植结石

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植结石显微形象

植结石英语phytolith,plant stone),是存在于多种高等植物细胞中的显微结构小体。最常见的类型是质植结石,中文又译植硅石、植物硅酸体等。植硅石的大小和形状与植物种类与部位有关,具有鉴定意义。草酸钙质植结石也是常见类型。

功能[编辑]

植结石有多种功能。一些植结石可能和植物的结构和支撑功能有关,另一些则使植物纤维具有纹理,味道较差而免被动物取食。

应用[编辑]

考古学[编辑]

植结石容易保存在考古地层与遗物中,因此常用来鉴定史前栽培植物。

古生物学[编辑]

植结石在化石遗存中很丰富,在晚泥盆纪地层中就有发现,可用来追溯古生物环境与植被变迁。[1]

碳螯合作用[编辑]

最近的研究还发现,元素也可以在许多植结石中积聚。[2]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ Carter, J.A. Late Devonian, Permian and Triassic phytoliths from Antarctica. Micropaleontology. 1999, 45 (1): 56–61 [2008-04-22]. doi:10.2307/1486202. 
  2. ^ Plantstones could help lock away carbon,Nowak, Rachel, New Scientist Magazine issue 2637, January 5 2008, Accessed January 2008]

参考[编辑]

  • (中文)派潘诺 多洛雷斯著,《植硅石分析》北京:北京大学出版社,1994.3
  • Piperno, D. R. 1988. Phytolith analysis: an archaeological and geological perspective.
  • Thorn, V. C. 2004. An annotated bibliography of phytolith analysis and atlas of selected New Zealand subantarctic and subalphine phytoliths.
  • Meunier, J. D. 2001. Phytoliths: applications in earth sciences and human history.
  • Kealhofer, L. 1998. Opal phytoliths in Southeast Asian flora.
  • Rapp, G. R. 1992. Phytolith systematics: emerging issues.
  • Ciochon, R. L., Piperno, D. R. and Thompson, R. G. 1990. Opal phytoliths found on the teeth of the extinct ape Gigantopithecus blacki: Implications for paleodietary studies. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 87: 8120-8124.
  • Twiss, P. C., Suess, E., & Smith, R. M. 1969. Morphological classification of grass phytoliths. Proc. Soil Sci. Soc. America.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2004. Plants and People in Ancient Ecuador: The Ethnobotany of the Jama River Valley. Wadsworth/Thomson Learning, Case Studies in Archaeology Series, Belmont , CA 180 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M. 2000. Paleoethnobotany. A Handbook of Procedures. Second Edition. Academic Press, San Diego. 700 pp.
  • Piperno, D. R. and D. M. Pearsall. 1998. The Origins of Agriculture in the Lowland Neotropics. Academic Press, San Diego. 400 pp.
  • Pearsall, D. M., K. Chandler-Ezell, and J. A. Zeidler. 2004. Maize in ancient Ecuador: Results of residue analysis of stone tools from the Real Alto site. Journal of Archaeological Science 31:423-442.
  • Darwin, C. R. 1846. "An Account of the Fine Dust Which Often Falls on Vessels in the Atlantic Ocean," Quarterly Journal of the Geological Society of London 2 (Read 4 June 1845): 26-30. (http://darwin-online.org.uk/content/frameset?itemID=F1672&viewtype=text&pageseq=3).

外部链接[编辑]