海菊蛤屬

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海菊蛤屬
Spondylus
化石時期: Mesozoic–Present
海菊蛤(S. regius)的外殼
海菊蛤S. regius)的外殼
科學分類
界: 動物界 Animalia
門: 軟體動物門 Mollusca
綱: 雙殼綱 Bivalvia
目: 海扇蛤目 Pectinoida
亞目: 海扇蛤亞目 Pectinina
總科: 海扇蛤總科 Pectinoidea
科: 海菊蛤科 Spondylidae
Gray, 1826
屬: 海菊蛤屬 Spondylus
Linnaeus, 1758

見內文

海菊蛤,又稱海菊貝紅螺車蠔,是海扇蛤目的其中一海菊蛤科Spondylidae),以及此科下唯一的海菊蛤屬Spondylus)。海菊蛤的外觀與牡蠣科相似,但其外殼帶有紅色。其殼內之肉可供食用,中國的西沙海域盛產的紅螺,特別鮮味[1]

The many species of Spondylus vary considerably in appearance and range. They are grouped in the same superfamily as the scallops. They are not closely related to true oysters (family Ostreidae), however they do cement themselves to rocks, rather than attach themselves by a byssus. Their key characteristic is the two parts of their shells are hinged together with a ball-and-socket type of hinge, rather than a toothed hinge as is more common in other bivalves. They also still retain vestigial anterior and posterior auricles ("ears", triangular shell flaps) along the hinge line.

Liks scallops, Spondylus spp. have multiple eyes around the edges of their shells, and have relatively well-developed nervous systems. Their nervous ganglia are concentrated in the visceral region, with recognisable optic lobes connected to the eyes.

Spondylus shells are much sought after by collectors, and a lively commercial market exists in them.

歷史[编辑]

The genus Spondylus originated in the Mesozoic era and can be found in fossil forms in Cretaceous rocks in the Fort Worth Formation of Texas and in the Trent River Formation of Vancouver, as well as other parts of North America.[2][3]

Archaeological evidence shows people in Neolithic Europe were trading the shells of S. gaederopus to make bangles and other ornaments as early as 4500 BC (Varna Necropolis). The shells were harvested from the Aegean Sea, but were transported far into the centre of the continent. In the LBK and Lengyel cultures, Spondylus shells from the Aegean Sea were worked into bracelets and belt buckles.

S. princeps is found off the coast of Ecuador, and has been important to Andean peoples since pre-Columbian times, serving as offerings to the Pachamama, as well as some kind of currency.[4] In fact, much like in Europe, the Spondylus shells also reached far and wide, as pre-Hispanic Ecuadorian peoples traded them with peoples as far north as present-day Mexico and as far south as the central Andes.[5] The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and the sea, and often depicted Spondylus shells in their art.[6]

物種[编辑]

Pacific thorny oyster, S. crassisquama Lamark, 1819, from the Sea of Cortez, Mexico
The interior of two fossil valves of Spondylus from the Pliocene of Cyprus
Cat's tongue oyster, Spondylus linguaefelis Sowerby, 1847, from Hawaii
A view of the colorful mantle edges of a live thorny oyster from East Timor: The eyes can be seen on the fringe between the mantle and the shell.

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 舌尖上的中國
  2. ^ Finsley, Chalres. 1999. A Field Guide to the Fossils of Texas. Gulf Publishing. Lanham, Maryland. plate 55.
  3. ^ Ludvigsen, Rolf & Beard, Graham. 1997. West Coast Fossils: A Guide to the Ancient Life of Vancouver Island. pg. 104
  4. ^ Carter, Benjamin. "Spondylus in South American Prehistory" In Spondylus in Prehistory: New Data and Approaches. Ed. Fotis Ifantidis and Marianna Nikolaidou. BAR International Series 2216. Oxford: Archaeopress, 2011: 63-89.
  5. ^ Shimada, Izumi. “Evolution of Andean Diversity: Regional Formations (500 B.C.E-C.E. 600). The Cambridge History of the Native People of the Americas. Vol. III, pt. 1. Ed. Frank Salomon & Stuart B. Schwartz. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999: 350-517, esp. "Mesoamerican-Northwest South American Connections", pp. 430-436.
  6. ^ Berrin, Katherine & Larco Museum. The Spirit of Ancient Peru:Treasures from the Museo Arqueológico Rafael Larco Herrera. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1997.

外部連結[编辑]

參考書目[编辑]

史前歐洲[编辑]

  • F. IFANTIDIS/M. NIKOLAIDOU (eds.), 2011.Spondylus in Prehistory: New Data and Approaches. Contributions to the Archaeology of Shell Technologies (Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, Int. Ser. 2216)
  • P. HALSTEAD, 1993. Spondylus shell ornaments from late Neolithic Dimini, Greece: Specialized manufacture or unequal accumulation? Antiquity 67: 603–609.
  • Vl. PODBORSKÝ (Hrsg.), 2002. Dvĕpohřebištĕ Neolitického lidu s Lineární Keramikou ve Vedrovicích na Moravĕ (Brno, Masarykovy University Philosophy Faculty Dept. of Archaeology and Museology).
  • J. RODDEN, 1970. The Spondylus-shell trade and the beginnings of the Vinča culture. In:Actes du VIIe Congres International des Sciences Prehistoriques et Protohistoriques: 411-413 (Praha: Akademia Nauk).
  • M. L. SÉFÉRIADÈS, 2000. Spondylus gaederopus: Some observations on the earliest European long distance exchange system. In: Hiller, S. and Nikolov, V. (Hrsg.), Karanovo III: Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa (Wien: Phoibos Verlag) 423-437.
  • M. L. SÉFÉRIADÈS, Spondylus and Long-Distance Trade in Prehistoric Europe In: Anthony, D. W. (ed.), The Lost World of Old Europe: The Danube Valley, 5000-3500 BC. (Princeton) 179-189.
  • J. SHACKLETON/H. ELDERFIELD, 1993. Strontium isotope dating of the source of Neolithic European Spondylus shell artefacts. Antiquity 64: 312-315.
  • N. SHACKLETON/C. RENFREW, 1970. Neolithic trade routes realigned by oxygen isotope analyses. Nature 228: 1062-5.
  • H. TODOROVA, 2000. Die Spondylus-Problematik heute. In: Hiller, S. and Nikolov, V. (Hrsg.), Karanovo III: Beiträge zum Neolithikum in Südosteuropa (Wien, Phoibos Verlag) 415-422.
  • Sl. VENCL, 1959. Spondylove šperky v podunajskem Neolitů, Archeologicke Rozhledy 9: 699-742.