洋基歌

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洋基歌
(Yankee Doodle)
Sprit of '76.2.jpeg
油画《七六年之精神》,又名《洋基傻小子》。
作曲 传统歌曲
作词 理查德·沙克伯勒(?)
出版时间 1770年代
语言 英语
类别 儿歌

洋基歌》(Yankee Doodle)是一首美国传统歌曲,其起源可追溯至美国七年战争时期。今天这首歌在美国通常被当作爱国歌曲,它同时還是康乃狄克州的州歌[1]

这首歌的真正源头仍不清楚[2]。常見的说法认为这首歌是在美国独立战争以前英军用以嘲笑殖民地居民粗俗的衣着和举止的,而“洋基”一词是对参加法印战争新英格兰人的轻蔑之词。这首歌的曲调很可能来自与儿歌《露茜的钱袋》(Lucy Locket),其中一个版本的歌词可能来自于一名英国外科医生理查德·沙克伯勒(Richard Shuckburgh)[3]。虽然这首歌的歌词带有贬义,然而独立战争期间美军却采用《洋基歌》作爲他们自己的歌,以表明他们对自己朴素的家纺衣着和毫不矫揉造作的举止感到自豪。洋基歌的歌词有许多不同版本。多年来,这首歌在美国一直被当作非正式的国歌,也是最受欢迎的儿歌。在各类电影电视动画片中时常能听见这首歌曲。

歌词[编辑]

今天洋基歌最常見版本的第一段歌词如下:

英文原词) 中文意译)
Yankee Doodle went to town,
A-Riding on a pony;
He stuck a feather in his cap,
And called it macaroni.
洋基傻小子跑进城,
骑着隻小马驹,
他在帽子里插根羽毛,
叫它做通心粉式假发;

Doodle这个词最早出现在17世纪初[4],可能源于低地德语dudeldödel,意思是“蠢人”或“傻瓜”。而macaroni(“通心粉”)指的是一种流行于1770年代的假发,在同时期也成了對趕時髦人士的蔑稱[5]。第一段歌词可能暗示着美国人(洋基佬)没见过世面,以为在头上插根羽毛就算时尚了[6]

洋基歌第一節與其副歌的歌詞,刻在公園小徑上。

早期版本[编辑]

最早版本的歌词大约形成在1755年或1758年,具体时间还存有争议[7]

英文原词) 中文意译)
Brother Ephraim sold his Cow
And bought him a Commission;
And then he went to Canada
To fight for the Nation;
But when Ephraim he came home
He proved an arrant Coward,
He wouldn't fight the Frenchmen there
For fear of being devour'd.
埃夫莱姆兄弟卖了他的奶牛,
给自己买了个军职,
随后他跑到加拿大,
好为国家作战;
但是等到埃夫莱姆回到家,
大家才发现他是个十足的懦夫,
他不愿在那儿抗击法国人,
因为他害怕被活吞了;

其中的埃夫莱姆影射的是战死于乔治湖战役的马萨诸塞州陆军上校埃夫莱姆·威廉姆斯(Ephraim Williams)。

英国人经常与某个版本的歌词联系上,此版本歌词与一个名为托马斯·迪特森的马萨诸塞州比勒瑞卡镇人有关。迪特森在1775年3月在波士顿因为试图购买滑膛枪而被英国人涂柏油、粘羽毛

英文原词) 中文意译)
Yankee Doodle came to town,
For to buy a firelock,
We will tar and feather him,
And so we will John Hancock.
洋基傻小子跑进城,
想要买上把燧火枪,
我们要把他涂上柏油粘上羽毛,
我们对约翰·汉考克也要这么干;

也正因为这首歌,比勒瑞卡镇宣称它是洋基歌中傻小子的“故乡”[8][9],同时认为正是从此开始,美国人把这首本来是用以嘲笑他们的歌拿来嘲笑英国人。在列克星敦和康科德战役之后,一家波士顿报纸作了如下报导: “在被民兵赶回波士顿以后,一个英国人问他的军官兄弟对这首歌有什么看法,——‘去他的,’他回答道,‘他们逼着我们就着这歌跳舞,直到跳不动了为止。’——从那以后他们就不再喜欢这首歌了。”

邦克山戰役之后,英国人又作了一组歌词:

英文原词) 中文意译)
The seventeen of June, at Break of Day,
The Rebels they supriz'd us,
With their strong Works, which they'd thrown up,
To burn the Town and drive us.
六月十七日,黎明时分,
叛贼们把我们吓了一跳,
他们用那在一夜之间建起的力量,
烧平了城镇赶走了我们;

1788年2月6日,马萨诸塞州议会在布拉特尔街礼拜堂以186票对168票通过了美国宪法。为了表示庆祝,一个新版本的歌词又开始传唱[10],以下是歌词节选:

英文原词) 中文意译)
The 'vention did in Boston meet,
The State House could not hold 'em
So then they went to Fed'ral Street,
And there the truth was told 'em...
And ev'ry morning went to prayer,
And then began disputing,
Till oppositions silenced were,
By arguments refuting.
Now politicians of all kinds,
Who are not yet decided,
May see how Yankees speak their minds,
And yet are not divided.
So here I end my Fed'ral song,
Composed of thirteen verses;
May agriculture flourish long
And commerce fill our purses!
议会终于在波士顿召开,
会议大厦却装不下,
他们只好跑到联邦街上,
在那儿他们知道了真相……
每日清晨先去祈祷,
随后就开始争吵,
直到对手沉默不语,
辩无可辩为止。
各式各样的政治家,
那些还没有做出决定的,
现在能看见洋基佬是如何表达他们的意见,
还有他们是多么团结。
我的联邦之歌到此完结,
此歌共有十三乐章;
愿农业兴盛发达,
愿商业使我们的钱包鼓囊!

