王長怡

维基百科,自由的百科全书
跳转至: 导航搜索
王長怡

出生 台湾台北
居住地 美國紐約長島
国籍 中華民國 (台灣)

王長怡英文名: Chang Yi Wang ),知名華人女科学家。王长怡博士为一位全球知名的女科学家。身兼女发明家、国际跨国企业董事长及台湾生技业[1]标竿领导者等身分的王博士,不但被媒体授予「台湾生技业杰出企业领袖」的称号,更是世界上第一个荣获美国 发明家奖殊荣的华裔女科学家。身为全球免疫学权威的王博士,已成功的在免疫学领域中将合成胜肽初步应用于鉴定病毒具高抗原性的胜肽序列,进而将这个序列调整至最适合用以开发针对各类病毒抗体检测的免疫试剂及具高免疫性的设计型胜肽疫苗,造福人类动物生命健康。

有鉴于王长怡博士对生物医学的创新和贡献,纽约知识产权法律协会(New York Intellectual Property Law Association, NYIPLA)于2007年特别颁赠「年度发明者奖」,以表彰其多年来将UBI集团特有之「UBITh®功能性胜肽抗原学」运用于重大疾病及重大病毒感染症之预防及治疗的发明贡献。

王博士已发表超过100余篇之 科学 论文,且同时拥有约100余项创新性科学专利。由于专业与成就备受国际肯定,不但担任『美国国家卫生研究院生物防御研发合作计划及 过敏 免疫 研究计划的科学审议委员,更时常受邀在国际会议中发表 免疫学疫苗、免疫治疗及传染病等领域之演讲。自1985年成立 美国联合生物医学公司以来,王博士持续将免疫学的创新技术与知识运用于产品设计。在她的领导下,其集团于2005年荣获『美国国家卫生研究院』所颁发之1,700万美元的艾滋病治疗性疫苗研发奖助金及2009年获得『比尔盖兹基金会』的艾滋病学术奖助。

成长背景[编辑]

王博士出生于台北市,双亲王成圣教授伉俪皆为知名文化人。王成圣教授于民国五十六年三月创办中外杂志并曾任中华民国第一届国民大会代表,历经四十年对中国近代史人物传记的文史记载,极具权威,终其一生对台湾 文化事业有崇高贡献。而父母亲对文化事业的理念也造就了王博士在人文方面[2] 的素养及对于 科学的坚持。王博士于2005年 远见杂志专访时曾分享自己的人生观,她说道:「人就是要做具创造力,具影响力的事」就是这样的坚持,王长怡博士带领着她的团队,以实际行动及成效证明这绝不是口号。

卓越的学术经历[编辑]

王博士对 科学的向往,早在稚龄时期便已萌芽,一九五七年女 物理学家 吴健雄博士以实验「宇宙不守恒定律」扬名国际,当时她虽只是一个年仅五岁的小女孩,就一心要以 吴健雄为典范﹝王长怡博士的六姨妈和 吴健雄、田蕴兰(台大物理系创办人戴运轨夫人)为中学同学﹞,并告诉她的母亲,今后决心做个科学家。台北市女中(金华女中)毕业后,以全校名列前茅的成绩进入著名的 北一女中,此时的王博士已对 生命科学 产生浓厚的兴趣。自知个性不适合行医,于是选定 生命科学的基础学科,以第一志愿进入台大化学系。一九七三年得到 台大 化学系书卷奖毕业后,王博士获全额奖学金进入当时全球在生物医学领域最著名的 纽约 洛克菲勒大学深造,取得 免疫学生物化学博士学位,成为首位取得该校 博士 学位的 亚洲女性。在创立美国联合生物医学集团之前,王长怡博士以破纪录二十七岁之龄担任 纽约 史隆凯特琳癌症研究中心(Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center) [3] 的分子免疫学实验室主任及计划主持人(1980至1985),并于康乃尔大学[4] 医学院史隆凯特琳部门(Sloan- Kettering Division)教授 免疫学

