科普利獎章

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1905年授予门捷列夫的科普利獎章
约翰·西奥菲勒斯·德札古利埃英语John Theophilus Desaguliers,唯一一个获得过三次科普利奖章的人

科普利獎章Copley Medal)是英國皇家學会每年頒發的科學獎章,以奖励“在任何科学分支上的杰出成就”。始于1731年授予斯蒂芬·格雷英语Stephen Gray (scientist)的科普利獎章是皇家學会仍在颁发的最古老的科学奖章,也可能是世界上最早的科学奖章。

历史[编辑]

獎章起始於戈弗雷·科普利爵士英语Sir Godfrey Copley, 2nd Baronet(Sir Godfrey Copley)在1709年捐贈100英磅作為實驗研究的基金,於1731年開始頒發,也是當時科學界的最高榮譽之一。科普利獎章沒有獲獎次數的限制,有斯蒂芬·格雷英语Stephen Gray (scientist)等多位科学家获得过两次科普利獎章,约翰·西奥菲勒斯·德札古利埃英语John Theophilus Desaguliers是唯一一位获得过三次科普利奖章的科学家。另外,还有多个年份的奖章以不同的获奖理由颁发给两位及以上科学家,其中1766年的科普利奖章颁发给了亨利·卡文迪什等三人。

自20世纪后,有许多诺贝尔奖获得者也获得了科普利獎章,包括17位物理学奖获得者,21位生理学或医学奖获得者以及14位化学奖获得者,共计52位(截止2013年)。1976年,多萝西·霍奇金成为第一位也是唯一一位(截止2013年)获得过科普利獎章的女性。

歷屆得主[编辑]

1731-1800[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
1731年 斯蒂芬·格雷英语Stephen Gray (scientist) Fond blanc.svg "For his new Electrical Experiments: – as an encouragement to him for the readiness he has always shown in obliging the Society with his discoveries and improvements in this part of Natural Knowledge" [1]
1732年 斯蒂芬·格雷英语Stephen Gray (scientist) Fond blanc.svg "For the Experiments he made for the year 1732" [1]
1733年 未頒發
1734年 约翰·西奥菲勒斯·德札古利埃英语John Theophilus Desaguliers John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg "In consideration of his several Experiments performed before the Society" [2]
1735年 未頒發
1736年 约翰·西奥菲勒斯·德札古利埃英语John Theophilus Desaguliers John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg "For his experiments made during the year" [2]
1737年 约翰·贝尔希耶英语John Belchier Belchier John 1706-1785.png "For his Experiment to show the property of a Diet of Madder Root in dyeing the Bones of living animals of a red colour" [3]
1738年 詹姆斯·瓦卢英语James Valoue Fond blanc.svg "For his invention of an Engine for driving the Piles to make a Foundation for the Bridge to be erected at Westminster, the Model whereof had been shown to the Society"
1739年 史蒂芬·黑尔斯英语Stephen Hales Stephen Hales.jpg "For his Experiments towards the Discovery of Medicines for dissolving the Stone; and Preservatives for keeping Meat in long voyages at Sea" [4]
1740年 亚历山大·斯图尔特英语Alexander Stuart (scientist) Fond blanc.svg "For his Lectures on Muscular Motion. As a further addition for his services to the Society in the care and pains he has taken therein" [5]
1741年 约翰·西奥菲勒斯·德札古利埃英语John Theophilus Desaguliers John Theophilus Desaguliers.jpg "For his Experiments towards the discovery of the properties of Electricity. As an addition to his allowance (as Curator) for the present year." [2]
1742年 克里斯托弗·米德尔顿英语Christopher Middleton (navigator) Fond blanc.svg "For the communication of his Observations in the attempt of discovering a North-West passage to the East Indies through Hudsons Bay" [6]
1743年 亚伯拉罕·特朗布雷英语Abraham Trembley Abraham Trembley.jpg "For his Experiments on the Polypus"
1744年 亨利·贝克英语Henry Baker (naturalist) HenryBaker16981774.jpg "For his curious Experiments relating to the Crystallization or Configuration of the minute particles of Saline Bodies dissolved in a menstruum" [7]
1745年 威廉·沃森 William Watson.jpg "On account of the surprising discoveries in the phenomena of Electricity, exhibited in his late Experiments" [8]
1746年 本杰明·罗宾斯英语Benjamin Robins Fond blanc.svg "On account of his curious Experiments for showing the resistance of the Air, and his rules for establishing his doctrine thereon for the motion of Projectiles" [9]
1747年 戈温·奈特英语Gowin Knight Gowin Knight from Science & Society 10198868.jpg "On account of several very curious Experiments exhibited by him, both with Natural and Artificial Magnets" [10]
1748年 詹姆斯·布拉德雷 James Bradley by Thomas Hudson.jpg "On account of his very curious and wonderful discoveries in the apparent motion of the Fixed Stars, and the causes of such apparent motion" [11]
1749年 约翰·哈里森 John Harrison Uhrmacher.jpg "On account of those very curious Instruments, invented and made by him, for the exact mensuration of Time" [12]
1750年 乔治·爱德华兹英语George Edwards (naturalist) Edwards George 1693 1773.jpg "On account of a very curious Book lately published by him, and intiyled, A Natural History of Birds, &c. – containing the Figures elegantly drawn, and illuminated in their proper colours, of 209 different Birds, and about 20 very rare Quadrupeds, Serpents, Fishes, and Insects." [13]
1751年 约翰·坎通 John Canton from NPG.jpg "On account of his communicating to the Society, and exhibiting before them, his curious method of making Artificial Magnets without the use of Natural ones" [14]
1752年 约翰·普林格英语John Pringle John Pringle.jpg "On account of his very curious and useful Experiments and Observations on Septic and Anti-septic Substances, communicated to the Society" [15]
1753年 班傑明·富蘭克林 BenFranklinDuplessis.jpg "On account of his curious Experiments and Observations on Electricity" [16]
1754年 威廉·刘易斯英语William Lewis (scientist) Fond blanc.svg "For the many Experiments made by him on Platina, which tend to the discovery of the sophistication of gold: – which he would have entirely completed, but was obliged to put a stop to his further enquiries for want of materials" [17]
