水猿假說

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假說中提出的論點
涉水中的大猩猩

水猿假說英语Aquatic ape hypothesis,AAH)是對人類演化過程的一個假說,這個理論假設現代人類的共同祖先曾經度過一段半水棲時期,之後才又回到以陸地為主的生活方式。這個理論起源於科學家觀察到人類與水棲哺乳類生物之間,存在著類似的生理結構,因此提出這個假說。支持者認為這解釋了人類如何演化出雙足步行方式與無毛的體表,但目前並沒有足夠的化石與考古證據可以支持這項理論。

歷史[编辑]

1942年,德國病理學家魏斯登霍法首先提出這種說法[1],但是沒有受到重視。

1960年,英國海洋生物學家阿利斯特·哈代在《新科學家》發表水棲猿類的短文[2],但是並未被學界所廣泛接受。

1967年,英國動物學家莫里斯在《裸猿》中簡短提及這個概念[3],英國作家伊蓮·摩根讀到這本書,進而研究並出版一系列有關水猿假說的著作[4]

假說[编辑]


乾草原假說 水猿假說
棲息地 5百萬年前由於氣候暖化,導致非洲的森林減少,於是人、猿開始分家,原先生活在樹上的人類祖先因此離開樹林。留在森林的後代便是猿類,遷移至草原的後代便是人類。 5百萬年前的大裂谷地區是溪流交錯、湖泊遍布的沼澤地。定期氾濫的沼澤地迫使人類祖先使用兩足行走涉水。
兩足行走 為了解放雙手,以持用武器,因此改用雙腿奔跑。
在開闊草原上直立行走,可以降低曝曬面積,避免體溫過高。
源自涉水所需,可在涉水過程中繼續呼吸。
體表無毛 在炎熱的大草原追捕獵物導致身體過熱,所以褪去體表毛髮。 適應水棲環境的結果,可減少水中移動的阻力。

批評[编辑]

水猿假說 支持 反對
體表無毛 和大猿比較,人類體表幾乎無毛;反而與犀牛大象等有著水棲祖先的動物類似[5]
人類毛髮生長方向與游泳時的水流方向相同[6]
體表無毛只對全水棲性哺乳類有優勢,例如海豚[7],而且這是經過數百萬年的演化結果。
呼吸控制 和其他靈長類比較,人類可自主控制吸氣吐氣憋氣[8][9],這有助於潛水或游泳。 The position, evolutionary timing of changes, and size of the nerve openings in the vertebra suggest that breath control in humans improved because of the increased complexity and use of speech rather than an aquatic phase of evolution.[10] In addition, breath control is thought to be preceded by bipedalism, which frees the muscles around the upper torso from locomotion and allows breathing rates to occur independent of locomotion. Voluntary speech is thought to be a sufficient evolutionary pressure to explain breath control, independent of other explanations. The vocalizations of dolphins and other aquatic species are not thought to be comparable to humans. In addition, certain birds have speech and breath control comparable to humans, without a phase of aquatic adaptation.[11]
潛水反射 當頭部浸入水中會發生潛水反射 (心跳減緩、血管收縮)[12] 潛水反射可被解釋為對失溫的反應[13]
發達大腦 大腦的發展與攝食海產中豐富的omega-3omega-6脂肪酸有關[14] 含必須脂肪酸的深海魚類的棲息環境與人類棲息的沿海地區相差甚遠。
皮下脂肪 和其他靈長類比較,人類皮下有一層脂肪,特別是嬰兒[2][15]。與海洋哺乳動物相似。有保暖及浮力的功能。 皮膚裡的血管可以繞過脂肪,進行體溫調節[11]
皮脂腺 與其他靈長類比較,人類有著大量擴散的皮脂腺[16]
兩足行走 陸地上的兩足行走造成種種病痛,如背部、膝部及器官的相關疾病,而水棲環境可支持關節和軀幹[8][17] the disadvantages cited for bipedalism within the AAH are often the result of comparing humans to medium, terrestrial quadrupeds, but human evolution never included a period of quadrupedal locomotion. Instead, human evolution features mainly brachiation, suspension and climbing as the primary method of transportation, with a gradual increase in bipedal locomotion over time. In addition, the elongated lower limbs of humans, which is explained as improving swimming speeds, appears only after the evolution of the Homo genus.[11] Brachiating apes are more commonly bipedal than are ground-dwelling ones, and of aquatic species only birds travel bipedally on land. Also, the human fossil record demonstrates a gradual adaptation from tree-dwelling to bipedalism rather than an abrupt transition to an aquatic environment.[18]
喉頭下降 除了海象等水棲哺乳類外,人類是唯一喉頭下降 (鼻腔和口腔相通) 的哺乳動物[6][19]。下降喉頭使人類可用口腔呼吸。 the human larynx is not shaped like the larynxes of aquatic animals; it forms and descends as an infant begins to speak, making it easier to aspirate water and drown. Additionally, a descended larynx is not unique to aquatic animals, and permanently or temporarily descended larynxes are seen in dogs, pigs, goats, monkeys,[20] big cats,[21] deer,[22] and young chimps.[23] Mainstream anthropology explain the descended larynx as an adaptation to improve vocalizations by increasing the number of pronounceable vowels and improving the ability of humans to control their speech.[11]
鼻子形態 鼻孔朝下可避免水灌入鼻孔[6] 不同种族的人的鼻子的形状变化很大,科学家相信这跟人生存地方的气候不同有关,而且应该是为了在吸入空气时温暖和加湿空气,而不是为了防止在游泳时水进入鼻子。此外,鼻子周围的肌肉并不认为是退化的,反而是有助于人类表达情感以及加强交流。[11]
指間殘跡 手指間有著類似蹼的祖跡[24] 所谓似蹼的祖跡不过是一种遗传缺陷,在人和猩猩手上都存在。[18][11]