个性爽朗果断的王博士曾表示,她的双亲王成圣教授伉俪是文化人,与 吴健雄袁家骝 [5] 夫妇也是至交,王长怡到 纽约留学后,常往聆教,亲炙大师风范,自然心属科学。当然,另一个导引她走入生命科学领域的原因,是她读高中 生物学时,DNA Double Helix 双螺旋结构 [6] 的解密与分子生物的兴起。而当年将DNA结构解密的诺贝尔奖得主华生博士(Dr. James D. Watson) [7],后来在 美国 纽约长岛冷泉港分子生物研究所担任主持人,华生博士 [8]曾在她的UBI董事会中担任董事一职长达七年之久,这也是她人生际遇的另一巧合

父母亲的启蒙与追思[编辑]

王长怡博士曾亲自撰文追念父母亲,她在念父文中写道:「父亲爱。父亲临危逃难随身携带的就是两箱子书籍。父亲一生热爱知识的情操对我们子女的发展也有相当的影响。父亲对我自小就勉以大志。他常对我说:『长怡我从来没把妳当女儿看。我一共有四个儿子』。我结婚后,他很高兴在外子胡毅安面前说现在我有了五个儿子。」「父亲在台数十年,全心致力文教事业,希望以一介书生的棉薄之力,对社会做直接的贡献,并以『教学相长,以文为友』为所有心思的寄托。我犹记得父亲创办中外杂志时的苦心及理想。中外创刊词中的每字、每句都是父亲心愿的表征。」「知子莫若父,父亲知道我们在求学创业的过程要不断克服许多的困难,所以他永远把自己的需求摆在最后不成为我们的负担。虽然我们姊弟都潜心理工科技的研究,但父亲一直相当关切我们『人文素养』的培养,以做为一个健全的科技人。当我们在各自的领域有所建树时,父亲即不断鼓励我们回 台灣以实际所学贡献国家。」「父亲喜欢写诗。他喜欢将他对人事物观察后的丰富思想浓缩成几个字几句表达出来。父亲在看过我在 美国 的生活及事业状况后,亲手书写十二句四十八个字的勉语,要我不断咀嚼它们的真意,以做为研发、治理、待人、处事的准则。这些勉语是『互敬、互爱、互谅、互助、一笑一少、一怒一老、知足常乐、能忍自安、谦抑应世、宽恕待人、忍耐自制、协和容众、择善固执、研究发展』。在创业过程中,我一直有崇高的愿景,但父亲永远不忘记在我的耳边说『做事要一步一脚印』。」


古有云:「母子连心」,王长怡博士在念母文中更是真情流露,一字一泪,她写道:「母亲祖籍江苏[9]涟水。生于民国十三年(一九二四)。外祖父母作育子女十一人,母亲排行第十。母亲在富裕大家庭成长的所见所闻,以及正直不阿的个性,培养了她特殊的高贵气质。母亲在念完师范学校后到 扬州 教书。她年纪虽轻,却被分配到教育『社会青年』的岗位,母亲敬业容众并有创意性的个性,在这一段教书生涯中展现了出来。」 「母亲大家闺秀的风范,宽忍为和化解纷争的个性,协助父亲成就一个有生气的家庭,作育了四个子女。母亲对我们的教育极其用心。她自小灌输我们诚信的重要,凡事以『荣誉』制度为管理原则。原则设定,照章行事,我们纷争的时候不多。母亲又是我们的启蒙老师。举凡教方块字、劳作剪贴、针织设计,以及培养我们对音乐及艺术的欣赏,钢琴及书法 [10] 的练习等,都有母亲心血的灌注。」


「母亲重视经济原则,凡事注重效率,是一个天生的『计划管理人』。母亲在处理公务教育子女外,锻炼出勤俭治家的十八般武艺,并协助父亲创办中外杂志,身兼数职任劳任怨却能完善兼顾。」「母亲在替父亲顺利办完告别式后,因 免疫 力减弱而感染肺炎,在十二月一日蒙主宠召。她和父亲离世的日子隔不到六十六天。他们一生相伴,互相扶持,互敬互爱,留给我们许多好的榜样与回忆。我们有缘在一起生活时,这个家充满了爱与冲劲。我每闭目静思父亲曾有感的对我说『长怡,你应体认到在年过半百仍有慈母健在彼此嘘寒问暖的福气』的话语时,便不自觉泪水夺框。」如此至情至性的文字,使我们看到这位科学家的内心深处,仍是传统的孝思与美德。

家庭[编辑]

