溫迪哥

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溫迪哥英语Wendigo,英文中也拼写作windigo, weendigo, windago, waindigo, windiga, witiko, wihtikow等)[1] 是一種食人怪物,源自於美國加拿大阿尔冈昆族(Algonquian)印地安人傳說

它们被认为是遭恶灵附身的人类变化成具有人类或怪物特征的食人怪物,它们在面临危险的情况下同类相食,[2] 并且传说似乎已经强调把这种做法列为禁忌。

温迪戈精神病(Wendigo psychosis) 是指由于传统与文化结合的紊乱(即“文化依存症候群”,culture-bound syndrome)而对人肉与恐惧有强烈欲望最终成为食人者的精神病患者。据说这曾经发生在阿尔冈昆文化中。[3]

近年来温迪戈已成为现代恐怖小说的一大素材。

阿尔冈昆神话[编辑]

温迪戈是美国北部和加拿大的阿尔冈昆部落传统信仰体系的一部分, 尤其是在奥吉布瓦族索尔托族(Saulteaux)、克里族(Cree)、纳斯卡皮族(Naskapi)和因奴族(Innu)。[4] 尽管描述略有不同,一般这些文化都被作为恶毒温迪戈的构思,同类相食,拥有巨大精神力量的超自然个体(神灵)。[5] 它们时常与冬天、北方、寒冷、饥荒、饥饿联系在一起。[6]

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ wiindigoo奥杰布瓦语 (the source of the English word [Brightman 1988:344]), wìdjigò阿尔冈昆语(Algonquin language), wīhtikōw克里语; 原始阿尔冈昆语(Proto-Algonquian language)是 *wi·nteko·wa, 意思可能源于"猫头鹰"(owl) (Goddard 1969, cited in Brightman 1988:340).
  2. ^ Brightman (1988:337, 339, 343, 364)
  3. ^ Brightman (1988:337-8, 374)
  4. ^ Brightman (1988:359, 362); Parker (1960:603)
  5. ^ Brightman (1988:337, 339)
  6. ^ Brightman (1988:362)

参考文献[编辑]

  • Dispelling Wetiko, Breaking the Curse of Evil by Paul LEVY, NORTH ATLANTIC BOOKS (2013) ISBN 978-1-58394-548-3
  • Brightman, Robert A. The Windigo in the Material World. Ethnohistory. 1988年, 35 (4): 337–379. doi:10.2307/482140. JSTOR 482140. 
  • Colombo, J.R. ed. Wendigo. Western Producer Prairie Books, Saskatoon: 1982.
  • Goddard, Ives. Owls and Cannibals: Two Algonquian Etymologies. Paper presented at the Second Algonquian Conference, St. John's, Newfoundland. 1969年. 
  • Johnston, Basil (1990 [1976]). Ojibway Heritage. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
  • ———— (2001 [1995]). The Manitous. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
  • Marano, Lou. Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion. Current Anthropology. 1982年, 23: 385–412. 
  • Parker, Seymour. The Wiitiko Psychosis in the Context of Ojibwa Personality and Culture. American Anthropologist. 1960年, 62 (4): 603–623. doi:10.1525/aa.1960.62.4.02a00050. 
  • Schwarz, Herbert T. (1969). Windigo and Other Tales of the Ojibways, illustrated by Norval Morrisseau. Toronto: McClelland and Stewart Limited.
  • Teicher, Morton I. (1961). "Windigo Psychosis: A Study of Relationship between Belief and Behaviour among the Indians of Northeastern Canada." In Proceedings of the 1960 Annual Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, ed. Verne P. Ray. Seattle: University of Washington Press.