猫粮

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一只猫在吃碗里的干猫粮

猫粮吃的食物。

猫对饮食有着特定的营养需求。[1]某些营养成分,包括多种维生素氨基酸,会因为制造过程中的温度、压强和化学处理而被降低有效成分,因此必须在制造后再添加,以免破坏营养成分而导致营养缺乏。[2][3]例如,在肉类中被发现的胺基牛磺酸,在加工过程中会被降解,因此,合成牛磺酸通常是后期添加的。长期的牛磺酸缺乏,例如长期喂食缺乏牛磺酸的狗粮,可能会导致视网膜变性,失明心脏损害。

历史[编辑]

相比狗而言(参见狗饼干狗粮),为猫准备专门食物的观点后来才出现。这很可能是出于猫能易于谋生的看法。1837年,一位法国作家批评​​这个观点:

这是……错误的想法,认为猫,营养不良,更利于猎捕,抓到更多的老鼠;这也是一个严重的错误。没有食物的猫缺乏活力死气沉沉,它只要抓到一只老鼠来吃完,就会躺下休息、睡觉不再继续捕鼠,而只有吃饱了它才会很清醒,并按其天性去抓老鼠。[4]

1844年,另一位法国作家解释这个观点:

Normally in the country no care is taken of a cat's food, and he is left to live, it is said, from his hunting, but when he is hungry, he hunts the pantry's provisions far more than the mouse; because he does not pursue them and never watches them by need, but by instinct and attraction. And so, to neglect feeding a cat, is to render him at the same time useless and harmful, while with a few scraps regularly and properly given, the cat will never do any damage, and will render much service.[5]

He goes on to say that it is all the more unreasonable to expect a cat to live from hunting in that cats take mice more for amusement than to eat: "A good cat takes many and eats few".

By 1876, Gordon Stables emphasized the need to give cats particular food:

If then, only for the sake of making (a cat) more valuable as a vermin-killer, she ought to have regular and sufficient food. A cat ought to be fed at least twice a day. Let her have a dish to herself, put down to her, and removed when the meal is finished. Experience is the best teacher as regards the quantity of a cat's food, and in quality let it be varied. Oatmeal porridge and milk, or white bread steeped in warm milk, to which a little sugar has been added, are both excellent breakfasts for puss; and for dinner she must have an allowance of flesh. Boiled lights are better for her than horse-meat, and occasionally let her have fish. Teach your cat to wait patiently till she is served—a spoiled cat is nearly as disagreeable as a spoiled child. If you want to have your cat nice and clean, treat her now and then to a square inch of fresh butter. It not only acts as a gentle laxative, but, the grease, combining in her mouth, with the alkalinity of her saliva, forms a kind of natural cat-soap, and you will see she will immediately commence washing herself, and become beautifully clean. (N.B.—If you wish to have a cat nicely done up for showing, touch her all over with a sponge dipped in fresh cream, when she licks herself the effect is wonderful.)

Remember that too much flesh-meat, especially liver,—which ought only to be given occasionally,—is very apt to induce a troublesome diarrhoea (looseness). Do not give your pet too many tit-bits at table; but whatever else you give her, never neglect to let her have her two regular meals.[6]

In the same year, an advertisement for Spratt (better known for making dog food) said that their cat food entirely superseded "the unwholesome practice of feeding on boiled horse flesh; keeps the cat in perfect health."[7] And, in another book on cats, Stables recommended the company's food:

Attend to the feeding, and, at a more than one-day show, cats ought to have water as well as milk. I think boiled lights, cut into small pieces, with a very small portion of bullock's liver and bread soaked, is the best food; but I have tried Spratt's Patent Cat Food with a great number of cats, both of my own and those of friends, and have nearly always found it agree; and at a cat show it would, I believe, be both handy and cleanly.[8]

Spratt, which began by making dog biscuits, appears to also have been the first commercial producer of cat food.