1755年 约翰·赫克萨姆英语John Huxham John Huxham1.jpg "For his many useful Experiments on Antimony, of which an account had been read to the Society" [18]
1756年 未頒發
1757年 查尔斯·卡文迪什英语Lord Charles Cavendish Fond blanc.svg "On account of his very curious and useful invention of making Thermometers, showing respectively the greatest degrees of heat and cold which have happened at any time during the absence of the observer" [10]
1758年 约翰·多伦德英语John Dollond John Dollond, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg "On account of his curious Experiments and Discoveries concerning the different refrangibility of the Rays of Light, communicated to the Society" [19]
1759年 约翰·斯密顿英语John Smeaton John Smeaton.jpg "On account of his curious Experiments concerning Water-wheels and Wind-mill Sails, communicated to the Society. For his experimental enquiry concerning the powers of water and wind in the moving of Mills" [20]
1760年 本杰明·威尔逊英语Benjamin Wilson (painter) Benjamin Wilson, by Benjamin Wilson.jpg "For his many curious Experiments in Electricity, communicated to the Society within the year" [21]
1761年 未頒發
1762年 未頒發
1763年 未頒發
1764年 约翰·坎通 John Canton from NPG.jpg "For his very ingenious and elegant Experiments in the Air Pump and Condensing Engine, to prove the Compressibility of Water, and some other Fluids" [14]
1765年 未頒發
1766年 威廉·布朗里格英语William Brownrigg "For an experimental enquiry into the Mineral Elastic Spirit, or Air, contained in Spa-Water; as well as into the Mephitic qualities of this Spirit."
爱德华·迪拉沃英语Edward Delaval "For his Experiments and Observations on the agreement between the specific gravities of the several Metals, and their colours when united to glass, as well as those of their other preparations."
亨利·卡文迪什 Cavendish Henry signature.jpg "For his Paper communicated this present year, containing his Experiments relating to Fixed Air." [22]
1772年 約瑟夫·普利斯特里 Priestley.jpg "On account of the many curious and useful Experiments contained in his observations"
1774年 未頒發
1775年 内维尔·马斯基林 Maskelyne Nevil.jpg "In consideration of his curious and laborious Observations on the Attraction of Mountains, made in Scotland, – on Schehallien" [23]
1776年 詹姆斯·庫克 Captainjamescookportrait.jpg "For his Paper, giving an account of the method he had taken to preserve the health of the crew of H.M. Ship the Resolution, during her late voyage round the world. Whose communication to the Society was of such importance to the public" [24]
1779年 未頒發
1781年 威廉·赫歇尔 William Herschel01.jpg "For the Communication of his Discovery of a new and singular Star; a discovery which does him particular honour, as, in all probability, this star has been for many years, perhaps ages, within the bounds of astronomic vision, and yet till now, eluded the most diligent researches of other observers" [25]
1783年 约翰·古德利克 Goodricke John.jpg "For his discovery of the Period of the Variation of Light in the Star Algol."
托马斯·哈钦斯英语Thomas Hutchins (naturalist) "For his Experiments to ascertain the point of Mercurial Congelation." [26]
1784年 爱德华·华林 Edwardwaring.jpg "For his Mathematical Communications to the Society. For his Paper On the Summation of Series, whose general term is a determinate function of z the distance from the first term of the series" [27]
1786年 未頒發
1787年 約翰·杭特 John Hunter by John Jackson.jpg "For his three Papers, – On the Ovaria, On the identity of the dog, wolf, and jackall species, and On the anatomy of Whales, printed in the Philosophical Transactions for 1787" [28]
1788年 查爾斯·布拉格登英语Charles Blagden Blagden Charles.jpg "For his two Papers on Congelation, printed in the last (78th) volume of the Philosophical transactions" [29]
1790年 未頒發
1792年 本杰明·汤普森 Benjamin Thompson.jpg "For his various Papers on the Properties and Communication of Heat" [30]
1793年 未頒發
1794年 亚历山德罗·伏特 Volta A.jpg "For his several Communications explanatory of certain Experiments published by Professor Galvani"
1795年 杰西·拉姆斯登英语Jesse Ramsden Jesse.Ramsden.jpg "For his various inventions and improvements in the construction of the Instruments for the Trigonometrical measurements carried on by the late Major General Roy, and by Lieut. Col. Williams and his associates" [31]
1796年 乔治·阿特伍德 Fond blanc.svg "For his Paper on the construction and analysis of geometrical propositions determining the positions assumed by homogeneal bodies which float freely, and at rest; and also determining the Stability of Ships and other floating bodies" [32]
1797年 未頒發
1798年 George Shuckburgh-Evelyn英语George Shuckburgh-Evelyn "For his various Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions."
查理斯·哈契特 Charles Hatchett 2.jpg "For his Chemical Communications printed in the Philosophical Transactions." [33]
1799年 John Hellins英语John Hellins Fond blanc.svg "For his improved Solution of a problem in Physical Astronomy, &c. printed in the Philosophical Transactions for the year 1798; and his other Mathematical Papers" [34]
1800年 愛德華·查爾斯·霍華德 Fond blanc.svg "For his Paper on a New Fulminating Mercury" [35]

