第一山地师 (德意志国防军)

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第一山地师
(1 Gebirgs Division)

存在時期 1938 - 1945
國家/地區 納粹德國 纳粹德国
效忠於 阿道夫·希特勒
種類 步兵
功能 山地部队
規模
參與戰役 第二次世界大战
佩章
一式佩章 雪绒花

第一山地师 (德语1. Gebirgs Division) 是纳粹德国的军事力量德意志国防军第二次世界大战中的一支精锐部队。

第一山地师是在早先成立于1935年6月1日的山地步兵旅 (德语Gebirgs Brigade)的基础上,于1938年4月9日在加爾米施-帕滕基興地区扩建成立,作战人员主要由巴伐利亚人以及一部分的奥地利人组成。

波兰 和 法国[编辑]

第一山地师作为德国南方集团军的一部分,参与了波兰战役,并在喀尔巴阡的战斗英语Military history of Carpathian Ruthenia during World War II中崭露头角。[1]

随后,该师参与了法国战役,并被挑选加入到针对英国海狮行动)以及直布罗陀菲利克斯行动英语Operation Felix)的作战准备中,但是这两项作战计划随后皆被取消。随着菲利克斯行动英语Operation Felix的取消,该师在1941年的4月作为第二集团军英语2nd Army (Wehrmacht)的一部分参与了入侵南斯拉夫的战斗

苏德战争(德国方面称为东方战线;苏联方面称为卫国战争)[编辑]

第一山地师指挥官, 中将 Walter Stettner Ritter von Grabenhofen, 于1943年6月,在巴尔干半岛蒙特内哥罗地区进行的肃清游击队英语Anti-partisan的作战行动中,进行巡视。

第一山地师参与了巴巴罗萨行动(对苏联的入侵作战)。在6月30日,该师占领了利沃夫。在那里,德国人发现了数千名囚犯的尸体,他们都是由于无法被疏散撤离,而被NKVD处死的。[2][3]随着这个消息的传播开来,一场由德国与OUN(乌克兰民族主义者组织)英语Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists所散布的,号召对“布尔什维克的犹太凶手”进行复仇的海报与各种宣言而挑起的,当地乌克兰人参与的,大规模的,针对犹太人的大屠杀英语Lviv pogroms爆发了。[2][3]

第一山地师继续其在苏联的挺进,参与了对斯大林防线英语Stalin Line的突破作战,突进至第聂伯河米烏斯河附近。[1]在1942年5月,该师参加了第二次哈爾科夫戰役,紧接着又参与到穿过苏联南部进入高加索进攻中(火绒草行动英语Operation Edelweiss)。

作为一次更具政治宣传意义的象征性行动,该师派遣了一支先遣队,于8月21日在厄尔布鲁士山上升起了德国国旗。尽管这一战功被戈培尔进行了广泛地宣扬,希特勒任然对此大发雷霆。[4] 在高加索的战斗结束后,该师被部署到希腊,随后前往塞尔维亚参与了围剿游击队的行动。到了1944年末,该师作为E集团军群)英语Army Group E的一部分从巴尔干地区撤出前往匈牙利。

该师于1945年3月重新命名为第一国民山地师,它最后一次参与的大型行动是在巴拉顿湖附近(春季觉醒行动)与乌克兰第3方面军的战斗。两个月后,疲惫不堪的该师向奥地利的美军投降。

War crimes[编辑]

During the Invasion of Poland, soldiers from the division assisted in the round-up of Jewish civilians from Przemyśl for forced labour. This event was documented in the divisional photographic album. Picture captions demonstrate strong anti-semitism by the authors. Photos 7 and 8 themselves.

On 6 July 1943 a unit from the division attacked the village of Borova in Albania. All of the village houses and buildings were completely burned or otherwise destroyed. 107 inhabitants were massacred including 5 entire families. The youngest victim was an infant of only 4 months, the oldest – a woman of 73. On 25 July 1943, soldiers from the division attacked the village of Mousiotitsa in Greece following the discovery of a cache of weapons nearby, killing 153 civilians. On 16 August 1943, the village of Kommeno was attacked at the order of Oberstleutnant Josef Salminger, the commander of GebirgsJäger Regiment 98, a total of 317 civilians were killed. Elements from the division took part in the murder of thousands of Italians from the 33 Acqui Infantry Division in September 1943 on the Greek island of Cefalonia following the Italian surrender. Soldiers from the division took part in the murder of 32 officers and an estimated 100 soldiers from the Italian 151st Perugia Infantry Division in Albania after the Italian surrender.

Following the killing of Oberstleutnant Josef Salminger by Greek partisans, the commander of XXII Gebirgs-Armeekorps General der Gebirgstruppe Hubert Lanz issued an order of the day on 1 October 1943 calling for a “ruthless retaliatory action” in a 20 km area around the place were Salminger had been attacked. In the village of Lingiades 87 civilians were killed, a total of at least 200 civilians died.

The Division's war crimes are described in H. F. Meyer's book Bloodstained Edelweiss: The 1st Mountain Division in the Second World War.[5]

Commanders[编辑]

Order of battle[编辑]

1939[编辑]

  • 98. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 X Battalions
  • 99. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 100. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 79. Mountain Artillery Regiment
    • 4 x Battalions
  • 54. Signals Battalion
  • 54. Pioneer Battalion
  • 54. Supply Troops
  • Service Troops

1941[编辑]

  • 98. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 99. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 54. Field Medical Battalion
  • 44. Panzerabwehr Battalion
  • 79. Mountain Artillery Regiment
    • 4 x Battalions
  • 54. Signals Battalion
  • 54. Pioneer Battalion
  • 54. Supply Troops
  • Service Troops

1943[编辑]

  • 98. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 99. Mountain Infantry Regiment
    • 3 x Battalions
  • 79. Mountain Artillery Regiment
    • 4 x Battalions
  • 54. Mountain Jäger Battalion
  • 54. Reconnaissance Battalion
  • 54. Mountain Signals Battalion
  • 79. Mountain Field Medical Battalion
  • 54. Mountain Pioneer Battalion
  • 54. Mountain Pack Mule Battalion
  • 54. Supply Troops
  • Service Troops

著名人物[编辑]

  • Ferdinand Schörner The last living German Field Marshal, holder of the Knight's Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords and Diamonds
  • Wego Chiang son of the Chinese leader General Chiang Kai Shek served in I./Gebirgsjäger-Regiment 98 in 1937 – 1939, reaching the rank of Leutnant before returning to China at the outbreak of war.

相关条目[编辑]

参考来源[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 Axis History. [2009-06-03]. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 Hannes Heer, Einübung in den Holocaust: Lemberg Juni/Juli 1941; in: ZfG 5/2001
  3. ^ 3.0 3.1 Hannes Heer:Blutige Ouvertüre. Lemberg, 30. Juni 1941: Mit dem Einmarsch der Wehrmachttruppen beginnt der Judenmord DIE ZEIT Nr. 26/2001; S. 90
  4. ^ Heer et al. (2000), p. 163
  5. ^ H.F.Meyer - Bloodstained Edelweiss. The 1st Mountain-Division in the Second World War. [2009-09-13](原始内容存档于2009-09-16). 


Template:Infantry Divisions of the Wehrmacht Template:Knight's Cross recipients of the 1st MD