查理士·凡而儂·波伊斯

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查理士.凡而儂.波伊斯爵士
CVBoys.jpg
查理士.凡而儂.波伊斯爵士, FRS
出生 15 March 1855
維因, 路特蘭 [1]
逝世 30 March 1944
聖瑪莉伯恩, 安多夫, 新罕布夏[1]
公民权 英國
研究領域 物理學家

查理士.凡而儂.波伊斯爵士, FRS[2] (15 March 1855 – 30 March 1944) 是一位英國物理學家,以其精巧而新穎的實驗留名後世。[3]


早年生平[编辑]

波伊斯在家中排行老八,父親Reverend Charles Boys是路特蘭維因地區英國國教會教堂的副主教。波伊斯先後就讀莫尔伯勒中学與皇家矿业学院。在皇家矿业学院就讀期間,波伊斯向Frederick Guthrie學習物理,同時也自學了高等數學,最後以礦學與冶金學專業畢業。在皇家矿业学院就讀之時,波伊斯曾發明一種機械裝置(它稱為積分繪圖器)用以繪出函數的積分。波伊斯曾在煤礦業工作過很短一陣子,後來他應Frederick Guthrie之聘,擔任了演示員


實驗物理學[编辑]

波伊斯發明了熔融石英纖維扭力彈簧,這項發明能讓他測量極微小的力量。因這項發明,波伊斯終於被認可為一位科學家。 He made the fused quartz fibres for his instrument by attaching a quartz rod to a crossbow quarrel, heating the rod to the point of melting, and firing the crossbow. By this means he produced fibre so thin that it could not be resolved with an optical microscope.[2] He used this invention to build a radiomicrometer capable of responding to the light of a single candle more than one mile away, and used that device for astronomical observations. In 1895 he published a measurement of the gravitational constant G that improved upon the accuracy achieved by Cavendish. Boys' method relied on the same theory as Cavendish's, but used two masses suspended at one height and two nearby masses suspended at a different height, to minimize the unwanted interaction between opposite masses.[4]

He was a critic of the solar design of Frank Shuman, so Shuman hired him, and together they patented a "Sun-Boiler", which is similar to modern day parabolic trough solar power plants.[5]


公共服務與教育事業[编辑]

In 1897 Boys became a Metropolitan Gas Referee, charged with assessing a fair price for coal gas. He initially worked on the replacement of the standard candle, used to determine the quality of the gas for lighting, by the Harcourt pentane lamp. As heating grew to become the principal use of coal gas, Boys undertook fundamental work on calorimetry to measure and record the heat content of the gas, achieving a substantial increase in precision of measurement. At this time the national gas bill for the United Kingdom was fifty million pounds, so a one-percent correction to the bill represented a very significant amount of money.[2]

Boys also worked on high-speed photography of lightning and bullets in flight, and conducted public lectures on the properties of soap films, which were gathered into the book Soap Bubbles: Their Colours and the Forces Which Mould Them, a classic of scientific popularization. The first edition of Soap Bubbles appeared in 1890 and the second in 1911; it has remained in print to this day. The book deeply impressed French writer Alfred Jarry, who in 1898 wrote the absurdist novel Exploits and Opinions of Dr. Faustroll, Pataphysician, in which the title character, who was born at the age of 63 and sails in a sieve, is described as a friend of C.V. Boys (see also 'Pataphysics).

榮譽[编辑]

Boys was an assistant professor at the Royal College of Science (now Imperial College London) in South Kensington from 1889 to 1897, as well as an examiner at the University of London. In 1899 he presented the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1888[2] and knighted in 1935. He was awarded the Royal Medal in 1896 and the Rumford Medal in 1924. He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1939.

私人生活[编辑]

1892年,波伊斯與Marion Amelia Pollock結婚。但Marion Amelia Pollock後來與劍橋數學家Andrew Forsyth有染 ,這個醜聞使得Andrew Forsyth不得不辭去在劍橋擔任的講席。波伊斯於1910年與Marion Amelia Pollock離婚,而Marion Amelia Pollock後來就正式嫁給Andrew Forsyth

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 J J O'Connor and E F Robertson, "Sir Charles Vernon Boys", MacTutor History of Mathematics archive, University of St Andrews
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Rayleigh, B.. Charles Vernon Boys. 1855-1944. Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 1944年, 4 (13): 771. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1944.0021.  编辑
  3. ^ O'Connor, John J.; Robertson, Edmund F., Boys//MacTutor History of Mathematics archive 
  4. ^ On the Newtonian Constant of Gravitation. Nature. 1894年, 50 (1292): 330. doi:10.1038/050330a0.  编辑
  5. ^ Solar Thermal Power and Energy Storage Historical Perspective