1801-1850[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
1801年 阿斯特利·库柏英语Astley Cooper Astley Paston Cooper 4.jpg "For his Papers – on the effects which take place from the destruction of the Membrana Tympani of the Ear; with an account of an operation for the removal of a particular species of Deafness" [36]
1802年 威廉·海德·沃勒斯顿英语William Hyde Wollaston Wollaston William Hyde Jackson color.jpg "For his various Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [37]
1803年 Richard Chenevix英语Richard Chenevix (chemist) Chenevix Richard.jpg "For his various Chemical Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [38]
1804年 史密森·特南特 Fond blanc.svg "For his various Chemical Discoveries communicated to the Society, and printed in several volumes of the Philosophical Transactions" [39]
1805年 汉弗里·戴维 Sir Humphry Davy, Bt by Thomas Phillips.jpg "For his various Communications published in the Philosophical Transactions" [40]
1806年 Thomas Andrew Knight英语Thomas Andrew Knight Fond blanc.svg "For his various Papers on Vegetation, printed in the Philosophical Transactions" [41]
1807年 Everard Home英语Everard Home Fond blanc.svg "For his various Papers on Anatomy and Physiology, printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1808年 威廉·亨利 William Henry.jpg "For his various papers communicated to the society, and printed in the Philosophical Transactions"
1809年 Edward Troughton英语Edward Troughton Fond blanc.svg "For the Account of his Method of dividing Astronomical Instruments, printed in the last volume of the Philosophical Transactions" [42]
1810年 未頒發
1812年 未頒發
1815年 大卫·布儒斯特 David-Brewster.jpg "For his Paper on the Polarization of Light by Reflection from Transparent Bodies" [43]
1816年 未頒發
1819年 未頒發
1820年 漢斯·奧斯特 Hans Christian Ørsted daguerreotype.jpg "For his Electro-magnetic Discoveries" [44]
1821年 爱德华·萨宾英语Edward Sabine "For his various Communications to the Royal Society relating to his researches made in the late Expedition to the Arctic Regions."
约翰·赫歇尔 Julia Margaret Cameron - John Herschel (Metropolitan Museum of Art copy, restored) levels.jpg "For his Papers printed in the Philosophical Transactions." [45]
1822年 威廉·巴克蘭英语William Buckland William Buckland c1845.jpg "For his Paper on the Fossil Teeth and Bones discovered in a Cave at Kirkdale" [46]
1825年 弗朗索瓦·阿拉戈 Arago Francois portrait.jpg "For the Discovery of the Magnetic Properties of substances not containing Iron. For the Discovery of the power of various bodies, principally metallic, to receive magnetic impressions, in the same, though in a more evanescent manner than malleable Iron, and in an infinitely less intense degree. "
彼得·巴洛英语Peter Barlow (mathematician) Peter Barlow(math).jpg "For his various Communications on the subject of Magnetism. " [47]
1828年 未頒發
1829年 未頒發
1830年 未頒發
1831年 乔治·比德尔·艾里 George Biddell Airy.jpg "For his Papers, On the principle of the construction of the Achromatic Eye-pieces of Telescopes, – On the Spherical Aberration of the Eye-pieces of Telescopes, and for other Papers on Optical Subjects in the Transactions of the Cambridge Philosophical Society" [48]
1832年 麥可·法拉第 Faraday-Millikan-Gale-1913.jpg "For his discovery of Magneto-Electricity as detailed in his Experimental Researches in Electricity, published in the Philosophical Transactions for the present year."
西莫恩·帕松 Simeon Poisson.jpg "For his work entitled, Nouvelle Theorie de lAction Capillaire." [49]
1833年 未頒發
1836年 永斯·贝采利乌斯 Jöns Jacob Berzelius.jpg "For his systematic application of the doctrine of definite proportions to the analysis of mineral bodies, as contained in his Nouveau Systeme de Mineralogie, and in other of his works."
弗朗西斯·基尔南英语Francis Kiernan "For his discoveries relating to the structure of the liver, as detailed in his paper communicated to the Royal Society, and published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1833."
1837年 安托万·塞萨尔·贝克勒尔法语Antoine Becquerel Antoine Becquerel 2.jpg "For his various memoirs on the subject of electricity, published in the Memoires deacademie Royale des Sciences de lInstitut de France, and particularly for those on the production of crystals of metallic sulphurets and of sulphur, by the long-continued action of electricity of very low tension, and published in the tenth volume of those Memoires. "
约翰·弗雷德里克·丹尼尔 Daniell chemist b.jpg "For his two papers on voltaic combinations published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1836." [50]
1838年 卡尔·弗里德里希·高斯 Carl Friedrich Gauss.jpg "For his inventions and mathematical researches in magnetism. "
迈克尔·法拉第 Faraday-Millikan-Gale-1913.jpg "For his researches in specific electrical induction." [51]
1839年 罗伯特·布朗 Robert Brown (botanist).jpg "For his discoveries during a series of years, on the subject of vegetable impregnation" [52]
1840年 尤斯图斯·冯·李比希 Justus von Liebig NIH.jpg "For his discoveries in organic chemistry, and particularly for his development of the composition and theory of organic radicals." [53]
雅克·夏尔·弗朗索瓦·施图姆 Charles Sturm.jpeg "For his "Memoire sur la Resolution des Equations Numeriques," published in the Memoires des Savans Etrangers for 1835." [54]
1841年 格奧爾格·歐姆 Georg Simon Ohm3.jpg "For his researches into the laws of electric currents contained in various memoirs published in Schweiggers Journal, Poggendorffs Annalen and in a separate work entitled Die galvanische Kette mathematisch bearbeitet" [55]
1842年 詹姆斯·麦古拉英语James MacCullagh James MacCullagh.png "For his researches connected with the wave theory of light, contained in the Transactions of the Royal Irish Academy" [56]
1843年 让-巴蒂斯特·杜马 Jean Baptiste André Dumas.jpg "For his late valuable researches in organic chemistry, particularly those contained in a series of memoirs on chemical types and the doctrine of substitution, and also for his elaborate investigations of the atomic weights of carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen and other elements"
1844年 卡尔洛·马泰乌奇英语Carlo Matteucci Carlo Matteucci.jpeg "For his various researches in animal electricity" [57]
1845年 泰奥多尔·施旺 Theodor Schwann Litho.jpg "For his physiological researches on the development of animal & vegetable textures, published in his work entitled Mikroskopische Untersuchungen uber die Uebereinstimmung in der Struktur u. dem Wachsthun der Thiese u. Bflanzen"
1846年 奥本·勒维耶 Urbain Le Verrier.jpg "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus by which he proved the existence and predicted the place of the new Planet; the Council considering such prediction confirmed as it was by the immediate discovery of the Planet to be one of the proudest triumphs of modern analysis applied to the Newtonian Theory of Gravitation" [58]
1847年 约翰·赫歇尔 Julia Margaret Cameron - John Herschel (Metropolitan Museum of Art copy, restored).jpg "For his work entitled Results of Astronomical Observations made during the years 1834, 1835, 1836, 1837 and 1838, at the Cape of Good Hope; being a completion of a telescopic survey of the whole surface of the visible heavens, commenced in 1825" [45]
1848年 约翰·柯西·亚当斯 John Couch Adams.jpg "For his investigations relative to the disturbances of Uranus, and for his application of the inverse problem of perturbations thereto" [59]
1849年 罗德里克·麦奇生 Murchison Roderick.jpg "For the eminent services he has rendered to geological science during many years of active observation in several parts of Europe; and especially for the establishment of that classification of the older Palaeozoic deposits designated the Silurian System, as set forth in the two works entitled The Silurian System founded on Geological Researches in England, and The Geology of Russia in Europe and the Ural Mountains"
1850年 彼得·安德烈亚斯·汉森英语Peter Andreas Hansen P.A.Hansen.jpg "For his researches in physical astronomy" [40]