完整版本[编辑]

今天大家熟知的完整版本歌词如下[11]

Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony,
Stuck a feather in his cap
And called it macaroni'.
Chorus:
Yankee Doodle keep it up,
Yankee Doodle dandy,
Mind the music and the step,
And with the girls be handy.
Fath'r and I went down to camp,
Along with Captain Gooding,
And there we saw the men and boys
As thick as hasty puddin'.
Chorus
And there we saw a thousand men
As rich as Squire David,
And what they wasted every day,
I wish it could be saved.
Chorus
The 'lasses they eat it every day,
Would keep a house a winter;
They have so much, that I'll be bound,
They eat it when they've mind ter.
Chorus
And there I see a swamping gun
Large as a log of maple,
Upon a deuced little cart,
A load for father's cattle.
Chorus
And every time they shoot it off,
It takes a horn of powder,
and makes a noise like father's gun,
Only a nation louder.
Chorus
I went as nigh to one myself
As 'Siah's inderpinning;
And father went as nigh again,
I thought the deuce was in him.
Chorus
Cousin Simon grew so bold,
I thought he would have cocked it;
It scared me so I shrinked it off
And hung by father's pocket.
Chorus
And Cap'n Davis had a gun,
He kind of clapt his hand on't
And stuck a crooked stabbing iron
Upon the little end on't
Chorus
And there I see a pumpkin shell
As big as mother's bason,
And every time they touched it off
They scampered like the nation.
Chorus
I see a little barrel too,
The heads were made of leather;
They knocked on it with little clubs
And called the folks together.
Chorus
And there was Cap'n Washington,
And gentle folks about him;
They say he's grown so 'tarnal proud
He will not ride without em'.
Chorus
He got him on his meeting clothes,
Upon a slapping stallion;
He sat the world along in rows,
In hundreds and in millions.
Chorus
The flaming ribbons in his hat,
They looked so tearing fine, ah,
I wanted dreadfully to get
To give to my Jemima.
Chorus
I see another snarl of men
A digging graves they told me,
So 'tarnal long, so 'tarnal deep,
They 'tended they should hold me.
Chorus
It scared me so, I hooked it off,
Nor stopped, as I remember,
Nor turned about till I got home,
Locked up in mother's chamber.
Chorus

变奏与戏仿版本[编辑]

Carrie Rehkopf演奏

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洋基歌拥有许多变奏与戏仿版本,包括以下这个今天最常见的版本[12]

英文原词) 中文意译)
Yankee Doodle went to town
A-riding on a pony
He stuck a feather in his hat
And called it macaroni
Yankee Doodle, keep it up
Yankee Doodle dandy
Mind the music and the step
and with the girls be handy!
Father and I went down to camp
Along with Captain Gooding
And there we saw the men and boys
As thick as hasty pudding.
Chorus
And there was Captain Washington
Upon a slapping stallion
A-givin' orders to his men
I guess there was a million.
Chorus
洋基傻小子跑进城,
骑着只小马驹,
他在帽子里插根羽毛,
叫它做通心粉式假发;
洋基傻小子,接着装,
洋基傻小子赶时髦,
伴着音乐翩翩起舞,
对姑娘们可有一手!
老爹和我上军营,
跟着上尉古丁,
在那儿我们见了不少男人男孩,
人山人海堆得像块布丁。
副歌
统帅华盛顿也在那儿,
骑着只高头大马,
正在发号施令,
我猜他手下至少有上百万人。
副歌

文化影响[编辑]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ STATE OF CONNECTICUT, Sites º Seals º Symbols; Connecticut State Register & Manual; retrieved on May 23, 2008
  2. ^ Sonneck, Oscar George Theodore. Report on The Star-spangled Banner, Hail Columbia, America, Yankee Doodle. New York, Dover Publications [1972]. ISBN 0-486-22237-3. 
  3. ^ A. Lomax, John; Lomax, Alan. American ballads and folk songs. New York: Dover. 1994: 521. ISBN 978-0-486-28276-3. 
  4. ^ "doodle", n, Oxford English Dictionary. Accessed April 29th, 2009.
  5. ^ J. Woodforde, The Strange Story of False Hair (London: Taylor & Francis, 1971), p. 40.
  6. ^ R. Ross, Clothing: a global history : or, The Imperialists' new clothes (Polity, 2008), p. 51.
  7. ^ Carola, Chris. Wish "Yankee Doodle" a happy 250th birthday. Maybe.. Associated Press. 07/05/08 [2009-09-10]. 
  8. ^ The Billerica Colonial Minute Men; The Thomas Ditson story; retrieved on July 10, 2008
  9. ^ [1]; Town History and Genealogy; retrieved on October 20, 2008
  10. ^ [2]; Philadelphia Commentaries on the Boston Procession
  11. ^ Gen. George P. Morris - "Original Yankee Words", The Patriotic Anthology, Doubleday, Doran & Company, Inc. publishers, 1941. Introduction by Carl Van Doren. Literary Guild of America, Inc., New York N.Y.
  12. ^ 19 April 2008. Yankee Doodle (Lyrics). YouTube. 2008-04-19 [2009-09-10]. 
  13. ^ Berg, Jerome S. On the Short Waves, 1923-1945: Broadcast Listening in the Pioneer Days of Radio. 1999, McFarland. ISBN 0-7864-0506-6, page 104

外部链接[编辑]