王博士于美国求学过程中认识了夫婿胡毅安先生。胡毅安先生是一位才华洋溢的文化人,其温文儒雅的君子风度让许多第一次见到他的人都打从心里欣赏他的智慧与谈吐。而王博士与胡先生的独生女儿胡世一小姐,更是承接父母的惇惇教诲,于『美国哈佛大学法学院 [9] 』取得法学博士的荣誉。曾在全球知名的麦肯锡顾问公司 [10] 受过商业管理的洗礼。现在与其具财经专长的夫婿 Louis G. Reese IV 共同协助UBI集团的事业发展。

创业历程[编辑]

一九八五年是王长怡博士生命中的重要里程碑。王长怡博士在美国自力创立联合生物医学公司(United Biomedical Inc. UBI),逐渐发展成为一个事业集团,一九九八年起担任集团公司的 董事长兼执行总裁。天下杂志曾写道:「王博士创业初期,公司只有她和夫婿两人。短短二十年,王长怡博士从一个小公司的创办人,成为对国内生技 [11] 制药界有影响力的企业家;且以一介女性,成为生物医学领域具影响力的发明者,实在令人敬佩。」


美国功成业就的王长怡博士,对造福 台湾国人有崇高的使命感,一九九六年秋,她应当时的 经济部工业局尹启铭 之邀,返台参与政府推动生技 [12]制药产业发展计划,一九九八年十月响应政府发展生医科技的号召,在台设立联亚生技开发公司(UBI Asia),出任 董事长。这个公司带动了台湾生医事业的蓬勃发展,加速了生技制药[13]的科技化和国际化,提升 台湾生技产业的竞争力和国际形象。联亚公司先后延请各领域具有专长的杰出旅美人才返台效力,经这些有实务经验的科学家带领 台湾 极为优秀的新生代研发团队,建立了严谨的公司文化,着重创新 研发,辛勤耕耘,逐渐开花结果,于2003年荣获 经济部 主办「第十一届产业科技发展奖」的杰出成就奖。王博士表示,台湾 人民具有高度的创业精神,加上政府的鼓励政策,使得在 台湾 从事以知识经济为主的事业,成本效益很高。台湾 虽地小但是却具有迅速取得全球一手商业信息、研发人才丰沛以及成本效益高等优势,尤其适合作为外商进军 大陆 等其他市场的「练兵场」。

检阅王博士的创业历程,举凡有威胁 人类生命的重大疾病传播时,她总是不辞辛劳的领导辖下团队,以全民健康为己任,致力于研发解决方案。2002年 中国 广东顺德 [14] 首发严重急性呼吸系统综合症(SARS) [15] ,并扩散至 东南亚乃至全球。由于SARS[16] 疫情对国内经济活动、社会秩序造成严重威胁,王博士即刻带领全球研发团队,透过多年来研发的合成胜肽技术平台,于短短一个月的时间,以合成胜肽(pep-tide)完成SARS [17] 疫苗设计。此技术乃透过SARS [18] 疫苗来诱发特定 细胞 免疫 力及中和性抗体,预防SARS [19] 病毒感染。王博士及其团队此举也为台湾社会注入一股安心的力量。此外,她所带领的UBI 研发团队于短期内成功开发之SARS[20] 病毒 抗体 检测试剂,为美国国家卫生研究院 [21] 选为血液测试剂开发的主要产品。

为莘莘学子授业解惑[编辑]

一直以来,王长怡博士对二十一世纪创造「生物科技 [22] 的经济奇迹」满怀壮志,以她渊博的知识,全心投入生医科技,经过十多年扎实的研发,成为此一领域享誉国际的领导者。由于国内外声誉卓著,王长怡博士经常受国际学术机构及著名大学的邀请前往讲学。在台湾,她曾受聘为国立清华大学生命科学研究院的兼任教授,讲授「免疫学及其于生物医学之应用」。王博士与公司团队研议后,更带领研发团队谢铎源博士、林淑菁博士与彭文君博士,制订教学方针,以深入浅出的教学方式使学生能够学以致用,达到教育的目的,开课以来,受业学子反应获益良多。王博士对于免疫学之发展历史与重要突破里程碑如数家珍,留美期间她受过多位诺贝尔专家的指导,依其过去做学问、做研究与创事业的宝贵经验,为莘莘学子授业解惑。她提出『学识、常识、见识、胆识与赏识』的科学人文演化历程,以她自身在科学界奋斗力学的精神,来勉励学子们在从事科学的研习时,要充满着好奇心与想象力、发挥幽默感与组织能力、多向面,不畏惧做研究的失败考验,培养科学家的风范与领导人的气度,以任重道远的精神迈向目标。