1851-1900[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
1851年 理查·欧文 Richard-owen2.jpg "On account of his important discoveries in comparative anatomy & palaeontology, contained in the Philosophical Transactions and numerous other works" [60]
1852年 亚历山大·冯·洪堡 AvHumboldt.jpg "For his eminent services in terrestrial physics, during a series of years" [61]
1853年 海因里希·威廉·多费英语Heinrich Wilhelm Dove Heinrich Wilhelm Dove 1857.jpg "For his work on the distribution of heat over the surface of the Earth"
1854年 约翰内斯·彼得·缪勒 Johannes Peter Müller.jpg "For his important contributions to different branches of physiology and comparative anatomy, and particularly for his researches on the embryology of the Echinodermata, contained in a series of memoirs published in the Transactions of the Royal Academy of Sciences of Berlin" [62]
1855年 莱昂·傅科 Foucault.jpg "For his various researches in experimental physics" [40]
1856年 亨利·米尔恩-爱德华兹英语Henri Milne-Edwards Henri Milne-Edwards.jpg "For his researches in comparative anatomy and zoology"
1857年 米歇尔·欧仁·谢弗勒尔 Michel Eugène Chevreul 2.jpg "For his researches in organic chemistry, particularly on the composition of the fats, and for his researches on the contrast of coulours" [40]
1858年 查尔斯·莱尔 Charles Lyell00.jpg "For his various researches and writings by which he has contributed to the advance of geology" [40]
1859年 威廉·韦伯 Wilhelm Eduard Weber II.jpg "For the investigations contained in his Maasbestimmungen and other researches in electricity, magnetism, acoustics" [63]
1860年 罗伯特·威廉·本生 Robert Bunsen 02.jpg "For his researches on cacodyls, gaseous analysis, the Voltaire phenomena of Iceland; and other researches" [40]
1861年 路易斯·阿加西英语Louis Agassiz Louis Agassiz H6.jpg "For his eminent researches in palaeontology and other branches of science, and particularly for his great works the Poissons Fossiles, and his Poissons du Vieux Gres Rouge dEcosse" [40]
1862年 托马斯·格雷姆 Thomas Graham by Maull & Polybank, 1856.jpg "For three memoirs of the diffusion of liquids, published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1850 and 1851; for a memoir on osmotic force in the Philosophical Transactions for 1854; and particularly for a paper on liquid diffusion applied to analysis, including a distinction of compounds into colloids & crystalloids published in the Philosophical Transactions for 1861" [64]
1864年 查爾斯·達爾文 Charles Darwin seated crop.jpg "For his important researches in geology, zoology, and botanical physiology" [40]
1865年 米歇尔·沙勒 Michel Chasles.jpg "For his historical and original researches in pure geometry" [65]
1866年 尤利乌斯·普吕克 Julius Plücker.jpg "For his researches in analytical geometry, magnetism, & spectral analysis" [66]
1867年 卡尔·恩斯特·冯·贝尔英语Karl Ernst von Baer Voyages de la Commission scientifique du Nord, en Scandinavie, en Laponie, au Spitzberg et aux Feröe - no-nb digibok 2009040211001-118.jpg "For his discoveries in embryology and comparative anatomy, and for his contributions to the philosophy of zoology" [40]
1868年 查尔斯·惠斯通英语Charles Wheatstone Wheatstone Charles drawing 1868.jpg "For his researches in acoustics, optics, electricity and magnetism" [40]
1869年 亨利·维克托·勒尼奥 Henri Victor Regnault.jpg "For the second volume of his Relation des Experiences pour determiner les lois et les donnees physiques necessaries au calcul des machines a feu, including his elaborate investigations on the specific heat of gases and vapours, and various papers on the elastic force of vapours" [40]
1870年 詹姆斯·焦耳 Joule James sitting.jpg "For his experimental researches on the dynamical theory of heat" [40]
1871年 尤利乌斯·罗伯特·冯·迈尔 Julius Robert Mayer von Friedrich Berrer.jpg "For his researches on the mechanics of heat; including essays on: – 1. The force of inorganic nature. 2. Organic motion in connection with nutrition. 3. Fever. 4. Celestial dynamics. 5. The mechanical equivalent of heat" [40]
1872年 弗里德里希·维勒 Friedrich Wöhler Stich.jpg "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and more especially for his researches on the products of the decomposition of cyanogens by ammonia; on the derivatives of uric acid; on the benzoyl series; on boron, silicon, & their compounds; and on meteoric stones" [40]
1873年 赫尔曼·冯·亥姆霍兹 Hermann von Helmholtz.jpg "For his researches in physics and physiology" [67]
1874年 路易·巴斯德 Louis Pasteur, foto av Félix Nadar Crisco edit.jpg "For his researches on fermentation and on pelerine" [40]
1875年 奥古斯特·威廉·冯·霍夫曼 Hoffman August Wilhelm von.jpg "For his numerous contributions to the science of chemistry, and especially for his researches on the derivatives of ammonia" [68]
1876年 克洛德·贝尔纳 Claude Bernard.jpg "For his numerous contributions to the science of physiology" [40]
1877年 詹姆斯·德怀特·丹纳 James Dwight Dana by Warren, 1865.jpg "For his biological, geological, and mineralogical investigations, carried on through half a century, and for the valuable works in which his conclusions and discoveries have been published" [40]
1878年 J·B·布森戈英语Jean-Baptiste Boussingault Jean Baptiste JD Boussingault.jpg "For his long-continued and important researches and discoveries in agricultural chemistry" [69]
1879年 鲁道夫·克劳修斯 Clausius.jpg "For his well-known researches upon heat" [70]
1880年 詹姆斯·约瑟夫·西尔维斯特 James Joseph Sylvester.jpg "For his long continued investigations & discoveries in mathematics" [71]
1881年 查尔斯-阿道夫·武尔茨 Charles-Adolphe Wurtz.jpg "For his discovery of the organic ammonias, the glycols, and other investigations which have exercised considerable influence on the progress of chemistry"
1882年 阿瑟·凯莱 Arthur Cayley.jpg "For his numerous profound and comprehensive researches in pure mathematics" [72]
1883年 威廉·汤姆森 Lord Kelvin photograph.jpg "For (1) his discovery of the law of the universal dissipation of energy; (2) his researches and eminent services in physics, both experimental & mathematical, especially in the theory of electricity and thermodynamics" [73]
1884年 卡尔·路德维希英语Carl Ludwig Carl Wilhelm Friedrich Ludwig.jpg "For his investigations in physiology, and the great services which he has rendered to physiological science"
1885年 弗里德里希·奥古斯特·凯库勒 Frkekulé.jpg "For his researches in organic chemistry" [40]
1886年 弗朗茨·恩斯特·諾伊曼英语Franz Ernst Neumann Franz Ernst Neumann by Carl Steffeck 1886.jpg "For his researches in theoretical optics and electro-dynamics" [74]
1887年 约瑟夫·道尔顿·胡克 Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker.jpg "For his services to botanical science as an investigator, author, and traveller" [40]
1888年 托马斯·亨利·赫胥黎 T.H.Huxley(Woodburytype).jpg "For his investigations on the morphology and histology of vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and for his services to biological science in general during many past years" [40]
1890年 西蒙·纽康 Simon Newcomb 01.jpg "For his contributions to the progress of gravitational astronomy" [75]
1891年 斯坦尼斯劳·坎尼扎罗 Cannizzaro Stanislao.jpg "For his contributions to chemical philosophy especially for his application of Avogadros theory" [40]
1892年 鲁道夫·菲尔绍 Rudolf Virchow NLM3.jpg "For his investigations in pathology, pathological anatomy, and prehistoric archaeology" [40]
1893年 乔治·斯托克斯 Ggstokes.jpg "For his researches and discoveries in physical science" [76]
1895年 卡尔·魏尔斯特拉斯 Karl Weierstrass.jpg "For his investigations in pure mathematics" [77]
1896年 卡尔·根格包尔英语Karl Gegenbaur Gegenbaur.jpg "For his life-long researches in comparative anatomy in all branches of the animal kingdom. etc., etc"
1897年 阿尔伯特·冯·科立克 Kolliker2.jpg "In recognition of his important work in embryology, comparative anatomy, and physiology, and especially for his eminence as a histologist"
1898年 威廉·哈金斯 Sir William Huggins by John Collier.jpg "For his researches in spectrum analysis applied to the heavenly bodies"
1899年 约翰·斯特拉特 John William Strutt.jpg 因其对物理科学的贡献 [78]
1900年 马塞兰·贝特洛 Marcellin Berthelot.jpg 为他对化学科学做出的杰出贡献 [40]

