教宗訓令

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《教宗訓令》的梵蒂岡手抄本

教宗訓令》(拉丁语Dictatus papae)是一份可能由教皇額我略七世簽署的關於27條應屬教皇之權力的文件。[1] 一些歷史學家認為這就是額我略七世本人寫下或口述的,另一些認為是後人所撰,其中的每一條訓令也有不同來源。[2] 1087年,紅衣主教狄烏迪弟發行了一系列獻給維克托三世赦令集,其中所包含的教會法來自他搜集的各種資源。《教宗訓令》與該赦令集是如此之相似,以至於有人認為宗教訓令就是在該訓令集的基礎上寫成的,所以其年代一定比1087年還遲。[3]

該訓令的宗旨是教皇至上,其中“他可以罷免皇帝”一條使得世俗與宗教權力的界限被打破,并引起了世俗力量,特別是神聖羅馬帝國皇帝亨利四世的反抗,自此之後教廷與神聖羅馬帝國世俗權力之間的裂痕就愈來愈深了。[4]

內容[编辑]

第一至五條
1 Quod Romana ecclesia a solo Domino sit fundata. 羅馬教廷是由上帝獨自創立的
2 Quod solus Romanus pontifex iure dicatur universalis. 羅馬教宗本身就有權被稱作全世界的(教宗)
3 Quod ille solus possit deponere episcopos vel reconciliare. 他自己(羅馬教宗)就可以回覆或罷免主教
4 Quod legatus eius omnibus episcopis presit in concilio etiam inferioris gradus et adversus eos sententiam depositionis possit dare. 他在一地的使節,即使等級較低,也應淩駕所有主教之上,可以免他們的職
5 Quod absentes papa possit deponere. 教宗可能會將缺席者免職
6 Quod cum excommunicatis ab illo inter caetera nec in eadem domo debemus manere. 除其他情況外,我們不應與被逐出教會者待在同一個房間中
7 Quod illi soli licet pro temporis necessitate novas leges condere, novas plebes congregare, de canonica abbatiam facere et e contra, divitem episcopatum dividere et inopes unire. 根據耗時不同,以下行為由他來做是合法的,制定新法、聚集新會眾、為牧師建造一所修道院;另一方面,也可以將富有的主教轄區拆分或將貧窮的合併
8 Quod solus possit uti imperialibus insigniis. 他本人可使用帝國徽章
9 Quod solius papae pedes omnes principes deosculentur. 所有的諸侯都應親吻教皇的腳
10 Quod illius solius nomen in ecclesiis recitetur. 他的名字必須在教堂中談及
11 Quod hoc unicum est nomen in mundo. 這個頭銜(教皇)是世界上獨一無二的
12 Quod illi liceat imperatores deponere. 他可以罷免皇帝
13 Quod illi liceat de sede ad sedem necessitate cogente episcopos transmutare. 如果有必要,他可以遷移主教
14 Quod de omni ecclesia quocunque voluerit clericum valeat ordinare. 他有權任命任何教堂的他想要的僧侶
15 Quod ab illo ordinatus alii ecclesiae preesse potest, sed non militare; et quod ab aliquo episcopo non debet superiorem gradum accipere. 他任命的人可以主持另一個教派,但未必是從屬地位;也未必從別的主教那裡接受更高職務
16 Quod nulla synodus absque precepto eius debet generalis vocari. 沒有他的命令,任何一個宗教大會不得稱作是普遍的
17 Quod nullum capitulum nullusque liber canonicus habeatur absque illius auctoritate. 沒有他的許可,任何憲章或書籍都不得被認為是權威的
18 Quod sententia illius a nullo debeat retractari et ipse omnium solus retractare possit. 除他自己之外,他做出的判決不得被任何人撤銷
19 Quod a nemine ipse iudicari debeat. 他自己不能受任何人審判
20 Quod nullus audeat condemnare apostolicam sedem apellantem. 任何人不得給受使徒吸引者定罪
21 Quod maiores cause cuiuscunque ecclesiae ad eam referri debeant. 以後各個教堂的更重要的事件都應參考(該訓令)
22 Quod Romana ecclesia nunquam erravit nec imperpetuum scriptura testante errabit. 羅馬教廷從不犯錯,以後也永遠不會犯錯,聖經將見證這一切
23 Quod Romanus pontifex, si canonice fuerit ordinatus, meritis beati Petri indubitanter efficitur sanctus testante sancto Ennodio Papiensi episcopo ei multis sanctis patribus faventibus, sicut in decretis beati Symachi pape continetur. 如果一個羅馬教宗是按照教規任命的,那麼他毫無疑問是擁有聖彼得美德的聖人;帕維亞主教聖恩諾迪烏斯,將見證著一切,很多聖父也會同意他。這也被包含在教皇聖西馬庫斯的法令中
24 Quod illius precepto et licentia subiectis liceat accusare. 若有他的命令或許可,下級進行指控是合法的
25 Quod absque synodali conventu possit episcopos deponere et reconciliare. 他可以不經宗教大會就任免主教
26 Quod catholicus non habeatur, qui non concordat Romanae ecclesiae. 不能安處羅馬教會中者不被視為基督教徒
27 Quod a fidelitate iniquorum subiectos potest absolvere. 他可以赦免忠實于邪惡之人者

參考文獻[编辑]

  1. ^ In a series of letters issued to bishop Opizo of Lodi. Paravicini Bagliani, Agostino. Sia fatta la mia volontà. Medioevo: p. 77. 
  2. ^ Ernst Sackur has made it probable that the so-called "Dictatus Papæ" were composed by Deusdedit.", Catholic Encyclopaedia, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  3. ^ "Until quite recently Gregory VII himself was generally regarded as the author; Löwenfeld (see below) continued to maintain the authorship of Gregory, but Sackur, however, has shown that the "Indices capitulorum" in the "Collectio canonum" of Deusdedit are closely related to the brief theses known as "Dictatus Papæ" both in respect of sense and verbal text. Most probably, therefore, the latter are taken from the collection of Deusdedit, who put them together from the "Registrum Epistolarum" or letterbook of Gregory. Possibly also Deusdedit was the editor of this famous and important collection of Gregory's correspondence." Catholic Encyclopedia 1908, sub "Cardinal Deusdedit".
  4. ^ Dictatus papae, Western Oregon University
  • Medieval Sourcebook: Dictatus papae from Ernest F. Henderson, Select Historical Documents of the Middle Ages, (London: George Bell and Sons, 1910), pp. 366–367; reprinted in Brian Tierney, ed., The Middle Ages, Vol. I: Sources of Medieval History, 4th ed., (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1983) pp. 142–143.
  • Das Register Gregors. VII, ed. E. Caspar (in series M.G.H. Epistolae Selectae ii, Berlin 1920-3), pp. 202–8: section translated by G.A. Loud