During the 19th century and early-20th centuries, meat for cats and dogs in London, frequently Horse meat, was sold from barrows (hand–carts) by itinerant traders known as Cats' Meat Men.[9]

商业猫粮[编辑]

大多数店售的猫粮是干的,在美国也被称为kibble,或湿罐装的形式。有些生产商销售冷冻原料饲料和预混料产品,以迎合那些自制猫粮的猫主们的需要。

干粮[编辑]

经挤压成型的干猫粮

干粮(水分8-10%)通常由高热量和压力下挤压蒸煮。脂肪会被喷上的食物,以增加适口性,和其他的微量成分,如对热敏感的维生素,这将在挤出过程中被破坏,可能会增加。

湿粮[编辑]

罐头装的湿猫粮(啫喱状的鱼肉碎)

罐头或湿粮(湿度75-78%)通常是3盎司(85克),5.5盎司(156克),13盎司(369克)的规格。也会以铝箔袋的形式出售。

素食或纯素食品[编辑]

目前有素食純素食的猫粮销售。素食猫粮必须强化营养成分,因为猫是天生的肉食动物,不能从植物食品中合成这些养分,如牛磺酸花生四烯酸[10]有些素食猫粮品牌都标有其制造商遵循AAFCO猫粮营养标准。[來源請求]

标签[编辑]

In the United States, cat foods labeled as "complete and balanced" must meet standards established by the Association of American Feed Control Officials (AAFCO) either by meeting a nutrient profile or by passing a feeding trial. Cat Food Nutrient Profiles were established in 1992 and updated in 1995 by the AAFCO's Feline Nutrition Expert Subcommittee. The updated profiles replaced the previous recommendations set by the National Research Council (NRC). Certain manufacturers label their products with terms such as premium, ultra premium, natural and holistic. Such terms currently have no legal definitions. [來源請求] However, "While most of the food supplied comes from within the US, the FDA ensures that standards are met within our borders even when components come from countries with less stringent ideas of safety or label integrity."[11]

能量需求[编辑]

成年猫的能量需求范围是,懒猫每天每公斤体重消耗60-70千卡的代谢能量,活泼的则要消耗80-90千卡。5周龄的小猫要250千卡。随着年龄的增长,30周到50周成年的需求下降至100千卡。怀孕的母猫需要约90-100千卡,哺乳期的母猫需要90-270千卡视产崽数量而定。[12]

营养和功能[编辑]

维生素缺乏可导致广泛的临床异常反映其代谢作用的多样性。十二种矿物质被称为是猫科动物的必需营养素。钙,磷是强健骨骼和牙齿的关键。猫需要其他矿物质,如镁,钾,钠,神经冲动的传递,肌肉收缩,细胞信号转导。许多矿物质在体内的微量存在,包括硒,铜,钼,作为佣工多种酶促反应。[13]

下表列出AAFCO猫粮营养比例,根据国家研究委员会在猫所需的维生素和矿物质营养的角色。

饮食和疾病[编辑]

素食和纯素食饮食[编辑]

Vegan or vegetarian diets for cats are controversial. According to the United States National Research Council, "Cats require specific nutrients, not specific feedstuffs."[10] The International Vegetarian Union,[14] the Vegan Society[15] and PETA[16][17] are some of the organizations that support a vegan or vegetarian diet for cats. The Animal Protection Institute does not recommend a vegetarian diet for cats,[18] and neither does the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA).[19]

Not all animal advocacy groups take a firm position either way. The Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights (now Humane Society Veterinary Medical Association) accepts that it is possible for a plant-based diet to be nutritionally adequate but stated in August 2006 that such diets "cannot at this time be reliably assured".[20] This position was based on a 2004 study demonstrating that of two commercially available vegetarian cat diets tested, both were nutritionally deficient.[21] The formulation error in one of these diets was promptly identified and corrected.[22] Nevertheless, it remains likely that formulation errors will result in nutritional deficiencies in a wide range of commercially available diets from time to time, whether meat-based, vegetarian or vegan. Hence, regular (at least, annual) veterinary checkups of all companion animals is recommended, and brands may be occasionally varied.[22][與來源不符]