相關條目[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ Westenhöfer, M. Der Eigenweg des Menschen. Berlin: Mannstaedt & Co. 1942. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Hardy, A.. Was man more aquatic in the past (pdf). New Scientist. 1960, 7: 642–645. 
  3. ^ Morris, Desmond. The Naked Ape. McGraw-Hill. 1967: 29. ISBN 0 09 948201 0. 
  4. ^ Morgan's books on the topic include:
  5. ^ Morgan, E. The Aquatic Ape. Stein & Day Pub. 1982. ISBN 0-285-62509-8. 
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 6.2 Morgan, Elaine. The Aquatic Ape Hypothesis. Souvenir Press. 1997. ISBN 0-285-63518-2. 
  7. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为Jablonski2008的引用提供文字
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Niemitz C. A Theory on the Evolution of the Habitual Orthograde Human Bipedalism - The "Amphibisce Generalistheorie". Anthropologischer Anzeiger. 2002, 60: 3–66. 
  9. ^ Patrick, John. Human Respiratory Adaptations for Swimming and Diving. Souvenir Press. 1991. ISBN 0-285-63033 4. 
  10. ^ MacLarnon, A.M.; Hewitt, G.P. The evolution of human speech: The role of enhanced breathing control. American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 1999, 109 (3): 341–363. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8644(199907)109:3<341::AID-AJPA5>3.3.CO;2-U. 
  11. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为pmid9361254的引用提供文字
  12. ^ Odent M. We are All Water Babies. Celestial Arts. 1996. ISBN 0890877580. 
  13. ^ Hanna, N; Mustard A. The Art of Diving: And Adventure in the Underwater World. Globe Pequot. 2007: 193. ISBN 1599212277. 
  14. ^ Ellis DV. Wetlands or aquatic ape? Availability of food resources. Nutrition and health (Berkhamsted, Hertfordshire). 1993, 9 (3): 205–17. PMID 8183488. ; Cunnane, S., Plourde, M., Stewart, K., Crawford, M. Docosahexaenoic Acid and Shore-Based Diets in Hominin Encephalization: A Rebuttal. American Journal of Human Biology. 2007, 19 (4): 578–591. doi:10.1002/ajhb.20673. ; Crawford, M; et al. Evidence for the unique function of docosahexanoic acid (DHA) during the evolution of the modern hominid brain. Lipids. 2000, 34: S39–S47. doi:10.1007/BF02562227. 
  15. ^ Pawlowski B. Why are human newborns so big and fat?. Human Evolution. 1998, 13: N1. 
  16. ^ Kingdon, Jonathan. Lowly origin: where, when, and why our ancestors first stood up. Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press. 2003: 242. ISBN 0-691-05086-4. 
  17. ^ Verhaegen M. Origin of hominid bipedalism. Nature. 1987, 325: 305–6. doi:10.1038/325305d0. 
  18. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为Straightdope的引用提供文字
  19. ^ Crelin, Edmund S. The Human Vocal Tract: Anatomy, Function, Development, and Evolution. New York: Vantage Press. 1987. ISBN 0 533 06967 X. 
  20. ^ Fitch, WT. Comparative Vocal Production and the Evolution of Speech: Reinterpreting the Descent of the Larynx". (编) Wray A. The Transition to Language. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 2002: 21-45. 
  21. ^ Hauser, MD; Fitch WT. What Are the Uniquely Human Components of the Language Faculty?. (编) Christiansen MH Kirby S. Language Evolution: The States of the Art. Oxford University Press. 2003: 158-181. 
  22. ^ McElligott, AG; Birrer M; Vannoni E. Retraction of the mobile descended larynx during groaning enables fallow bucks (Dama dama) to lower their formant frequencies. Journal of Zoology. 2006, 270 (2): 340–345. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2006.00144.x. 
  23. ^ Nishimura T, Mikami A, Suzuki J, Matsuzawa T. Descent of the larynx in chimpanzee infants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2003-06, 100 (12): 6930–3. doi:10.1073/pnas.1231107100. PMC 165807. PMID 12775758. 
  24. ^ Roede M. The aquatic ape: fact or fiction?: the first scientific evaluation of a controversial theory of human evolution. London: Souvenir Press. 1991: 99. ISBN 0-285-63033-4. 

外部連結[编辑]