^As the last living sister and daughter of the last and second-to-last kings respectively, Princess Rose Paula Iribagiza is considered the head of the royal household. According to the relevant laws of succession, however, the crown must pass to a male member of the family.
^Jean-Bédel Bokassa was Crown Prince of the Central African Empire from its inception on 1976年12月4日 until its abolition on 1979年9月20日.
^Designated heir presumptive by his grandfather the 皇帝 on 1974年4月14日. Confirmed as heir apparent by his father 海尔·塞拉西一世 on 1988年4月6日. He has used the title Crown Prince since 1989年4月7日, when his father was proclaimed emperor-in-exile. He is recognised as heir to the throne by the Imperial Crown Council.
^According to the 1955 Constitution, the Emperor designated his successor from members of his own family, with the rule of primogeniture preferred, but not necessarily followed. Candidates for the succession must be descendants of the Solomonic dynasty, in the male or female line. They must also be practising members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church, and their candidature must be approved by the Imperial Crown Council. If the Emperor has no direct descendants, or if the Crown Prince is unable to perform his dynastic duties, the Crown Council selects the successor from amongst the members of the Solomonic dynasty.
^Lij Girma claims that all governments in Ethiopia since the 1916 deposition of his grandfather are illegitimate, and as such, as the seniormost descendant of Iyasu V, he claims to be the nation's rightful monarch.
^Iyasu V was heir apparent of Menelik II and succeeded as Emperor upon the latter's death, but was never crowned. His reign was deposed with the sanction of the Church following allegations of conversion to Islam.
^Succession is limited to members of two lineages of the Kilukeni: the Kinlaza and the Kimpanzu, both descended from Afonso I. It is unclear as to which of the two lines the current pretender belongs.
^During the civil war period beginning in 1669, the line of succession was disputed between two lines of descendants of Afonso I: the Kinlaza and the Kimpanzu. Under Pedro IV (1695–1718), who restored unity to the kingdom in 1709, it was established that the Manikongo was to be elected by a council of six, and that succession would rotate between the two lineages. This system functioned sporadically, with considerable fighting, until the kingship was extinguished by the Portuguese in 1914.
^Kigeli V previously reigned as king from 1959年7月25日 until he was deposed in 1961.
^Rezā, eldest son of the last reigning shah, was Crown Prince of Iran from birth, on 1960年10月31日, until the monarchy was deposed in 1979.
^Another claimant to the throne (since 1956) is Sharif Ali bin al-Hussein, of the same family, but his claim is not regarded to fulfil the requirements of the former monarchy's laws of succession. Furthermore, his reigning Hāshemite relatives in Jordan have supported Ra'ad's claim, rather than Sharif Ali's.
^Alternatively written as Kyaingtong or Keng Tung.
^The legal genealogical heir of the last reigning emperors when the traditional laws of male primogeniture are applied is Yi Chung, who does not actively pursue any claim to the throne. Seok is the next in line.
^The position of head of the royal family and heir to the throne of Korea has been disputed among various claimants since the death of the last heir, Yi Gu. Claimants not listed include Yi Haewŏn.
^Yi Won was chosen as the next head of the Imperial Household, with the title of Hereditary Prince Imperial of Korea, by a majority of its organised members following the death of the last head of the dynasty, Yi Gu, in 2005. Won was adopted as Gu's son after the elder's death, but the legality of the adoption is disputed.
^After the monarchy was deposed in 1975, the senior members of the royal family were imprisoned by the military. The deaths of the former King, Queen, and Crown Prince were confirmed by the Lao authorities on 1989年12月17日. The dates of actual death were not released, but the current heir, who is the eldest son of the late Crown Prince, escaped imprisonment and arrived in Thailand on 1981年8月3日. He was confirmed as the successor to his grandfather by the Royal Council in Exile on 1997年9月19日.
^The vassal state of Manchukuo was created in 1932 after its annexation by Japan. The last emperor of China, Puyi, who had been deposed in 1912, was installed as the nominal head of state. After Japan's defeat in World War II, the territory was ceded back to the Chinese republic.