国际专题演讲[编辑]

• Hsin Chu, Taiwan- Tsin-Hua University Lecture Series: “From double Helix to efficacious vaccines through rational design” April 10, 2010

• Taipei,Taiwan Forum on Vaccine Industry Development in Taiwan , Taiwan Biotech Association: “A Reflection and New Determination: Site Directed Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics” [Plenary Lecture] July 24, 2008

• Vienna, Austria International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and Office of International des Epizooties (OIE) World Organization for Animal Health: Use Of Standards and References for Serological And Molecular Tests for Transboundary Diseases In Livestock Nov. 21-24, 2006

Montreal, Canada 5th World Congress on Vaccines, Immunization & Immunotherapy [Plenary Lecture] Nov. 6-9, 2006

Dubai, UAE 7th Global Vaccinology Forum on Disease Immunization and Immunotherapy: Site-Specific Peptide Vaccines for Immunotherapy and Immunization and for Veterinary Applications [Plenary Lecture] March 5-7, 2005

Tokyo, Japan 4th World Congress on Vaccines & Immunization: Site-Specific PeptideB Vaccines for Immunotherapy and Immunization Against Chronic Diseases, Cancer, Infectious Diseases Infectious Disease, and for Veterinary Applications [Plenary Lecture], Sept. 30-Oct. 3, 2004

• Washington [23], D.C. US-Taiwan Business Council, The Brookings Institute, and the Center for Strategic and International Studies Symposium on The Taiwan Taiwan Presidential Elections: “Political, Economic, & Security Implications” : Reasons to Choose Taiwan May 6, 2004

Singapore Biomedical Asia, Partnering Seminar: UBI as a Rising Star of the Biopharmaceutical Industry Nov. 4, 2003

San Diego,California. Days of Molecular Medicine Symposium: Immunotherapy of Infectious, Chronic Diseases and Cancer by Site-Specific Peptide Vaccines March 13-15, 2003

Cambridge, Massachusetts. Knowledge Foundation’s International Conference on HIV Vaccines: Synthetic AIDS Vaccine by Targeting HIV Receptor June 22-23, 2003

Tainan,Taiwan International Symposium on Agricultural Biotechnology, National Cheng Kung University National Cheng Kung University: Site Specific Synthetic Peptide Antigens and Functional Antigenics: Applications to Animal Health Dec. 13-14, 2002

Lyon,France Foundation Merieux of International Association of Biologicals Standardization: Immunological Application of Synthetic Peptides May 9-11, 2001

Amsterdam, Netherlands IAVI Neutralization Task Force: Immunoprophylaxis, Immunotherapy, and a Synthetic AIDS Vaccine Targeting HIV Hiv Receptors April 25, 2001

London, England HIV Therapeutics: Searching for the Next Generation: Immunoprophylaxis, Immunotherapy, and a Synthetic AIDS Aids Vaccine Targeting HIV Receptors Feb. 28-Mar 1, 2001

Baltimore, Maryland Meeting of the Institute of Human Virology: Postexposure Immunoprophylaxis of Primary Isolate by an Antibody to HIV Receptor Complex Sept. 15, 2000

学术发表[编辑]

1. Wang, CY, Finstad, Connie L., Walfield, Alan M., Sia Charles, Sokoll, Kenneth K., et. al. Site Specific UBITh Amyloid-β Vaccine [24]for Immunotherapy of Alzheimer's Disease [25]. Vaccine, 2007: 25: 3041-3052.

2. Wang, CY, Walfield, Alan M. Site-specific peptide vaccines for immunotherapy and immunization against chronic diseases, cancer, infectious diseases, and for veterinary applications. [Review Article] Vaccine 2005: 23:2049-2056.

