# 整流器

## 半波整流器

$V_{peak} = V_{rms} \sqrt 2$
$V_{dc} = \frac{V_{peak}}{\pi}$

## 全波整流器

### 橋式全波整流

Gratz橋式全波整流：使用四個二極體的全波整流器。

### 三相整流

$V_{dc}=V_{av}=\frac{2V_p}{\pi}$
$V_{rms}=V_p(1-\frac{1}{e})$

Vdc,Vav - 直流輸出電壓，平均電壓
Vp - 峰值電壓（半波中的）
Vrms - 輸出的RMS（均方根值）電壓，註; RMS值也稱有效值
π = ~ 3.14159
e = ~ 2.71828

## 整流技術

### 等離子（Plasma，又稱電漿）形式

#### 氬氣真空管

1940~50年代常用於車用真空管收音機中，型號為0Z4的真空管也是一種氬氣真空管整流器。如本條目之前所提到的一般真空管全波整流器，0Z4具有二個陽極與一個陰極，但它最特別的一點是沒有燈絲（型號中的0代表此意）。由於電極的形狀設計，使逆向崩潰電壓遠大於順向崩潰電壓。當超過崩潰電壓時，會轉成低阻抗狀態，順向導通時0Z4的壓降約為24伏特。

## 參考資料

1. ^ 1.0 1.1 http://digitalcontentproducer.com/mag/avinstall_ac_dc/
2. ^ Mansell, A.D.; Shen, J., Pulse converters in traction applications, Power Engineering Journal, IEEE, 183–187, 2002-08-06, ISSN 0950-3366
3. ^ Hawkins Electrical Guide, 1917, Chapter 54: Rectifiers
4. ^ Cyclopedia of Applied Electricity, Vol-II, American Technical Society, Chicargo, 1924, Page 487: Alternating Current Machinery
5. ^ 運作中的水銀整流器圖片見：倫敦Belsize Park地下深處的水銀整流器之一, 倫敦Belsize Park地下深處的水銀整流器之二
6. ^ Vijay K. Sood. HVDC and FACTS Controllers: Applications Of Static Converters In Power Systems. Springer-Verlag. : 1. ISBN 978-1402078903. "The first 25 years of HVDC transmission were sustained by converters having mercury arc valves till the mid-1970s. The next 25 years till the year 2000 were sustained by line-commutated converters using thyristor valves. It is predicted that the next 25 years will be dominated by force-commutated converters [4]. Initially, this new force-commutated era has commenced with Capacitor Commutated Converters (CCC) eventually to be replaced by self-commutated converters due to the economic availability of high power switching devices with their superior characteristics."
7. ^ H. P. Westman et al.,（ed）, Reference Data for Radio Engineers, Fifth Edition, 1968, Howard W. Sams and Co., no ISBN, Library of Congress Card No. 43-14665 chapter 13
8. ^ Harvesting the sun's energy with antennas（2007）. Idaho National Laboratory. Accessed on 3 October 2008.