维生素B

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維生素B也作維他命B,是B族维生素的总称,它们常常来自于相同的食物来源,如酵母等。维生素B曾经被认为是像维生素C那样具有单一结构的有机化合物,但是后来的研究证明它其实是一组有着不同结构的化合物,于是它的成员有了独立的名称,如维生素B1,而维生素B成为了一个总称,有的时候也被称为维生素B族维生素B雜维生素B复合群

性质[编辑]

維生素B都是水溶性維生素,它们协同作用,调节新陈代谢,维持皮肤肌肉的健康,增进免疫系统神经系统的功能,促进细胞生长和分裂(包括促进红血球的产生,预防贫血发生)。其中維生素B1、B6和B12有助保護神經組織細胞,維生素B2則具有抗氧化作用,而植物能合成維生素B2,動物一般不能合成,必須由食物獲得維生素B2,而維生素B2是維持動物正常生長所必需的元素之一,如果缺乏則有可能造成生長停頓,或局部損害,攝取充足的維生素B可以保持眼睛健康。[1]

補充可提高吸收利用的營養素[编辑]

維生素CE [2]

维生素B列表及功能[编辑]

維生素 名稱 結構 功效
维生素B1 硫胺 Thiamin.svg Thiamine plays a central role in the generation of energy from carbohydrates. It is involved in RNA and DNA production, as well as nerve function. Its active form is a coenzyme called thiamine pyrophosphate英语 (TPP), which takes part in the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) in metabolism.[3]
維生素B2 核黄素
维生素G
Riboflavin.svg Riboflavin is involved in the energy production for the electron transport chain, the citric acid cycle, as well as the catabolism of fatty acids (beta oxidation)[4]
維生素B3 烟酸
维生素PP
菸鹼酸
尼古丁酸
Niacin structure.svg
Niacin is composed of two structures: nicotinic acid and nicotinamide. There are two co-enzyme forms of niacin: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP). Both play an important role in energy transfer reactions in the metabolism of glucose, fat and alcohol.[5]

NAD carries hydrogens and their electrons during metabolic reactions, including the pathway from the citric acid cycle to the electron transport chain. NADP is a coenzyme in lipid and nucleic acid synthesis.[6]

維生素B5 泛酸
遍多酸
本多酸(本多酸鈣)
Pantothenic acid structure.svg Pantothenic acid is involved in the oxidation of fatty acids and carbohydrates. Coenzyme A, which can be synthesised from pantothenic acid, is involved in the synthesis of amino acids, fatty acids, ketones英语, cholesterol,[7] phospholipids, steroid hormones, neurotransmitters (such as acetylcholine英语), and antibodies英语.[8]
維生素B6 吡哆醇
(含吡哆醇吡哆醛吡哆胺
Pyridoxal-phosphate.svg The active form pyridoxal 5'-phosphate英语 (PLP) (depicted) serves as a cofactor in many enzyme reactions mainly in amino acid metabolism including biosynthesis of neurotransmitters英语.
維生素B7 生物素 Biotin structure JA.png Biotin plays a key role in the metabolism of lipids, proteins and carbohydrates. It is a critical co-enzyme of four carboxylases: acetyl CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the synthesis of fatty acids from acetate; propionyl CoA carboxylase, involved in gluconeogenesis; β-methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase, involved in the metabolism of leucin; and pyruvate CoA carboxylase, which is involved in the metabolism of energy, amino acids and cholesterol.[9]
維生素B9 蝶酰谷氨酸
叶酸维生素M叶精
Folic acid.svg Folic acid acts as a co-enzyme in the form of tetrahydrofolate英语 (THF), which is involved in the transfer of single-carbon units in the metabolism of nucleic acids and amino acids. THF is involved in pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis, so is needed for normal cell division, especially during pregnancy and infancy, which are times of rapid growth. Folate also aids in erythropoiesis英语, the production of red blood cells英语.[10]
維生素B12 钴胺素
氰钴胺辅酶B12
Cobalamin.png Vitamin B12 is involved in the cellular metabolism of carbohydrates英语, proteins and lipids. It is essential in the production of blood cells in bone marrow, and for nerve sheaths and proteins.[11] Vitamin B12 functions as a co-enzyme in intermediary metabolism for the methionine synthase reaction with methylcobalamin英语, and the methylmalonyl CoA mutase reaction with [[:adenosylcobalamin]|adenosylcobalamin]]]英语.[12]

此外,还有维生素B族的胆碱肌醇通常也归为人类必需维生素。

其他维生素B群[编辑]

还有一些物质也被称为维生素B,但是请注意它们有些是以上人类必需维生素的别称,有些不是人类必需维生素,甚至不是营养物质:

俗称 化学名 说明
维生素B4 腺嘌呤
维生素B7* 异丁苯丙酸 商品名“布洛芬”,经常被称为维生素I
维生素B8 腺嘌呤核苷酸 或被稱為肌醇
维生素B10 通常为叶酸和其他维生素B的混合物,也被称为维生素R
维生素B11 水杨酸 也被称为维生素S
维生素B13 通常为叶酸乳清酸(4-羟基尿嘧啶[來源請求]
维生素B14 维生素B10和维生素B11的混合物
维生素B15 泛配子酸 或被称为潘氨酸
维生素B16
维生素B17 苦杏仁苷 或被称为扁桃苷苦杏仁甙
維生素B18
維生素B19
維生素B20

肉鹼

維生素B21
维生素B22 被称为是芦荟提取物中的一种成分
维生素B-c 维生素B9的别称
维生素B-h 环己六醇 肌醇的别称
维生素B-t 三甲基羟基丁酰甜菜碱 肉毒碱的别称
维生素B-w 生物素的别称
维生素B-x 对氨基苯甲酸

食物来源[编辑]

维生素B群的主要食物来源比较相近,主要有酵母谷物、动物肝脏、麸糠种皮等。

参阅[编辑]

參考資料[编辑]

  1. ^ 詳見HealthyD.com:〈醒目ABC〉
  2. ^ 營養治療的處方百科
  3. ^ Fattal-Valevski, A. Thiamin (vitamin B1). Journal of Evidence-Based Complementary & Alternative Medicine. 2011, 16 (1): 12–20. doi:10.1177/1533210110392941. 
  4. ^ Riboflavin. Alternative Medicine Review. 2008, 13 (4): 334–340. PMID 19152481. 
  5. ^ Whitney, N; Rolfes, S Crowe, T Cameron-Smith, D Walsh, A. Understanding Nutrition. Melbourne: Cengage Learning. 2011. 
  6. ^ Chapter 6 - Niacin. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board (编). Dietary Reference Intakes for Tjiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1998. 
  7. ^ University of Bristol. Pantothenic Acid. 2002 [16 September 2012]. 
  8. ^ Gropper, S; Smith, J. Advanced nutrition and human metabolism. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning. 2009. 
  9. ^ University of Bristol. Biotin. 2012 [17 September 2012]. 
  10. ^ Chapter 8 - Folate. National Academy of Sciences. Institute of Medicine. Food and Nutrition Board (编). Dietary Reference Intakes for Thiamine, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Folate, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin and Choline. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1998. 
  11. ^ University of Bristol. Vitamin B12. 2002 [16 September 2012]. 
  12. ^ DSM. > Vitamin B12. 2012 [16 September 2012].