^The state of Sulu was abolished under the Carpenter Agreement of 1915. It was restored as a traditional polity in 1962. The sultan currently recognised by the government is listed under constituent monarchs.
^The 14th and current Dalai Lama was recognised as the reincarnation of his predecessor in 1939. He was officially inaugurated on 1950年11月17日, from which time he reigned as both spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet until his flight into exile in 1959年3月. He continues to maintain a government-in-exile, in opposition to the Chinese administration, and remains the seniormost spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhists.
^Gyanendra reigned as King of Nepal between 1950年11月7日 and 1951年1月8日, and again from 2001年6月4日 until the monarchy was abolished in 2008.
^Members of the Shah dynasty of Nepal are descended from the Parmar clan of Rajputs from the former state of Narsinghgarh in modern India.
^ 28.028.128.2Succession to the throne, whilst hereditary, is also subject to confirmation from the reigning King of Nepal.
^Prakash reigned as raja from 2002年11月13日 until 2008, when the constituent monarchies of Nepal were abolished.
^A Tibet an kingdom known locally as Lo, the name "Mustang" is actually a Nepalese corruption of Manthang, the state's capital. Its ruler was styled Raja of Mustang by the Nepalese, and Lo rGyal-po (King of Lo) in Tibetan.
^Jigme reigned as raja from 1964 until 2008, when the constituent monarchies of Nepal were abolished.
^The surname "Bista" was adopted by the last reigning raja and his family.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1928年9月3日 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1947 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1935 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as emir from 1954 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1964年7月10日 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1955 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1949年4月24日 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1958年12月8日 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967. Prior to his formal ascension to the throne, he had served as prince regent since 1958年7月10日.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1966 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1966年10月10日 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Known as Balhaf and Azzan from 1881, signifying Balhaf's merge with Wahidi Azzan. Known simply as Wahidi from 1962, when the sultanates of Wahidi Bir Ali and Wahidi Haban were made subordinate.
^Prince Ali held the position of hakim (regent) from 1967年2月20日 until the sultanate's abolition in August of the same year. He was never crowned sultan.
^Alawi previously reigned as sultan from 1955 until the monarchy was abolished in 1967. Before his reign ended, he was made subordinate to the Sultan of Balhaf and Azzan on 1962年10月23日.
^Husayn had previously reigned as sultan prior to the monarchy's abolition in 1967. Before his reign ended, he was made subordinate to the Sultan of Balhaf and Azzan on 1962年10月23日.
^Mahmud previously reigned as sultan from 1954 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967. His reign was not initially recognised by the British government, which continued to recognise his still-living father and predecessor as sultan until 1958.
^ 48.048.1A clan of the Yafa tribe. The Yafai are divided into ten sheikhdoms that were spread across the former sultanates of Lower Yafa and Upper Yafa.
^Previously reigned as sultan from 1948 until the monarchy was deposed in 1967.
^Otto was heir apparent to the united thrones of Austria and Hungary from 1916年11月21日 until the empire's dissolution on 1922年4月1日. Years later, in a declaration dated 1961年5月31日, Otto renounced all claims to the Austrian throne in order to return from exile. If reigning, he would be known as "Otto I of Austria" and "Otto II of Hungary".
^The majority of Navarre was annexed by the Spanish in 1522, and the title King of Navarre was henceforth adopted as an additional hereditary title by the kings of Spain. It is one of the many titles held by the present king, Juan Carlos I. The remainder of Navarre went into a personal union with France under Henry III & IV in 1589. It was formally integrated into France in 1620. The title King of Navarre continued to be used by the kings of France until the French Revolution in 1792. Based on this union, the current heir to the early French throne, Louis, Duke of Anjou, is also a claimant to this title.
^ 13.013.1The kings of Saxony belonged to the Albertine branch of the House of Wettin.
^Michael I reigned as King of the Romanians between 1927年7月20日 and 1930年6月8日, and again from 1940年9月6日 until the monarchy's abolition during the Communist revolution of 1947. A rival claim to the throne is maintained by the descendants of Carol Lambrino, Michael's elder half brother from his father's first marriage. Carol Lambrino's eldest son, Paul-Philippe, has maintained his claim to the throne since his father's death on 2006年1月27日.
