星際分子列表

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這是依照原子的數目編組,已在星際介質中被檢測出的分子名單。每一個被檢測出的化學式均與列出,電離的形式如被檢測到也會一併列出。

發現[编辑]

下面列出的分子都是經由分光學檢測出來的。它們的光譜特徵是由電子在不同的能階之間轉換,或是旋轉與振動光譜。這些譜線通常都是由無線電波微波或者紅外線光譜檢測出來的[1]。最早檢測出星際分子是在1937年,是以次甲基(CH)為基礎的星際分子[2]

星際分子是在拱星雲或非常稀薄的星際塵埃和氣體經由化學反應形成的。這經常發生,而通常這是由交互作用與宇宙線使分子發生電離造成的,這些帶正電的質點會以靜電力吸引鄰近的中性粒子。反應也可以在中性的原子和分子之間發生,但這種反應進行的更慢[3]

一個被檢測出富含星際分子的區域是人馬座 B2(Sgr B2),這個巨大的分子雲橫躺在銀河系的中心附近,並且是一個被頻繁檢測的目標。下表中列出的分子大約有一半是在人馬座 B2附近首先被發現的,並且其他的分子之後也幾乎都在那兒被檢測出來 [4]

分子[编辑]

以下依照原子的數目編組,列出在星際物質中被檢測出的分子,如果在分子的欄位中是空白的,表示只有離子的形式被檢測出來。在科學文獻中未被確定的,那個位置也會留空。

一氧化碳被頻繁的用作分子雲的尋蹤質量[5]

双原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
AlCl Aluminium monochloride[6][7] 一氯化铝
AlF Aluminium monofluoride[6][8] 一氟化铝
C2 Carbon dimer[9][10] 双原子碳
Fluoromethylidynium 氟化次甲基正离子 CF+[11]
CH Methylidyne radical[12] 次甲基自由基 CH+[13]
CN Cyanogen radical[14][6][15][12] 氰基自由基
CO Carbon monoxide[6] 一氧化碳 CO+[16]
CP Carbon monophosphide[15] 一磷化碳
CS Carbon monosulfide[6] 一硫化碳
FeO Iron(II) oxide[17] 氧化亚铁
H2 Molecular hydrogen[18] 分子
HCl Hydrogen chloride[19] 氯化氢
HF Hydrogen fluoride[20] 氟化氢
HO Hydroxyl radical[6] 羟基自由基
HS Sulfur hydride[21] 一硫化氢 SH+[22]
KCl Potassium chloride[6][7] 氯化钾
N2 Molecular nitrogen[23] 分子
NH Nitrogen monohydride[24] 一氮化氢
NO Nitric oxide[25] 一氧化氮
NS Nitrogen sulfide[6] 一硫化氮
NaCl Sodium chloride[6][7] 氯化钠
O2 Molecular oxygen[26] 分子
PN Phosphorus nitride[27] 一氮化磷
PO Phosphorus monoxide[28] 一氧化磷
SO Sulfur monoxide[6] 一氧化硫 SO+[13]
SiC Carborundum[6][29] 碳化硅
SiN Silicon mononitride[6] 一氮化硅
SiO Silicon monoxide[6] 一氧化硅
SiS Silicon monosulfide[6] 一硫化硅
H3+离子于1993年首先检测到,[30][31] 是存在于宇宙中的主要离子之一。

三原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
AlNC Aluminum isocyanide[6] 异氰基铝
C3 Tricarbon[10] 三原子碳
C2H Ethynyl radical[6][14] 乙炔基自由基
C2O Dicarbon monoxide[32] 一氧化二碳
C2S Thioxoethenylidene[33] 一硫化二碳
C2P [34] 二碳化一磷自由基
CO2 Carbon dioxide[35] 二氧化碳
Protonated molecular hydrogen H3+离子 H3+[36][37]
H2C Methylene[38] 亚甲基
H2O Water[39] 水分子
H2S Hydrogen sulfide[6] 硫化氢
HCN Hydrogen cyanide[6][14][40] 氰化氢
HCO Formyl radical[41] 甲酰基自由基 HCO+[13][41][42]
HCP Phosphaethyne[43] 膦杂乙炔
Thioformyl 硫杂甲酰基正离子 HCS+[13][42]
HNC Hydrogen isocyanide[44] 异氰化氢
Diazenylium 二亚胺氮鎓离子 HN2+[42]
HNO Nitroxyl[45]
Isoformyl HOC+[14]
KCN Potassium cyanide[6] 氰化钾
MgCN Magnesium cyanide[6] 一氰化镁
MgNC Magnesium isocyanide[6] 一异氰化镁
NH2 Amino radical[46] 氨基自由基
N2H+[47][13]
N2O Nitrous oxide[48] 一氧化二氮
NaCN Sodium cyanide[6] 氰化钠
OCS Carbonyl sulfide[49] 氧硫化碳
SO2 Sulfur dioxide[6][50] 二氧化硫
c-SiC2 c-Silicon dicarbide[6][29] c-二碳化硅
SiCN Silicon carbonitride[51] 碳氮化硅
SiNC Silicon naphthalocyanine[52]
甲醛分子广泛存在于星际间。[53]

四原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
l-C3H Propynlidyne[54][6] 
c-C3H Cyclopropynylidyne[55] 环丙炔基自由基
C3N Cyanoethynyl[56] 氰化乙炔基 C3N[57]
C3O Tricarbon monoxide[54] 一氧化三碳
C3S Tricarbon sulfide[6][33] 一硫化三碳
Hydronium 水合氢离子 H3O+[58]
C2H2 Acetylene[59] 乙炔
H2CN Methylene amidogen[60] H2CN+[13]
H2CO Formaldehyde[61] 甲醛
H2CS Thioformaldehyde[62] 硫代甲醛
HCCN [63] 
Protonated hydrogen cyanide 质子化的氰化氢 HCNH+[42]
Protonated carbon dioxide 质子化的二氧化碳 HOCO+[64]
HNCO Isocyanic acid[50] 异氰酸
HNCS Isothiocyanic acid[65] 异硫氰酸
NH3 Ammonia[6][66]
SiC3 Silicon tricarbide[6]  三碳化硅
甲烷分子也存在于彗星和一些太阳系行星的大气中。[67]

