眼动追踪

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眼动追踪,英文eye tracking,是指通过测量眼睛的注视点的位置或者眼球相对头部的运动而实现对眼球运动的追踪。眼动仪是一种能够跟踪测量眼球位置及眼球运动信息的一种设备,在视觉系统心理学认知语言学的研究中有广泛的应用。目前眼动追踪有多种方法,其中最常用的无创手段是通过视频拍摄设备来获取眼睛的位置。有创的手段包括在眼睛中埋置眼动测定线圈或者使用微电极描记眼动电图

研究历史[编辑]

在19世纪,眼动的研究主要是靠直接对眼睛进行观察完成的。

1879年,法国巴黎的眼科医生Louis Émile Javal发现人们在阅读文字的时候,眼睛的注视点并不是平滑的划过所注视的文字,而是在某一点停留一段时间(注视),然后进行一词快速眼动切换[1] 。人们根据这项发现提出了关于文字阅读的许多被认为重要的问题:人们的眼睛遇到哪些单词会停下来?会在这些单词上停留多长时间?眼睛什么时候会回顾前面已经看到过的单词?这些问题在 20 世纪得到了广泛的研究。

人眼在进行文字阅读时停留位置和扫过的经典轨迹图。可以看出,人们在阅读的时候,眼睛的注视点并非平滑的扫过文字。

Edmund Huey[2]使用带有人工瞳孔接触镜制造出了最早的眼动仪。Huey 定量研究了眼睛的回顾现象(回顾现象在快速眼动中所占的比例很小),他发现人们在阅读的时候,有些单词根本就没有被注视过。

第一台非侵入式的眼动仪是 Guy Thomas Buswell 在芝加哥发明的。这台眼动仪的原理是,将一束光打到眼睛表面,然后使用胶卷记录从眼睛反射回来的光,据此分析眼睛注视点的位置。Buswell 对人们进行文字阅读[3]和浏览照片[4]时的眼动状况做了系统的研究。

1950 年,阿尔弗雷德·雅布斯[5]在眼动研究方面作出了许多被认为重要的工作,他在1967年出版的一本书也被广泛引用。他发现给被试者的分配的任务目标很大程度上决定了被试者的眼动轨迹。在他的著作中,他这样描述眼睛的注视点与人们的注视兴趣:

"所有的记录..都表明眼动与所看到的内容几乎是完全独立的,

Hunziker 的一项关于解决问题时的眼动状况的研究(1970)[6]。图中使用8mm胶卷的摄像机透过一个玻璃板记录下一个被试者在玻璃板上进行”问题解决“时的眼动信息[7][8]

眼动测量仪的种类[编辑]

选择合适的眼动测量仪[编辑]

应用[编辑]

商业应用[编辑]

另外参见[编辑]

参考文献[编辑]

  1. ^ 见 Huey 在1908/1968 的报道.
  2. ^ Huey, Edmund. The Psychology and Pedagogy of Reading (Reprint). MIT Press 1968 (originally published 1908). 
  3. ^ Buswell (1922, 1937)
  4. ^ Buswell (1935)
  5. ^ Yarbus (1967)
  6. ^ Hunziker, H. W. (1970). Visuelle Informationsaufnahme und Intelligenz: Eine Untersuchung über die Augenfixationen beim Problemlösen. Schweizerische Zeitschrift für Psychologie und ihre Anwendungen, 1970, 29, Nr 1/2 (english abstract: http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/forsch1e.htm )
  7. ^ http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/eye%20movements%20problem%20solving.swf
  8. ^ http://www.learning-systems.ch/multimedia/forsch1e.htm

扩展阅读[编辑]