3. Hseuh PR, Kao CL, Lee CN, Chen LK, Ho MS, Sia C, Fang XD, Lynn S, et al and Wang, CY. Highly Specific Severe acute respiratory syndrome Antibody Test for Serosurveillance. Emerg. Infect. Diseases 2004, 10:1558-1562

4. Wang, C.Y., Lynn, S., Jong, M-H., Lin, Y-L., et al. Appendix 58, Full protection in pigs against FMDV challenge following single dose of synthetic emergency vaccine. In Report of the Session of the Research Group of the Standing Technical Committee of the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease. Food and Agricultural Organization, Rome, pp. 365-375, 2004.

5. Finstad, CL, Wang, CY, Kowalski J, Zhang M, Li ML, Li XM, Xi WG, Bosland MC, Murthy KK, Walfield AM, and Zamb TJ. Synthetic luteinizing Hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) vaccine for effective androgen deprivation and its application to Prostate Cancer immunotheray. Vaccine 2004: 22:1300-1313

6. Wang, CY, Walfield AM, Fang X, Hammerberg B, Ye J, Li ML, Shen F, Shen M, Alexander V and MacGlashan DW. Synthetic IgE peptide vaccine for immunotherapy for Allergy. Vaccine 2003, 21:1580-1590.

7. Wang, CY, Shen M, Tam G, Fang XD, Ye J, Shen F, Walfield AM, Wang JJG, et al. Synthetic AIDS vaccine by targeting HIV receptor. Vaccine 2002, 21: 89-97.

8. Wang, CY, Chang TY, Walfield AM, Ye J, Shen M, Chen SP, Li MC, Lin YL, et al. Effective Synthetic peptide vaccine for Foot and mouth disease in swine. Vaccine. 2002, 20:2603-2610.

9. Wang, CY, Chang TY, Walfield AM, Ye J, Shen M, Zhang ML, Lubroth J, et al. Synthetic Peptide-based Vaccine and Diagnostic System for Effective Control of Foot and mouth disease. Biologicals 2001, 29: 221-228.

10. Wang, CY, Sawyer LSW, Murthy KK, Fang XD, Walfield AM, et al. Postexposure immunoprophylaxis of primary isolates by an antibody to HIV receptor complex. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. United States 1999; 96:10367-10372

11. Shen F, Chen PD, Walfield AM, Ye J, House J, Brown F, Wang CY. Differentiation of convalescent animals from those vaccinated against Foot and mouth disease by a peptide ELISA. Vaccine, 1999; 17:3039-3049.

12. Singh M, Li XM, Wang H, McGee JP, Zamb T, Koff W, Wang CY, et. al. Controlled release microparticles as a single dose diptheria toxoid vaccine; immunogenicity in small animal models. Vaccine 1998; 16:346-352.

13. Singh M. Hio C, Qiu H, Li XM, Wang CY, et al. CTL induction using synthetic peptides delievered in emulsions – critical role of the formulation procedure. Vaccine 1997; 15:1773-1778.

14. Li D, Forrest BD, Li Z, Xue P, Hanson CV, Duan S, Cheng H, Li M, Wang CY, et al. International clinical trials of HIV vaccines: II. Phase I trial of an HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine evaluating an accelerated immunization schedule in Yunnan, China. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol 1997; 15: 105-113.

15. Phanuphak P. Teeratakulpixarn S, Sarangbin S, Nookhai S, Ubolyam S, Sirivichayakul S, Leesavan A, Forrest BD, Hanson CV, Li ML, Wang, CY, et al. International clinical trials of HIV vaccines: I. Phase I trial of an HIV-1 synthetic peptide vaccine in Bangkok, Thailand. Asian Pac J Allerg Immunol 1997; 15:41-48.

16. Singh M, McGee JP, Li XM, Koff W, Zamb T, Wang CY and O’Hagan DT. Biodegradable microparticles with an entrapped branched octameric peptide as a controlled-release HIV-1 vaccine. J Pharmaceut Sci 1997; 86:1229.

17. Singh M, Li XM, McGee JP, Zamb T, Koff W, Wang CY and O’Hagan DT. Controlled release microparticles as a single dose hepatitis B vaccine; evaluation of immunogenicity in mice. Vaccine 1997; 15:475.

18. Singh M, Li XM, Wang HY, McGee JP, Zamb T, Koff W, Wang CY and O’Hagan DT. Immunogenicity and protection in small-animal models with controlled-release tetanus toxois microparticles as a single-dose vaccine. Infect and Immunity 1997; 65:1716.