1901-1950[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
1901年 約西亞·吉布斯 Josiah Willard Gibbs -from MMS-.jpg 对数学物理做出的贡献 [79]
1902年 约瑟夫·李斯特 Joseph Lister 1902.jpg 为他的生理学和病理学研究对现代手术实践所造成的影响 [80]
1903年 爱德华·修斯 Eduard Sueß.jpg 为他在地质学上的贡献,特别是总结发表在《地球的面貌》中杰出的原创工作 [80]
1904年 威廉·克鲁克斯 PSM V10 D660 William Crookes.jpg 对他用频谱分析来研究天体 [80]
1905年 门捷列夫 DIMendeleevCab.jpg 为其在物理学及化学上的贡献 [80]
1906年 埃黎耶·埃黎赫·梅契尼可夫 Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg 为其在动物学及病理学上的重要工作 [80]
1907年 阿尔伯特·迈克耳孙 Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg 为其在光学领域的研究贡献 [80]
1908年 阿尔弗雷德·拉塞尔·华莱士 Alfred-Russel-Wallace-c1895.jpg 为其在自然史领域的许多有巨大价值的贡献,及其在物种起源的自然选择理论中的工作 [80]
1909年 喬治·希爾 Hill1905.jpg 以其在数学天文学领域的研究贡献 [80]
1910年 弗朗西斯·高尔顿 Francis Galton 1850s.jpg 以其在遗传学上的研究 [80]
1911年 乔治·达尔文 George Darwin sepia tone.jpg 为其在潮汐理论、行星演算及相关领域上的研究贡献 [80]
1912年 菲利克斯·克莱因 Felix Klein.jpeg 以其在数学上的研究贡献 [81]
1913年 雷·兰克斯特英语Ray Lankester Fond blanc.svg "On the ground of the high scientific value of the researches in zoology carried out by him" [82]
1914年 約瑟夫·湯姆森 J.J Thomson.jpg 以其在物理科学上的发现 [80]
1915年 巴甫洛夫 Ivan Pavlov NLM3.jpg "On the ground of his investigations in the physiology of digestion and of the higher centres of the nervous system" [80]
1916年 詹姆斯·杜瓦 James Dewar.jpg "For his important investigations in physical chemistry, more especially his researches on the liquefaction of gases" [80]
1917年 埃米尔·鲁克斯英语Emile Roux Pierre Paul Émile Roux 2.jpg "On the ground of his eminence as a bacteriologist, and as a pioneer in serum therapy" [83]
1918年 亨德里克·洛伦兹 Hendrik Antoon Lorentz.jpg "On the ground of his distinguished researches in mathematical physics" [80]
1919年 威廉·贝利斯 Fond blanc.svg "On the ground of his researches in general physiology & biophysics" [80]
1920年 贺拉斯·特伯勒·布朗英语Horace Tabberer Brown Fond blanc.svg "On the ground of his work on the chemistry of carbohydrates, &c" [84]
1921年 约瑟夫·拉莫尔 Fond blanc.svg "For his researches in mathematical physics" [85]
1922年 欧内斯特·卢瑟福 "For his researches in radio activity & atomic structure" [80]
1923年 贺拉斯·兰姆 Lamb Horace bw.jpg "For his researches in mathematical physics" [86]
1924年 爱德华·阿尔伯特·沙佩沙尔英语Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer PSM V79 D521 Edward Albert Sharpey-Schafer.png "For the valuable work he has done in physiology and histology and the position he now occupies as a leader in these sciences"
1925年 阿爾伯特·愛因斯坦 "For his theory of relativity and his contributions to the quantum theory" [80]
1926年 弗雷德里克·霍普金斯 Frederick Gowland Hopkins nobel.jpg "For his distinguished and fruitful work in biochemistry" [87]
1927年 查尔斯·斯科特·谢灵顿 Prof. Charles Scott Sherrington.jpg "For his distinguished work on neurology" [88]
1928年 查尔斯·阿尔杰农·帕森斯英语Charles Algernon Parsons Charles Algernon Parsons.jpg 以其对工程科学的贡献
1929年 馬克斯·普朗克 Max Planck 1933.jpg 因他在理论物理学上的贡献,特别是作为量子理论的鼻祖 [89]
1930年 威廉·亨利·布拉格 对他在晶体学和放射现象上的卓越贡献 [90]
1931年 阿瑟·舒斯特英语Arthur Schuster Schuster Arthur signature.jpg 以其在光学和地磁学上的卓越研究 [91]
1932年 乔治·埃勒里·海耳 Portrait of George Ellery Hale.jpg "For his distinguished work on the solar magnetic phenomena and for his eminence as a scientific engineer, especially in connexion with Mount Wilson Observatory" [92]
1933年 西奥博尔德·史密斯英语Theobald Smith Theobald Smith.jpg "For his original research and observation on diseases of animals and man" [93]
1934年 约翰·斯科特·霍尔丹英语John Scott Haldane Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his discoveries in human physiology and of their application to medicine, mining, diving and engineering" [94]
1935年 查尔斯·威耳逊 CTR Wilson.jpg "For his work on the use of clouds in advancing our knowledge of atoms and their properties" [95]
1936年 阿瑟·埃文斯 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his pioneer work in Crete, particularly his contributions to the history and civilization of its Minoan age" [96]
1937年 亨利·哈利特·戴尔 Henry Dale nobel.jpg "In recognition of his important contributions to physiology and pharmacology, particularly in relation to the nervous and neuro-muscular systems" [97]
1938年 尼爾斯·波耳 Niels Bohr.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished work in the development of the quantum theory of atomic structure" [98]
1939年 托马斯·亨特·摩尔根 Thomas Hunt Morgan.jpg "For his establishment of the modern science of genetics which had revolutionized our understanding, not only of heredity, but of the mechanism and nature of evolution" [99]
1940年 保羅·朗之萬 Langevin.jpg "For his pioneer work on the electron theory of magnetism, his fundamental contributions to discharge of electricity in gases, and his important work in many branches of theoretical physics" [100]
1941年 托马斯·刘易斯英语Thomas Lewis (cardiologist) Fond blanc.svg "For his clinical and experimental investigations upon the mammalian heart" [101]
1942年 罗伯特·鲁宾逊 Robert Robinson organic chemist.jpg "For his research work of outstanding originality and brilliance which has influenced the whole field of organic chemistry" [102]
1943年 约瑟夫·巴克罗夫特英语Joseph Barcroft Fond blanc.svg "For his distinguished work on respiration and the respiratory function of the blood" [103]
1944年 杰弗里·泰勒 Fond blanc.svg "For his many contributions to aerodynamics, hydrodynamics, and the structure of metals, which have had a profound influence on the advance of physical science and its applications" [104]
1945年 奥斯瓦尔德·埃弗里 Oswald T. Avery portrait 1937.jpg "For his success in introducing chemical methods in the study of immunity against infective diseases" [105]
1946年 埃德加·阿德里安 Edgar Douglas Adrian nobel.jpg "For his distinguished researches on the fundamental nature of nervous activity, and recently on the localization of certain nervous functions" [106]
1947年 戈弗雷·哈罗德·哈代 Ghhardy@72.jpg "For his distinguished part in the development of mathematical analysis in England during the last thirty years" [107]
1948年 阿奇博尔德·希尔 Archibald Vivian Hill.jpg "For his distinguished researches on myothermal problems and on biophysical phenomena in nerve and other tissues" [108]
1949年 乔治·德海韦西 George de Hevesy.jpg "For his distinguished work on the chemistry of radioactive elements and especially for his development of the radioactive tracer techniques in the investigation of biological processes" [109]
1950年 詹姆斯·查德威克 75px "For his outstanding work in nuclear physics and in the development of atomic energy, especially for his discovery of the neutron" [110]