In 2006, the first study of the health of a population of long-term vegetarian cats was published in the Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. Most of the cats were fed a commercially-available vegan diet, though 35% were allowed outdoors. The study consisted of telephone questionnaires of the caregivers of 32 cats, and analysis of blood samples from some of them. The blood samples were tested for taurine and cobalamin deficiencies. Cobalamin levels were normal in all cats. Taurine levels were low in 3 out of 17 cats tested, but not low enough to be considered deficient. 97% of the caregivers perceived their cats to be healthy, including those with low taurine levels.[23]

家庭自制猫粮[编辑]

很多宠物主人用自制食品来喂养猫。这些食品通常由某种形式的生或熟的肉、骨头、蔬菜,和补充品(如牛磺酸和多种维生素)。

双酚A[编辑]

一份2004年的研究报告显示,罐装食品外包装含有双酚A甲亢猫有关。[24]

食物过敏[编辑]

Food allergy is a non-seasonal disease with skin and/or gastrointestinal disorders. The main complaint is excessive scratching (Pruritus) which is usually resistant to treatment by steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The exact prevalence of food allergy in cats remains unknown. In 20 to 30% of the cases, cats have concurrent allergic diseases (atopy / flea-allergic dermatitis). A reliable diagnosis can only be made with dietary elimination-challenge trials. Allergy testing is necessary for the identification of the causative food component(s). Therapy consists of avoiding the offending food component(s).[25]

营养不良[编辑]

非常规饮食喂猫,营养不良可能是一个问题。用单一的食物喂猫,淡水鱼会得硫胺素缺乏症。只喂对肝就会维生素A中毒。此外,专门肉食为主的饮食可能含有过量的蛋白质而缺乏维生素E微量元素等。能量密度也必须保持相对于其他的营养成分。当植物油用来维持能量平衡,猫可能无法找到的食物适口性。[26]

猫粮召回[编辑]

The broad pet food recalls starting in March 2007 came in response to reports of renal failure in pets consuming mostly wet pet foods made with wheat gluten from a single Chinese company beginning in February 2007. Overall, several major companies recalled more than 100 brands of pet foods with most of the recalled product coming from Menu Foods. The most likely cause according to the FDA is the presence of melamine in the wheat gluten of the affected foods. Melamine is known to falsely inflate the protein content rating of substances in laboratory tests. The economic impact on the pet food market has been extensive, with Menu Foods alone losing roughly $30 Million from the recall.

营养成分表[编辑]

