般行动都中,都会在目标地点旁的丛林中设伏,埋伏可能包括M18A1闊刀地雷,战术轻武器火力支援,迫击炮支援。有时还可能有来自临近火力支援基地Fire support base的炮火支援。

1967年2月,几个最大的搜索与歼灭行动在越南(西貢与13、15号公路所围成的)铁三角地区进行。越共军队的后勤基地与分部大量积聚在此地,据称数名越共高层也居住在这里。攻势以1967年2月22日的章克申城行動英语Operation Junction City(Operation Junction City,名稱來自堪薩斯州同名城市)展开,该行动共销毁了数吨粮食,歼灭越共游击队员730名,俘虏213名。这实在是一个惨淡的数字,因为铁三角地区的驻军估计有10000人以上,而斩首行动也无一成功。因此从1968年开始,搜索并歼灭与清扫并坚守行动均被顺延至第三阶段。搜索与歼灭行动的数量自此上升,特别是在北越的春节攻势后,行动的密度上升到了前所未有的高度。

缺陷[编辑]

搜索并歼灭行动有诸多缺陷。首先,清扫(clear)与搜索并歼灭行动中的歼灭(destroy)界限模糊不清。这导致了原本进攻性较低的清扫(clearing)最后变成了和搜索与歼灭行动一样的更加暴力与野蛮的战术。其次,其行动效率及对战略的推进作用都受到了质疑。

清扫(clear)与歼灭(destroy)界限模糊不清[编辑]

With the lack of distinction between “clearing” and search and destroy missions, pacification was not pushed. Guenter Lewey, a Professor of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts Amherst, argued that the generals and war planners severely underestimated the enemy’s abilities to match and exceed U.S. forces.[2] Large numbers of Viet Cong troops would be killed or captured, but they were quickly replaced. Although enemy forces were initially pushed out of certain territories, as soon as the American forces left the areas, they simple returned with more reinforcements and weapons.

行动效率及成果不理想[编辑]

The effectiveness of the mission are also doubtful. In one of the first Search and Destroy missions northwest of Dau Tieng, named Operation Attleboro, US report states that 155 U.S. soldiers were killed, while the North Vietnamese lost 1,106. In 章克申城行動英语Operation Junction City, the report also states that 282 U.S. soldiers were killed while the Viet Cong lost 1,728 guerrillas. These figures, however, should be considered in light of the methods by which they were obtained. The estimates were almost exclusively gathered by indirect means: sensor readings, sightings of secondary explosions, reports of defectors or POWs, and inference or extrapolation.[3]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Starry, p. 221
  2. ^ George C. Herring, American Strategy in Vietnam: The Postwar Debate.
  3. ^ Dougan and Weiss, p. 55.
  • GEN. Mounted Combat In Vietnam; Vietnam Studies. Department of the Army, 1978.