1951-2000[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
1951年 大卫·凯林英语David Keilin Fond blanc.svg "For his fundamental researches in the fields of protozoology, entomology and the biochemistry of enzymes" [111]
1952年 保羅·狄拉克 Dirac 4.jpg "In recognition of his remarkable contributions to relativistic dynamics of a particle in quantum mechanics" [112]
1953年 阿尔伯特·克吕沃尔英语Albert Kluyver Fond blanc.svg "For his distinguished contributions of a fundamental character to the science of microbiology"
1954年 E. T. 魏泰克英语E. T. Whittaker Fond blanc.svg "For his distinguished contributions to both pure and applied mathematics and to theoretical physics" [113]
1955年 罗纳德·费希尔 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his numerous and distinguished contributions to developing the theory and application of statistics for making quantitative a vast field of biology" [114]
1956年 帕特里克·布莱克特 Blackett-large.jpg "In recognition of his outstanding studies of cosmic ray showers and heavy mesons and in the field of palaeomagnetism"
1957年 霍华德·弗洛里 Howard Walter Florey 1945.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to experimental pathology and medicine" [115]
1958年 约翰·伊登斯尔·利特尔伍德 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to many branches of analysis, including Tauberian theory, the Riemann zeta function, and non-linear differential equations" [116]
1959年 弗兰克·麦克法兰·伯内特 Burnet 2jpg.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of viruses and of immunology" [117]
1960年 哈罗德·杰弗里英语Harold Jeffreys Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished work in many branches of geophysics, and also in the theory of probability and astronomy" [118]
1961年 汉斯·阿道夫·克雷布斯 Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry, in particular his work on the ornithine, tricarboxylic acid and glyoxylate cycles" [119]
1962年 西里尔·欣谢尔伍德 Cyril Norman Hinshelwood Nobel.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished researches in the field of chemical kinetics, including the study of biological reaction mechanisms, and of his outstanding contributions to natural philosophy" [120]
1963年 保罗·法尔兹英语Paul Fildes Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his pioneering contributions to bacteriology."
1964年 悉尼·查普曼英语Sydney Chapman Sydney Chapman.jpg "In recognition of his theoretical contributions to terrestrial and interplanetary magnetism, the ionosphere and the aurora borealis" [121]
1965年 艾伦·劳埃德·霍奇金 Alan Lloyd Hodgkin nobel.jpg "In recognition of his discovery of the mechanism of excitation and impulse conduction in nerve, and his outstanding leadership in the development of neurophysiology"
1966年 威廉·劳伦斯·布拉格 Wl-bragg.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to the development of methods of structural determination by X-ray diffraction" [80]
1967年 伯纳德·卡茨 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to knowledge of the fundamental processes involved in transmission across the neuromuscular junction"
1968年 塔德乌什·赖希施泰因 Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished work on the chemistry of vitamin C and his authoritative studies of the cortico-steroids"
1969年 彼得·梅达沃 Peter Brian Medawar.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished studies of tissue transplantation and immunological tolerance" [80]
1970年 亚历山大·罗伯图斯·托德 Alexander Todd Nobel.jpg "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to both the analytical and synthetic chemistry of natural products of diverse types" [80]
1971年 诺曼·皮里埃英语Norman Pirie Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to biochemistry and especially for his elucidation of the nature of plant viruses"
1972年 内维尔·莫特 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his original contributions over a long period to atomic and solid state physics" [80]
1973年 安德鲁·赫胥黎 Andrew Fielding Huxley nobel.jpg "In recognition of his outstanding studies on the mechanisms of the nerve impulse and of activation of muscular contraction"
1974年 W. V. D. 霍奇英语W. V. D. Hodge Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his pioneering work in algebraic geometry, notably in his theory of harmonic integrals" [122]
1975年 佛朗西斯·克里克 Francis Crick crop.jpg 以表彰其对DNA分子结构的阐明以及对分子生物学的持续贡献 [80]
1976年 多萝西·霍奇金 Dorothy Hodgkin Nobel.jpg 以表彰她在复杂分子结构上的出色工作,特别是青霉素、维生素B12与胰岛素 [80]
1977年 弗雷德里克·桑格 Frederick Sanger2.jpg 以表彰其在蛋白质化学结构以及核苷酸测序上的杰出工作 [80]
1978年 罗伯特·伯恩斯·伍德沃德 Robert Burns Woodward in 1965.jpg "In recognition of his masterly contributions to the synthesis of complex natural products and his discovery of the importance of orbital symmetry" [80]
1979年 马克斯·佩鲁茨 Max Perutz.jpg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to molecular biology through his own studies of the structure and biological activity of haemoglobin and his leadership in the development of the subject" [80]
1980年 德里克·巴顿 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished contributions to a wide range of problems in structural and synthetic organic chemistry and , in particular, his introduction of conformational analysis into stereochemistry" [80]
1981年 彼得·米切尔 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished contribution to biology in his formulation and development of the chemiosmotic theory of energy transduction" [80]
1982年 约翰·康福思 Fond blanc.svg 以表彰他在化学合成的立体可控性和重要生物分子的生物合成上的杰出研究 [123]
1983年 罗德尼·罗伯特·波特 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his elucidation of the structure of immunoglobulins and of the reactions involved in activating the complement system of proteins"
1984年 苏布拉马尼扬·钱德拉塞卡 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his distinguished work on theoretical physics, including stellar structure, theory of radiation, hydrodynamic stability and relativity" [124]
1985年 阿龙·克卢格 Aaron Klug 1979.jpg 以表彰他对阐明复杂生物结构的杰出贡献及用以定义这些结构的方法
1986年 鲁道夫·派尔斯英语Rudolph Peierls Fond blanc.svg 以表彰他在理論物理學廣泛領域的基礎貢獻,以及對於提議易裂變材料會發生核子連鎖反應的可能性這標誌性進展
1987年 罗宾·希尔英语Robin Hill (biochemist) Fond blanc.svg 以表彰他在理解光合作用的电子传递主要途径的性质和机理上的开创性贡献
1988年 迈克尔·阿蒂亚 Michael Francis Atiyah.jpg "In recognition of his fundamental contributions to a wide range of topics in geometry, topology, analysis and theoretical physics" [125]
1989年 色萨·米尔斯坦 Milstein lnp.jpg "In recognition of his outstanding contributions to immunology, in particular to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies and to the understanding of the role of somatic mutations in the maturation of the immune response"
1990年 阿卜杜勒·萨拉姆 Fond blanc.svg "In recognition of his work on the symmetries of the laws of nature, and especially the unification of the electromagnetic and weak forces" [126]
1991年 西德尼·布伦纳 EMLederberg GStent SBrenner JLederberg 1965 wiki.jpg 以表彰其在分子生物与发育生物学的上的许多贡献,及其近期在人类基因组计划中的角色
1992年 乔治·波特 George Porter Nobel.jpg 以表彰他对快速光化学和光物理学进程的基础解释及其在化学和生物学中的应用 [127]
1993年 詹姆斯·杜威·沃森 James D Watson.jpg 以表彰他对DNA的不倦寻求,从阐明其结构直到人类基因组测序对社会和医学所产生的影响 [128]
1999年 约翰·梅纳德·史密斯英语John Maynard Smith John Maynard Smith.jpg 以表彰他在进化生物学的开创性贡献,包括他对性选择理论的工作试验性,他在我们了解老化上的重要贡献,他引入博弈论方法来对复杂进化场景进行分析和他对分子进化的研究以及他对遗传搭车英语genetic hitchhiking的经典之作并他近来对细菌数量生长的工作 [129]