美国饲料控制协会(AAFCO)猫粮营养表 a [27]
维生素和矿物质的作用 [13]
營養素 单位
(干物质为基础)
生长和繁殖
的最小值
成年需求
的最低值
最大值 功能 缺乏/过量的反应
蛋白质 % 30.0 26.0
精氨酸 % 1.25 1.04
组氨酸 % 0.31 0.31
异亮氨酸 % 0.52 0.52
亮氨酸 % 1.25 1.25
赖氨酸 % 1.20 0.83
蛋氨酸 + 胱氨酸 % 1.10 1.10
蛋氨酸 % 0.62 0.62 1.50
苯丙氨酸 + 酪氨酸 % 0.88 0.88
苯丙氨酸 % 0.42 0.42
苏氨酸 % 0.73 0.73
色氨酸 % 0.25 0.16
缬氨酸 % 0.62 0.62
脂肪b % 9.0 9.0
亚油酸 % 0.5 0.5
花生四烯酸 % 0.02 0.02
矿物质
% 1.0 0.6
  • 形成骨骼和牙齿
  • 血液凝固
  • 神经冲动的传递
  • 肌肉收缩
  • 细胞信号转导
  • 缺乏
    • 营养继发性甲状旁腺功能亢进
    • 骨矿含量丢失,这会导致崩溃,腰椎和骨盆弯​​曲
    • 骨痛,可进展为病理性骨折
  • 过量
    • 抑郁症的食物的摄入量
    • 生长下降
    • 增加骨密度
    • 需要增加镁
% 0.8 0.5
  • 骨骼结构
  • DNA和RNA的结构
  • 能量代谢
  • 运动
  • 酸碱平衡
  • 缺乏
    • 溶血性贫血
    • 运动功能障碍
    • 代谢性酸中毒
% 0.6 0.6
  • 酸碱平衡
  • 神经冲动的传递
  • 酶反应
  • 传输功能
  • 缺乏
    • 厌食症
    • 生长迟缓
    • 神经系统疾病,包括共济失调和严重的肌肉无力
% 0.2 0.2
  • 酸碱平衡
  • 调节渗透压
  • 神经冲动的产生和传输
  • 缺乏
    • 厌食症
    • 增长受损
    • 口渴和饮用水
    • 排尿过多
/ 氯化物 % 0.3 0.3
  • 酸碱平衡
  • 细胞外液的渗透压
  • 缺乏
    • 肾液中钠离子浓度增加
    • 多余的钾排泄
 c % 0.08 0.04
  • 酶功能
  • 肌肉和神经细胞膜的稳定性
  • 激素的分泌和功能
  • 矿物结构的骨骼和牙齿
  • 缺乏
    • 生长缓慢
    • 腕关节的过度使用
    • 肌肉颤搐
    • 抽搐
  • 过量
    • 尿酸过高产生尿路结石
 d mg/kg 80.0 80.0
  • 血红蛋白和肌红蛋白的合成
  • 能量代谢
  • 缺乏
    • 生长缓慢
    • 粘膜苍白
    • 昏睡
    • 虚弱
    • 腹泻
  • 过量
    • 呕吐和腹泻
(膨化食品) e mg/kg 15.0 5.0
  • 结缔组织形成
  • 铁代谢
  • 造血细胞的形成
  • 黑色素的形成
  • 髓鞘的形成
  • 防御氧化损伤
  • 缺乏
    • 减少体重增加
    • 受孕困难
(罐头食品) e mg/kg 5.0 5.0
mg/kg 7.5 7.5
  • 酶功能
  • 骨骼发育
  • 神经功能

没有猫缺乏时的相关研究

mg/kg 75.0 75.0 2000.0
  • 酶反应
  • 细胞复制
  • 蛋白质和碳水化合物的代谢
  • 皮肤功能
  • 伤口愈合
  • 缺乏
    • 皮肤病变
    • 生长迟缓
    • 睾丸损伤
mg/kg 0.35 0.35
  • 甲状腺激素的合成
  • 细胞分化
  • 幼犬的生长和发育
  • 调节代谢率
  • 缺乏
    • 甲状腺腺体肿大
  • 过量
    • 过度流泪,流涎,鼻涕
    • 头皮
mg/kg 0.1 0.1
  • 防御氧化损伤
  • 免疫反应