19. Nixon DF, Hioe C, Chen PD, Bian Z, Kuebler P, Li ML, Qiu H, Li XM, Singh M, Richardson J, McGee P, Zamb T, Koff W, Wang CY and O’Hagan D. Syntehtic peptides entrapped in microparticles can elicit cytotoxic T cell [26] activity. Vaccine 1996; 14:1523.

20. Hioe CE, Qiu H, Chen PD, Bian Z, Li ML, Li J, Singh M, Kuebler P, McGee P, O’Hagan D, Zamb T, Koff W, Allsopp C, Wang CY, et al. Comparison of adjuvant formulations for cytotoxic T cell [27] induction using synthetic peptides. Vaccine 1996: 14:412-418.

21. Quiroga JA, van Binsbergen J, Wang CY, Pardo M, Navas S, Trines C, Herrero M and Carreno V. Immunoglobulin M antibody to hepatitis C virus core antigen: Correlations with viral replication, histological activity, and liver disease [28]outcome. Hepatol 1995; 11:1635.

22. Prince AM, Brotman B, Inchauspe G, Pascual D. Nasoff M. Hosein B and Wang CY. Patterns and prevalence of hepatitis type C infection in post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Inf Dis 1993; 167: 1296-1301.

23. Sheu JC, Wang JT, Wang TH, Wang CY, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis C virul infection in a community in [Taiwan]. Detection by synthetic peptide-based assay and polymerase chain reaction. J Hepatol 1993; 17:192.

24. Wang, CY, Looney, P.J., Li, M.L., Walfield, A.M., Ye, J., Hosein, B., Tam, J.P., and Wong-Staal, F. Long-term high-titer neutralizing activity induced by octameric synthetic HIV-1 antigen. Science 1991; 254:285-288

25. Hosein B, Fang X and Wang CY. Anti-HCV, anti-GOR, and autoimmunity. Lancet 1992, 339:871.

26. Hosein B, Fang CT, Popvsky MA, Ye J, Zhang M and Wang, CY. Improved serodiagnosis of hepaptis C virus [29] infection with synthetic peptide antigen from capsid protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1991; 88:3647.

27. Hosein B, Present W, Wang CY, and Fang CT. synthetic peptide-based EIAs to distinguish HTLV-I from HTLV-II infection. Transfusion 1990; 30S: 513.

28. Kao HT, Gregerson PK, Tang JC, Takahashi T, Wang CY and Silver J, Molecular analysis of HLA class genes in two DR6w-related haplotypes, DRw13 DQw1 and DRw14 DQw3. J Immunol 1989; 142: 1743.

29. Sung SSJ, Bjorndahl JM, Wang CY, Kao HT and Fu SM. Production of tumor necrosis factor/cachectin by human T cell lines and peripheral blood T lymphocytes stimulated by PMA and anti-CD3 antibody [30]. J Exp Med 1988; 167: 937.

30. Sung SSJ, Jung LKL, Walters JA, Chen W, Wang CY, and Fu SM, Production of tumor necrosis factor/cachetin by human B cell lines and tonsillar B cells. J Exp Med 1988; 168: 1539.

31. Wang CY. Synthetic-peptide-based immunodiagnosis of retrovirus infection: current status and future prospects. In “synthetic Peptides in Biotechnology.”, Edited by A. Mizrahi, Adv. In Biotechnological Processes. 1988; 10:131.

32. Shimazaki C, Wisniewolski D, Scheinberg D, Atzpodien J, Strife A, Gulati S, Fried J,Wismienolski R, Wang CY and Clarkson B. Elimination of myeloma cells from bone marrow by using Monoclonal antibodies and magnetic immunobeads. Blood 1988: 72:1248.

33. Gottlieb AB, Lifshitz B, Fu SM, Staiano-Coico L, Wang CY and Carter DM. Expression of HLA-DR molecules by Keratinocytes Keratinocyte and prescence of Langerhans cells in the dermal infiltrate of active psoriatic plaques. J Exp Med 1986; 164: 1013.

34. Gregerson P, Shen M, Song Q, Wang CY, et al. Molecular diversity of HLA-DR4 haplotypes. Proc Natl. Acad Sci USA 1986; 83: 2642.