  • Adler FH & Fliegelman (1934). Influence of fixation on the visual acuity. Arch. Ophthalmology 12, 475.
  • Buswell, G.T. (1922). Fundamental reading habits: A study of their development. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Buswell G.T. (1935). How People Look at Pictures. Chicago: Univ. Chicago Press 137–55. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum
  • Buswell, G.T. (1937). How adults read. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.
  • Carpenter, Roger H.S.; Movements of the Eyes (2nd ed.). Pion Ltd, London, 1988. ISBN 0-85086-109-8.
  • Cornsweet TN, Crane HD. (1973) Accurate two-dimensional eye tracker using first and fourth Purkinje images. J Opt Soc Am. 63, 921–8.
  • Cornsweet TN. (1958). New technique for the measurement of small eye movements. JOSA 48, 808–811.
  • Deubel, H. & Schneider, W.X. (1996) Saccade target selection and object recognition: Evidence for a common attentional mechanism. Vision Research, 36, 1827–1837.
  • Duchowski, A. T., "A Breadth-First Survey of Eye Tracking Applications", Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers (BRMIC), 34(4), November 2002, pp. 455–470.
  • Eizenman M, Hallett PE, Frecker RC. (1985). Power spectra for ocular drift and tremor. Vision Res. 25, 1635–40
  • Ferguson RD (1998). Servo tracking system utilizing phase-sensitive detection of reflectance variations. US Patent # 5,767,941
  • Hammer DX, Ferguson RD, Magill JC, White MA, Elsner AE, Webb RH. (2003) Compact scanning laser ophthalmoscope with high-speed retinal tracker. Appl Opt. 42, 4621–32.
  • Hoffman, J. E. (1998). Visual attention and eye movements. In H. Pashler (ed.), Attention (pp. 119–154). Hove, UK: Psychology Press.
  • Holsanova, J. (forthcoming) Picture viewing and picture descriptions, Benjamins.
  • Huey, E.B. (1968). The psychology and pedagogy of reading. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. (Originally published 1908)
  • Jacob, R. J. K. & Karn, K. S. (2003). Eye Tracking in Human-Computer Interaction and Usability Research: Ready to Deliver the Promises. In R. Radach, J. Hyona, & H. Deubel (eds.), The mind's eye: cognitive and applied aspects of eye movement research (pp. 573–605). Boston: North-Holland/Elsevier.
  • Just MA, Carpenter PA (1980) A theory of reading: from eye fixation to comprehension. Psychol Rev 87:329–354
  • Liechty,J, Pieters, R, & Wedel, M. (2003). The Representation of Local and Global Exploration Modes in Eye Movements through Bayesian Hidden Markov Models. Psychometrika, 68 (4), 519–542.
  • Mulligan, JB, (1997). Recovery of Motion Parameters from Distortions in Scanned Images. Proceedings of the NASA Image Registration Workshop (IRW97), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, MD
  • Ott D & Daunicht WJ (1992). Eye movement measurement with the scanning laser ophthalmoscope. Clin. Vision Sci. 7, 551–556.
  • Posner, M. I. (1980) Orienting of attention. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology 32: 3–25.
  • Rayner, K. (1978). Eye movements in reading and information processing. Psychological Bulletin, 85, 618–660
  • Rayner, K. (1998) Eye movements in reading and information processing: 20 years of research. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 372–422.
  • Riggs LA, Armington JC & Ratliff F. (1954) Motions of the retinal image during fixation. JOSA 44, 315–321.
  • Riggs, L. A. & Niehl, E. W. (1960). Eye movements recorded during convergence and divergence. J Opt Soc Am 50:913–920.
  • Riju Srimal, Jorn Diedrichsen, Edward B. Ryklin, and Clayton E. Curtis. Obligatory adaptation of saccade gains. J Neurophysiol. 2008 Mar;99(3):1554-8
  • Robinson, D. A. A method of measuring eye movement using a scleral search coil in a magnetic field. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-l0, pp. 137–145, 1963
  • Wright, R.D., & Ward, L.M. (2008). Orienting of Attention. New York. Oxford University Press.
  • Yarbus, A. L. Eye Movements and Vision. Plenum. New York. 1967 (Originally published in Russian 1962)

商业化眼动追踪仪[编辑]

  • Bojko, A. (2006). Using Eye Tracking to Compare Web Page Designs: A Case Study. Journal of Usability Studies, Vol.1, No. 3. [1]
  • Bojko, A. & Stephenson, A. (2005). It's All in the Eye of the User: How eye tracking can help answer usability questions. User Experience, Vol. 4, No. 1.
  • Chandon, Pierre, J. Wesley Hutchinson, and Scott H. Young (2001), Measuring Value of Point-of-Purchase Marketing with Commercial Eye-Tracking Data. [2]
  • Duchowski, A. T., (2002) A Breadth-First Survey of Eye Tracking Applications, 'Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers (BRMIC),' 34(4), November 2002, pp. 455–470.
  • National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. (n.d.) Retrieved July 9, 2006, from [3]
  • Pieters, R., Wedel, M. & Zhang, J. (2007). Optimal Feature Advertising Under Competitive Clutter, Management Science, 2007, 51 (11) 1815–1828.
  • Pieters, R., & Wedel, M. (2007). Goal Control of Visual Attention to Advertising: The Yarbus Implication, Journal of Consumer Research, 2007, 34 (August), 224–233.
  • Pieters, R. & Wedel, M. (2004). Attention Capture and Transfer by elements of Advertisements. Journal of Marketing, 68 (2), 2004, 36–50.
  • Thomas RECORDING GmbH, high-speed Eye Tracking Systems for neuro-scientific purposes [4]
  • Weatherhead, James. (2005) Eye on the Future, 'British Computer Society, ITNOW Future of Computing,' 47 (6), pp. 32–33 [5]
  • Wedel, M. & Pieters, R. (2000). Eye fixations on advertisements and memory for brands: a model and findings. Marketing Science, 19 (4), 2000, 297–312.
  • Wittenstein, Jerran. (2006). EyeTracking sees gold in its technology. [Electronic Version]. San Diego Source, The Daily Transcript, April, 3rd, 2006. [6]

外部連結[编辑]