2001年至今[编辑]

年份 获奖者 半身像 获奖理由
2001年 雅克·米勒 Fond blanc.svg "For his work on the immunological function of the thymus and of T cells, which has revolutionised the science of immunology. Professor Millers work is paving the way for designing new methods to improve resistance to infections, producing new vaccines, enhancing graft survival, dealing with autoimmunity and even persuading the immune system to reject cancer cells"
2002年 约翰·波普尔 Fond blanc.svg "For his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry. His work transformed density functional theory into a powerful theoretical tool for chemistry, chemical physics and biology" [130]
2003年 约翰·格登 John Gurdon Cambridge 2012.JPG "For his unique range of groundbreaking discoveries in the fields of cell and developmental biology. He pioneered the concept that specialised cells are genetically equivalent and that they differ only in the genes they express not the genes they contain, a concept fundamental to modern biology"
2004年 哈罗德·克罗托 Harold Kroto 1c389 8471.sweden.jpg "in recognition of his seminal contributions to understanding the fundamental dynamics of carbon chain molecules, leading to the detection of these species (polyynes) in the interstellar medium by radioastronomy, and thence to the genesis of a new era in carbon science" [131]
2005年 保罗·纳斯 Paul Nurse portrait.jpg "for his contributions to cell biology in general, and to the elucidation of the control of cell division."
2006年 史蒂芬·霍金 Stephen Hawking.StarChild.jpg "For his outstanding contribution to theoretical physics and theoretical cosmology. " [24]
2007年 罗伯特·梅英语Robert May, Baron May of Oxford BobMayHarvard.jpg "for his seminal studies of interactions within and among biological populations that have reshaped our understanding of how species, communities and entire ecosystems respond to natural or human created disturbance."
2008年 羅傑·潘洛斯 Roger Penrose-6Nov2005.jpg "for his beautiful and original insights into many areas of mathematics and mathematical physics. Sir Roger has made outstanding contributions to general relativity theory and cosmology, most notably for his work on black holes and the Big Bang."
2009年 馬丁·埃文斯 Martin Evans Nobel Prize.jpg "for his seminal work on embryonic stem cells in mice, which revolutionised the field of genetics."
2010年 戴维·科克斯 Nci-vol-8182-300 david cox.jpg "for his seminal contributions to the theory and applications of statistics." [132]
托马斯·林达尔 Fond blanc.svg "for his seminal contributions to the understanding of the biochemistry of DNA repair." [132]
2011年 丹·麥克肯澤 Fond blanc.svg "For his seminal contributions to the understanding of geological and geophysical phenomena including tectonic plates."
2012年 约翰·沃克 Fond blanc.svg "For his ground-breaking work on bioenergetics, discovering the mechanism of ATP synthesis in the mitochondrion." [132]
2013年 安德烈·海姆 Andre Geim 2010-1.jpg "For his numerous scientific contributions and, in particular, for initiating research on two‐dimensional atomic crystals and their artificial heterostructures."
2014年 亚历克·杰弗里斯 Alec Jeffreys.jpg "For his pioneering work on variation and mutation in the human genome." [133]