35. Rinnooy-Kan EA, Wright SD, Welte K and Wang CY. Fc receptors on monocytes cause OKT-3 treated lymphocytes to internalize T3 and secrete IL-2. Cell Immunol 1986; 98: 181.

36. Buskin Y, Posnett DN, Pernis B and Wang CY. A new HLA-linked T cell membrane molecule, related to the beta chain of the clonotypic receptor, is associated with T3. J Exp Med 1986; 164: 458.

37. Posnett D, Wang CY and Friedman Sm. Inherited polymorphism of the human T cell antigen receptor detected by a monoclonal antibody. Proc Natl. Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:7888.

38. Tse DB, Al-Haiden M, Pernis B, Cantor CR and Wang CY. Intracellular accumulation of T cell receptor complex molecules in a human T leukemia cell line. Science 1986; 234:748.

39. Wang JG, Steel S, Wisniewolski R and Wang CY. Detection of antibodies to HTLV-III using a synthetic peptide of 21 amino acide residues corresponding to a highly antigenic segment of gp41 envelope protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1986; 83:6159.

40. Wang CY, Bushin Y, Lane CL, McGrath H and Posnett DN. Stimulation and expansion of a human T cell subpopulation by a monoclonal antibody to T cell receptor T cell receptor molecule. Hybridoma 1986; 5:179.

41. Schwarting R, Stein H and Wang CY. monoclonal antibody S-HCL1 and S-HCL3 allow the diagnosis of hairy cell leukemia. Blood 1985; 65:974.

42. Bushkin Y, Chorney MJ, Diamante E, Lane CL, Fu SM and Wang, CY. Biochemical characteriazation of a p43,12 complex: comparison to human and murine class I molecules. Mol Immunol 1985; 22:695.

43. Schwarting R, Welte K, chiorazzi N, Ralph P, Lane CL, Long CW, and Wang, CY. Biochemical characterization and purificatoin of human B cell stimulatory factory (BSF). Eur J Immunol 1985; 15:632.

44. Wang, CY, Bushkin Y, Chen BPD, Platsoucas C and Long CW. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies directed against epitopes of Human IFN-y. Hybridoma 1984; 4:321.

45. Bushkin Y, Chorney MJ, Diamante E, Fu SM and Wang, CY. Biochemical characterization of the human T6 antigen; a comparison between T6 and murine TL. Mol. Immunol 1984; 21:821.

46. Posnett DN, Biegler RD, Bushkin Y, Fisher DE, Wang, CY, Mayer LF, Chiorazzi N and Kunkel HG. T cell anti-idiotypic antibodies reveal differences between two human leukemias. J Exp Med 1984; 160:499.

47. Posnett DN, Wang, CY, Chiorazzi N, Crow MK and Kunkel HG. An antigen characteristic of hairy cell leukemia cells is expressed on certain activated B cells. J immunol 1984; 133:1635.

48. Peng RL, Al-Katib A, Knowles DM, Lu L, Broxmeyer H, Telidjian B, C Hiao JW and Wang, CY. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing two distinct differentiation antigens Pro-Im1, Pro-Im2 on early hematopoeitic cells. Blood 1984; 64:1169.

49. Rinooy Kan EA, Platzer E, Welte K, and Wang, CY. Modulation induction of the T3 antigen by OKT3 is monocyte dependent. J Immunol 1984; 133:2979.

50. Wang, CY, Azzo W, Al-Katib A, Chiorazzi N and Knowles DM. Preparation and characterization of monoclonal antibodies recognizing three distinct differentiation antigens (BL1, BL2, and BL3) on human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 1984; 1133:684.

51. Wang, CY, Al-Katib A, Lane CL, Koziner B and Fu, SM. Induction of Leu 10 (HLA-DC/DS) antigen expression by human precurso B cell lines. J Exp Med 1983; 158:1757.

52. Rinooy Kan EA, Wang, CY, Wang LC and Evans RL. Non-covalently bonded subunits of 22KD and 28KD are rapidly internalized by T cells reacted with anti-Leu4 [now termed CD3] antibody. J Immunol 1983; 131:536.

53. Biegler RD, Risher DE, Wang, CY, Rinnooy Kan EA and Kunkel HG. Idiotype-like molecules on cells of a human T-cell leukemia leukemia. J Exp Med 1983; 158:1000.