没有猫缺乏时的相关研究

维生素
维生素A IU/kg 9000.0 5000.0 750000.0
  • 视力
  • 生长
  • 免疫功能
  • 胎儿发育
  • 细胞分化
  • 跨膜蛋白转移
  • 缺乏
    • 结膜炎
    • 白内障,视网膜变性等眼部问题
    • 减肥
    • 肌肉无力
    • 生殖和发育障碍
  • 过量
    • 小猫的骨骼病变,尤其是颈椎骨质增生
    • 骨质疏松
维生素D IU/kg 750.0 500.0 10000.0
  • 维护矿物质水平
  • 骨骼结构
  • 肌肉收缩
  • 血液凝固
  • 神经传导
  • 细胞信号转导
  • 磷平衡
  • 不足
    • 佝偻病
    • 骨骼发育异常
    • 进行性瘫痪
    • 共济失调
    • 缺乏疏导
    • 体重和食物摄入量的减少
  • 多余的
    • 厌食症
    • 呕吐
    • 昏睡
    • 软组织钙化
维生素E f IU/kg 30.0 30.0
  • 通过清除自由基的氧化损伤防御
  • 缺乏
    • 厌食症
    • 抑郁症
    • 腹部敏感性疼痛
    • 脂肪组织病理
维生素K g mg/kg 0.1 0.1
  • 活化的凝血因子,骨骼蛋白和其它蛋白
  • 缺乏
    • 延长血液凝固时间
    • 出血
维生素B1 / 硫胺 h mg/kg 5.0 5.0
  • 能量和碳水化合物的新陈代谢
  • 离子通道在神经组织​​中的激活
  • 缺乏
    • 包括反射改变的神经功能障碍和抽搐发作
    • 心率紊乱
    • 在中枢神经系统的病理变化
    • 严重的学习障碍
核黄素 mg/kg 4.0 4.0
  • 酶功能
  • 缺乏
    • 白内障
    • 脂肪肝
    • 睾丸萎缩
泛酸 mg/kg 5.0 5.0
  • 能量代谢
  • 缺乏
    • 生长发育迟缓
    • 肝脏脂肪酸的变化
    • 小肠病变
烟酸 mg/kg 60.0 60.0
  • 酶功能
  • 缺乏
    • 厌食症
    • 减肥
    • 体温升高
    • 严重缺乏舌苔,口腔溃疡和充血
维生素B6 / 吡哆醇 mg/kg 4.0 4.0
  • 葡萄糖生产
  • 红血细胞的功能
  • 烟酸合成
  • 神经系统的功能
  • 免疫反应
  • 激素调节
  • 基因激活
  • 缺乏
    • 生长发育迟缓
    • 抽搐发作
    • 肾脏病变
叶酸 mg/kg 0.8 0.8
  • 氨基酸和核苷酸的代谢
  • 线粒体蛋白质的合成
  • 缺乏
    • 降低生长速度
    • 血液中的铁含量增加
生物素 i mg/kg 0.07 0.07
维生素B12 mg/kg 0.02 0.02
  • 酶功能
  • 缺乏
    • 消瘦
    • 呕吐
    • 腹泻
    • 肠道功能紊乱
胆碱j mg/kg 2400.0 2400.0
牛磺酸 (膨化食品) % 0.10 0.10
牛磺酸 (罐头食品) % 0.20 0.20
營養素 单位
(干物质为基础)
生长和繁殖
的最小值
成年需求
的最低值
最大值 功能 缺乏/过量的反应
NOTES
  1. Presumes an energy density of 4.0 kcal/g ME, based on the modified Atwater values of 3.5, 8.5, and 3.5 kcal/g for protein, fat, and carbohydrate (nitrogen-free extract, NFE), respectively. Rations greater than 4.5 kcal/g should be corrected for energy density; rations less than 4.0 kcal/g should not be corrected for energy.
  2. Although a true requirement for fat per se has not been established, the minimum level was based on recognition of fat as a source of essential fatty acids, as a carrier of fat-soluble vitamins, to enhance palatability, and to supply an adequate caloric density.
  3. If the mean urine pH of cats fed ad libitum is not below 6.4, the risk of struvite urolithiasis increases as the magnesium content of the diet increases.
  4. Because of very poor bioavailability, iron from carbonate or oxide sources that are added to the diet should not be considered as components in meeting the minimum nutrient level.
  5. Because of very poor bioavailability, copper from oxide sources that are added to the diet should not be considered as components in meeting the minimum nutrient level.
  6. Add 10 IU vitamin E above minimum level per gram of fish oil per kilogram of diet.
  7. Vitamin K does not need to be added unless diet contains greater than 25 percent fish on a dry matter basis.
  8. Because processing may destroy up to 90 percent of the thiamine in the diet, allowance in formulation should be made to ensure the minimum nutrient level is met after processing.
  9. Biotin does not need to be added unless diet contains antimicrobial or antivitamin compounds.
  10. Methionine may substitute choline as methyl donor at a rate of 3.75 parts for 1 part choline by weight when methionine exceeds 0.62 percent.