参见[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Oxford DNB article:Gray, Stephen (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 Oxford DNB article:Desaguliers, John Theophilus (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  3. ^ Oxford DNB article:Belchier, John (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  4. ^ Oxford DNB article:Hales, Stephen (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  5. ^ Oxford DNB article:Stuart, Alexander (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  6. ^ Oxford DNB article:Middleton, Christopher (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  7. ^ Oxford DNB article:Baker, Henry (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
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  9. ^ Robins biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Jungnickel, Christa. Cavendish. DIANE publishing. 1996 [2009-01-29]. 
  11. ^ Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics and You – Timeline – James Bradley. Florida State University. [2009-01-29]. 
  12. ^ Jungnickel, Christa. Cavendish. DIANE publishing. 1996 [2009-01-29]. 
  13. ^ RCP Heritage – George Edwards. Royal College of Physicians. [2009-01-29]. [失效連結]
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Jungnickel, Christa. Cavendish. DIANE publishing. 1996 [2009-01-29]. 
  15. ^ Oxford DNB article:Pringle, Sir John (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  16. ^ Franklin_Benjamin biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  17. ^ Science and Technology in the Industrial Revolution. Manchester University Press. 1969 [2009-01-29]. 
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  21. ^ Oxford DNB article:Wilson, Benjamin (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  22. ^ The British Society for the History of Mathematics. British Society for the History of Mathematics. [2009-02-06]. 
  23. ^ Maskelyne biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  24. ^ 24.0 24.1 Stephen Hawking wins Copley Medal. Trinity College, Cambridge. [2009-02-07]. 
  25. ^ Friedrich William Herschel. Florida State University. [2009-02-07]. 
  26. ^ 引用错误:无效<ref>标签;未为name属性为nla的引用提供文字
  27. ^ Waring summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  28. ^ John Hunter: ‘Founder of Scientific Surgery’ – HemOnc Today. HemOnc Today. [2009-02-08]. 
  29. ^ Oxford DNB article:Blagden, Charles (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. [2009-01-29]. 
  30. ^ Oxford DNB article: Thompson, Sir Benjamin (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-08]. 
  31. ^ Ramsden summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  32. ^ Attwood summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-29]. 
  33. ^ Oxford DNB article:Hatchett, Charles (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-01-29]. 
  34. ^ British Society for the History of Mathematics. University of Warwick. [2009-01-29]. 
  35. ^ Sears, Derek. Edward Charles Howard (PDF). University of Arkansas. [2009-02-03]. 
  36. ^ Cooper, Sir Astley Paston (1768–1841). Aim25. [2009-02-03]. 
  37. ^ Wollaston. Hebrew University of Jerusalem. [2009-02-08]. 
  38. ^ Griffith, WP. PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals. Platinum Metals Review. [2009-02-03]. 
  39. ^ Griffith, WP. PMR: Bicentenary of Four Platinum Group Metals. Platinum Metals Review. [2009-02-03]. 
  40. ^ 40.00 40.01 40.02 40.03 40.04 40.05 40.06 40.07 40.08 40.09 40.10 40.11 40.12 40.13 40.14 40.15 40.16 40.17 40.18 40.19 40.20 40.21 40.22 Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  41. ^ Darrow, GM. Early Breeding in Europe. United States National Agricultural Library. [2009-02-03]. 
  42. ^ Troughton Summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-30]. 
  43. ^ Sir David Brewster (1781–1868). University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  44. ^ SpringerLink – Book Chapter. SpringerLink. [2009-02-08]. 
  45. ^ 45.0 45.1 Herschel summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-30]. 
  46. ^ William Buckland & Reliquae Diluvianae. University of Minnesota. [2009-02-08]. 
  47. ^ Arago summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-30]. 
  48. ^ Airy summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-30]. 
  49. ^ Poisson summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-01-30]. 
  50. ^ Chambers Search Chambers. Chambers Harrap. [2009-02-05]. 
  51. ^ Gauss summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-08]. 
  52. ^ Oxford DNB article:Brown, Robert (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  53. ^ Brock, William H. Justus Von Liebig: The Chemical Gatekeeper. Cambridge University Press. 2002 [2009-02-15]. 
  54. ^ Sturm summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  55. ^ Ohm biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  56. ^ MacCullagh summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  57. ^ Morselli, Mario. Amedeo Avogadro, a Scientific Biography. Springer. 1984 [2009-02-05]. ISBN 978-90-277-1624-8. 
  58. ^ Le Verrier biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  59. ^ Adams summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  60. ^ Own, Richard: Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. Wiley InterScience. [2009-02-05]. 
  61. ^ Humboldt – Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander – von – 1769–1859 – Baron – German naturalist, geologist and explorer. University of Edinburgh. [2009-02-05]. 
  62. ^ BjS: Academic Lineage. Yale University. [2009-02-05]. 
  63. ^ Weber summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  64. ^ Darwin and the Copley Medal (PDF). American Philosophical Society. [2009-02-05]. [失效連結]
  65. ^ Chasles summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  66. ^ Plucker summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  67. ^ Helmholtz summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  68. ^ Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science. Journal of Industrial Science. [2009-02-05]. 
  69. ^ Jean Baptiste Boussingault (PDF). Journal of Nutrition. [2009-02-05]. 
  70. ^ Clausius summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  71. ^ Sylvester summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  72. ^ Cayley summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  73. ^ Thompson summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  74. ^ Neumann_Franz summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  75. ^ Newcomb summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  76. ^ Stokes summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  77. ^ Weierstrass summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  78. ^ Rayleigh summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-03]. 
  79. ^ Gibbs summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  80. ^ 80.00 80.01 80.02 80.03 80.04 80.05 80.06 80.07 80.08 80.09 80.10 80.11 80.12 80.13 80.14 80.15 80.16 80.17 80.18 80.19 80.20 80.21 80.22 80.23 80.24 80.25 80.26 80.27 Oxford DNB theme: Holders of the Copley Medal. Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  81. ^ Klein summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  82. ^ Obituary: Edwin Ray Lankester (PDF). National Marine Biological Laboratory. [2009-02-05]. 
  83. ^ Notes and Records of the Royal Society. Royal Society Publishing. [2009-02-05]. 
  84. ^ Obituary notice: Horace Tabberer Brown (PDF). Biochemical Journal. [2009-02-05]. 
  85. ^ Larmour summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  86. ^ Lamb summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  87. ^ Oxford DNB article: Hopkins, Sir Frederick (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  88. ^ Sir Charles Sherrington – Biography. Nobel Foundation. [2009-02-05]. 
  89. ^ Planck summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  90. ^ William Bragg – Biography. Nobel Foundation. [2009-02-15]. 
  91. ^ Sir Arthur Schuster. The Astrophysical Journal. Bibcode:1935ApJ....81...97H. doi:10.1086/143618. 
  92. ^ George Ellery Hale: Acknowledgements. Franklin Institute. [2009-02-15]. 
  93. ^ Award of the Copley Medal of the Royal Society to Professor Theobald Smith. Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. Bibcode:1933Sci....78R.598.. doi:10.1126/science.78.2035.598. 
  94. ^ Oxford DNB article: Haldane, John Scott (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  95. ^ C.T.R.Wilson – Biography. Nobel Foundation. [2009-02-15]. 
  96. ^ Sir Arthur Evans, F.R.S: Abstract. Nature. [2009-02-05]. 
  97. ^ Sir Henry Dale – Biography. Nobel Foundation. [2009-02-15]. 
  98. ^ Bohr_Niels summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  99. ^ Thomas H. Morgan – Biography. Nobel Foundation. [2009-02-15]. 
  100. ^ Medal Awards of the Royal Society. Nature. [2009-02-15]. 
  101. ^ Thomas Lewis. Cardiology Journal. [2009-02-05]. [失效連結]
  102. ^ Sir Robert Robinson – Biography. nobelprize.org. [2009-02-15]. 
  103. ^ Sir Joseph Barcroft of Cambridge. Archives of Disease in Childhood. [2009-02-05]. 
  104. ^ Taylor_Geoffrey summay. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  105. ^ The Oswald T. Avery Collection: Biographical Information. United States National Library of Medicine. [2009-02-15]. 
  106. ^ Oxford DNB article:Adrian, Edgar Douglas (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  107. ^ Hardy summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  108. ^ Oxford DNB article:Hill, Archibald Vivian (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  109. ^ Royal Society: Anniversary Address By Sir Robert Robinson, O.M., F.R.S. Nature. [2009-02-15]. 
  110. ^ Oxford DNB article:Chadwick, James (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  111. ^ Oxford DNB article:Keilin, David (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  112. ^ Oxford DNB article:Dirac, Paul(subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  113. ^ Whittaker summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  114. ^ Fisher summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  115. ^ Oxford DNB article:Florey, Howard (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  116. ^ Littlewood summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  117. ^ Sir Frank Macfarlane Burnet – Biography. nobelprize.org. [2009-02-05]. 
  118. ^ Jeffreys summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  119. ^ Sir Hans Adolf Krebs. nobel-winners.com. [2009-02-05]. 
  120. ^ Oxford DNB article:Hinshelwood, Sir Cyril Norman (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  121. ^ Oxford DNB article:Chapman, Sydney (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  122. ^ Hodge summary. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-05]. 
  123. ^ Emeritus Professor Sir John Cornforth – Alumni & Friends. University of Sydney. [2009-02-15]. 
  124. ^ Chandrasekhar biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  125. ^ Atiyah biography. University of St Andrews. [2009-02-15]. 
  126. ^ Oxford DNB article:Salam, Abdus (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  127. ^ Oxford DNB article:Porter, George (subscription needed). Oxford University Press. 2004 [2009-02-15]. 
  128. ^ Copley Medal. Royal Society website. The Royal Society. [April 19 2013]. 
  129. ^ John Maynard Smith January 6, 1920 – April 19, 2004. Genetics. [2009-02-15]. 
  130. ^ Obituary: John A. Pople. The Observer. [2009-02-15]. 
  131. ^ FSU highlights. Florida State University. [2009-02-15]. 
  132. ^ 132.0 132.1 132.2 Two medals were awarded to celebrate the Society's 350th anniversary: Recent award winners 2010. The Royal Society. [2010-10-06].  
  133. ^ Leicester University Professor Sir Alec Jeffreys wins science's oldest prize. Leicester Mercury. 5 August 2014 [5 August 2014]. 

外部連結[编辑]

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