五原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
C5 [10] 
CH4 Methane[68][59] 甲烷
c-C3H2 Cyclopropenylidene[14][69][70] 环丙烯基自由基
l-H2C3 Propadienylidene[70] 丙二烯
H2CCN Cyanomethyl[71] 氰甲基自由基
H2C2O Ketene[50] 乙烯酮
H2CNH Methylenimine[72] 甲亚胺
Protonated formaldehyde 质子化的甲醛 H2COH+[73]
C4H Butadiynyl[6] 丁二炔 C4H[74]
HC3N Cyanoacetylene[6][14][42][70][75]  氰基乙炔
HCC-NC Isocyanoacetylene[76] 异氰基乙炔
HCOOH Formic acid[70] 甲酸
NH2CN Cyanamide[77] 氨腈
HC(O)CN Cyanoformaldehyde[78] 甲酰腈
SiC4 Silicon-carbide cluster[29] 碳化硅簇合物
SiH4 Silane[79] 甲硅烷
星际中甲酰胺(上图)可以与亚甲基结合生成乙酰胺[80]

六原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
c-H2C3O Cyclopropenone[81] 环丙烯酮
C2H4 Ethylene[59] 乙烯
CH3CN Acetonitrile[50][82] 乙腈
CH3NC Methyl isocyanide[82] 甲基异腈
CH3OH Methanol[50] 甲醇
CH3SH Methanethiol[83] 甲硫醇
l-H2C4 [84][6] 
Protonated cyanoacetylene 质子化的氰基乙炔 HC3NH+[42]
HCONH2 Formamide[80] 甲酰胺
C5H Pentynylidyne[6][33] 戊炔
HC2CHO Propynal[85] 丙炔醛
HC4N [6] 
CH2CNH Ketenimine[69] 乙烯亚胺
乙醛(上图)及其异构体乙烯醇环氧乙烷都存在于星际中。[86]

七原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
c-C2H4O Ethylene oxide[87] 环氧乙烷
CH3C2H Methylacetylene[14] 丙炔
H3CNH2 Methylamine[88] 甲胺
CH2CHCN Acrylonitrile[50][82] 丙烯腈
H2CHCOH Vinyl alcohol[86] 乙烯醇
C6H Hexatriynyl[6][33] 己三炔 C6H[89][70]
HC4CN Cyanodiacetylene[50][75][82] 氰基丁二炔
CH3CHO Acetaldehyde[6][87] 乙醛
1997年证实了乙酸分子在宇宙中的存在。[90]

八原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称
H3CC2CN Methylcyanoacetylene[91] 甲基氰基乙炔
H2COHCHO Glycolaldehyde[92] 乙醇醛
HCOOCH3 Methyl formate[50][70][92] 甲酸甲酯
CH3COOH Acetic acid[90] 乙酸
H2C6 Hexapentaenylidene[6][84] 己五烯
CH2CHCHO Propenal[69] 丙烯醛
CH2CCHCN Cyanoallene[69][91] 氰基丙二烯
C7H Heptatrienyl radical[93] 庚三烯基自由基
NH2CH2CN Amino acetonitrile[94] 氨基乙腈

九原子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
CH3C4H Methyldiacetylene[95] 甲基丁二炔
CH3OCH3 Dimethyl Ether[96] 二甲醚
CH3CH2CN Propionitrile[6][50][70][82] 丙腈
CH3CONH2 Acetamide[69][80] 乙酰胺
CH3CH2OH Trans-Ethyl Alcohol[97] 乙醇
C8H Octatetraynyl[98] 辛四炔 C8H[99][100]
HC6CN Cyanohexatriyne[6][66][101][102] 氰基己三炔
CH3CHCH2 Propylene[103]  丙烯

超过九个原子[编辑]

原子数 分子 英文名称 中文名称 离子
10 (CH3)2CO Acetone[50][104] 丙酮
10 CH3CH2CHO Propanal[69] 丙醛
10 CH3C5N Methyl-cyano-diacetylene[69] 甲基氰基丁二炔
11 HC8CN Cyanotetra-acetylene[6][102] 氰基辛四炔
11 CH3C6H Methyltriacetylene[69][95] 甲基己三炔
12 H3COC2H5 trans-ethyl methyl ether[105] 甲乙醚
12 C6H6 Benzene[84]
13 HC10CN Cyanodecapentayne[102] 氰基癸五炔
18 Naphthalene C10H8[106]

含氘原子的分子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称
HD, H2D+ Deuterated molecular hydrogen[107][108] 氘取代的H3+离子
HDO, D2O Heavy water[109][110] 重水
DCN Hydrogen cyanide[111] 氰化氘
DCO Formyl radical[111] 氘代甲酰基自由基
DNC Hydrogen isocyanide[111] 异氰基氘
N2D+ [111] 
NH2D, NHD2, ND3 Ammonia[108][112][113] 氘代氨
HDCO, D2CO Formaldehyde[108][114] 氘代甲醛
CH2DCCH, CH3CCD Methylacetylene[115][116] 氘代甲基乙炔

未经证实的分子[编辑]

分子 英文名称 中文名称
H2NH2CCOOH Glycine[117][118] 甘氨酸
CO(CH2OH)2 1,3-dihydroxypropanone[119] 二羟基丙酮

相關條目[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

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