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Knight, A. In defense of vegetarian cat food. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005, 226 (4): 512–3. doi:10.2460/javma.2005.226.512. PMID 15742685. 
  2. ^ Howell E. Food Enzymes for Health & Longevity Woodstock Valley, CT, US: Omangod Press. xx. 1980.
  3. ^ [1] | Perry T. What's really for dinner? The truth about commercial pet food. The Animals' Agenda. 1996. Nov. - Dec.
  4. ^ Mauny de Mornay, Livre de l'eleveur et du proprietaire d'animaux domestiques 1837 http://books.google.com/books?printsec=frontcover&dq=intitle:%22animaux+domestiques%22&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1800&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=36&pg=PA287&id=tBkGwxXqxpgC&num=100&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
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  8. ^ Gordon Stable, The domestic cat, 1876, 61 http://books.google.com/books?printsec=frontcover&dq=%22+%22+intitle:cat&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1850&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1880&cd=10&pg=PA61&id=30oDAAAAQAAJ&num=100&as_brr=1#v=onepage&q&f=false
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  11. ^ Cat Food Reviews: The Pleasure of Their Company. petfoodtalk.com. 
  12. ^ Subcommittee on Cat Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture, National Research Council. Nutrient requirements of cats. Washington, D.C: National Academy Press. 1986: 4–5. ISBN 0-309-03682-8. 
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 Subcommittee on Dog and Cat Nutrition (Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, Division on Earth and Life Studies). The Role of Vitamins and Minerals in the Diet for Cats. Nutrient Requirements of Cats and Dogs. ISBN 0-309-08628-0. National Research Council - National Academies. 2006 [2007-03-08]. 
  14. ^ FAQ. The International Vegetarian Union.
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  18. ^ Selecting a Commercial Pet Food. Born Free/Animal Protection Institute.
  19. ^ Nutrition Q & A: Vegetarian Diets for Dogs. ASPCA.
  20. ^ "AVAR position statements: Vegan and Vegetarian Cat and Dog Food Diets" Association of Veterinarians for Animal Rights
  21. ^ Gray, CM; Sellon, RK, Freeman LM. Nutritional adequacy of two vegan diets for cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004, 225 (11): 1670–5. 
  22. ^ 22.0 22.1 Knight, A. In defense of vegetarian cat food. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2005, 226 (4): 512–3. 
  23. ^ Wakefield, LA; Shofer, FS & Michel, KE. Evaluation of cats fed vegetarian diets and attitudes of their caregivers. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2006, 229 (1): 70–3. 
  24. ^ Edinboro, Charlotte H.; Scott-Moncrieff, Catharine; Janovitz, Evan; Thacker, Leon ; Glickman, Larry T. Epidemiologic study of relationships between consumption of commercial canned food and risk of hyperthyroidism in cats. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association. 2004.March, 224 (6): 879–86 [2008-03-10]. doi:10.2460/javma.2004.224.879. 
  25. ^ Verlinden A, Hesta M, Millet S, Janssens GP. Food allergy in dogs and cats: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006, 46 (3): 259–73. doi:10.1080/10408390591001117. PMID 16527756. 
  26. ^ John E. Bauer, D.V.M., Ph.D., Dipl. A.C.V.N.. Nutritional Requirements and Related Diseases. The Merck Veterinary Manual, 9th edition. ISBN 0-911910-50-6. Merck & Co., Inc. 2005-01-01 [2006-10-27]. 
  27. ^ David A. Dzanis, D.V.M., Ph.D., DACVN Division of Animal Feeds, Center for Veterinary Medicine. SELECTING NUTRITIOUS PET FOODS. INFORMATION FOR CONSUMERS. Food and Drug Administration - Center for Veterinary Medicine. 1997.November [2005-01-20]. [失效連結]

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