54. Welte K, Platzer EW, Wang, CY, Rinnooy Kan EA, Moore MAS and Mertelsmann R. OKT8 [now termed CD8] antibody inhibits OKT3 [now termed CD3]-induced IL-2 production and proliferation of KT8+ cells. J Immunol 1983; 131:2356.

55. Knowles DM, Tolidgian B, Maiboe CC, Halper J, Azzo W and Wang, CY. A new human B lymphocyte surface antigen (BL2) detected by a monoclonal antibodies: Distribution of benign and malignant lymphoid cells. Blood 1983; 62:191.

56. Venuta S, Mertelsmann R, Welte K, Feldman S, Wang, CY and Moore MAS. Production and regulation of Interleukin-2 in human lymphoblastic leukemias studied with T cell monoclonal antibodies. Blood 1983; 61:781.

57. Miki Y, Kishi H, Muragachi A, Maruyama S, Kishimoto S, Yamamura Y, Wang, CY and Kishimoto T. Induction of IgG production in a human monoclonal B lymphoblastoid cell line by a B cell-specific monoclonal antibody (BL2). J Immunol 1982; 1290: 1921.

58. Welte K, Wang, CY, Mertelsmann R, Venuta S, Feldman S and Moore MAS. Purification of human Interleukin-2 to apparent homogeneity and its molecular heterogeneity. J Exp Med 1982; 156:454.

59. Shin HS, Wang, CY and Choi YS. Activation of autologous reactive helpter T lymphocytes for differentiation of human B lymphocytes. J Immunol 1981: 126:2483.

60. Wang, CY, Good RA, Ammirati P, Dymbort G and Evans RL. Identification of a p69/71 complex [now termed LEU 1 or CD5] expressed on human T cells sharing determinants with B type chronic lymphatic leukemia. J Exp Med 1980; 151: 1539.

61. Halper J, Knowles DM and Wang, CY. 1a antigen expression by human malignant lymphomas: correlation with conventional lymphoid markers. Blood 1980; 55:373.

62. Gottlieb AB, FU SM, YU DTY, Wang, CY, Halper JP and Kunkel HG. The nature of the stimulation of cell in human allogeneic and autologous MLC reaction: Role of isolated IgM-bearing B cells. J Immunol 1979; 123: 1497.

63. Wang, CY, Structural and functional characterization of surface antigen on human B lymphocyte. Ph.D. Thesis, The Rockefeller University, 1979.

64. Wang, CY, Fu SM and Kunkel HG. Isolation and immunological 65. Fu SM, Chiorazzi N, Wang, CY, Montazeri CM and Kunkel HG> 1a beacharacterization of a major surface glycoprotein (gp54 [now termed CD40] preferentially expressed on certain human B cells. J Exp Med 1979; 149:1434.

65. Fu SM, Chiorazzi N, Wang, CY, Montazeri CM and Kunkel HG> 1a bearing T cells in man. Their identification and role in the generation of allogeneic helper activity. J Exp Med 1978; 148:1423.

66. Winchester RJ, Wang, CY, Gibofsky A, Kunkel HG, Lloyd K and Old, LJ. Expression of 1a-like antigens on cultured human malignant melanoma cell lines. Proc Natl. Acad Sci. 1978; 75:6235.

67. Winchester RJ, Meyers PA, Broxmeyer HE, Wang, CY, Moore MAS and Kunkel HG. Inhibition of human erythropoietic colony formation in culture by treatment with 1a antisera. J Exp Med 1978; 148:613.

68. Halper JP, Fu SM, Wang, CY, Winchester RJ and Kunkel HG. Patterns of expression of human 1a-like antigens during the terminal stages of B cell development. J Immunol 1978; 119:1520.

69. Hoffman T, Wang, CY, Winchester RJ, Ferarrini M and Kunkel HG. Human lymphocyte bearing 1a-like antigens [now termed HLA-DK or class 1 MHC antigen]: Absence in patients with infantile Hypogammaglobulinemia. J immunol 1977; 119:1250.

70. Winchester RJ, Ross, GD, Jarowski CI, Wang, CY, Halper J and Broxmeyer HE. Expression of a 1a-like antigen on human granulocytes during early stages of differentiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci 1977; 74:4012.