^The House of Obrenović, who were overthrown as the Royal Family of Serbia in 1903, hold that the rightful heir to the crown of the King of Serbia is a descendant of Prince Mirko of Montenegro, who was the designated successor of Alexander I, the last of the Obrenović line of kings in Serbia.
^The principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen were created in 1576 from the partition of the territory of Hohenzollern. When the Hechingen lineage became extinct in 1869, the heirs of the Princes of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen reclaimed the title Prince of Hohenzollern.
^The territory of Reuss was partitioned between the sons of the reigning prince in 1564, eventually resulting in the principalities of Reuss-Greiz, the elder line, and Reuss-Köstritz, the junior. The Greiz lineage ceased in 1927 through the death of Heinrich XXVII, and inheritance passed to the junior Köstritz line, whose heirs now claim the title Prince Reuss.
^For details on the unusual numbering system of the Reuss-Köstritz lineage, see the main article.
^Vittorio Emanuele, only son of King Umberto II, was heir presumptive to the throne of Italy from his birth on 1937年2月12日 until the monarchy was abolished in 1946. He declared himself King of Italy in 1969, claiming that his father, having agreed to submit to a referendum on his position as head of state, had thereby abdicated his throne. The declaration came after his father called for Amedeo, Duke of Aosta to visit him in Cascais, allegedly to name him his heir. Umberto II died on 1983年3月18日.
^Descended from the Houses of Boncompagni and Ludovisi. By matrimonial pact between the two families, the descendants all have the name Boncompagni-Ludovisi.
^Leopold Franz, the previous head of the household, abdicated his right to the throne in favour of his son Sigismund upon the date of the former's second marriage in 1993. Sigismund succeeded as Grand Master of the Tuscan Orders (the Order of Saint Joseph and Order of Saint Stephen) on 1994年4月12日.
^This branch is known as the House of Bourbon-Two Sicilies. The right to succession is currently disputed between two sects of the family.
^Although his family no longer holds any inherent political power, Tokataake remains a highly influential member of the community. He has served a number of terms as the member for Abemama in the national parliament, and still holds his title for land rights purposes.
^A Crown colony of Great Britain from 1857, the Cocos Islands were granted in perpetuity to the Clunies-Ross family by Queen Victoria in 1886. Its resulting self-proclaimed monarchy, however, was not recognised by the British government. It disbanded in 1978, when John Cecil Clunies-Ross relinquished his official authority as governor.
^John Cecil succeeded as king upon the death of his father, on 1944年8月14日. He remained overseas in London until 1946, during which time the islands were overseen by a military administrator. Officially, he served as governor of the territory from 1947. He relinquished his authority in 1978.
^The House of Kawānanakoa was a collateral line of succession of the reigning Kalākaua dynasty. The last queen, Liliʻuokalani, not having had any issue of her own, adopted and appointed the head of the Kawānanakoa as heir apparent. The House of Kawānanakoa are historically recognised as the presumptive heirs to the throne should the monarchy be revived. Because of an early succession dispute within the family, there are currently two claimants from this household.
^Noa Kalokuokamaile DeGuair is a descendant of the House of Kalokuokamaile, which was a collateral line of succession of the Kamehameha dynasty, the first line of Hawaiʻian kings. It became extinct in the male line during the time of the monarchy, and now survives through the female line as the House of Laʻanui. The current descendants also belong to the Wilcox lineage of English and Italian descent. His right to make a claim on the throne is disputed.
^Recognised as the rightful heir to the Tahitian throne by a majority of the royal family's current members. He has migrated overseas, however, and currently lives in Paris.
^An adopted member of the family. He was "enthroned" as Pomare XI during a ceremony attended by descendants of local chiefs. The enthronement was rejected by other members of the royal family.
^An active claimant to the Tahitian throne, Tauatomo has attempted to reassert the status of the monarchy through litigation against the French government. In 2004, he was recognised by a local court as the Prince Royal of Taha’a.