美国五大管弦乐团

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美国古典音乐范畴中,五大 Big Five 指五个被认为最重要及最有成就的交响乐团。这个术语从1950年代起就广为流传,被音乐评论家们所使用。[1] "五大乐团 Big Five", (根据时代周刊1983年编纂的创建年份列表)是:[2]

起源[编辑]

现代使用[编辑]

現在稱作五大可能會過時,但是仍然是標誌著北美樂團的素質。许多管弦乐团都曾被音乐评论家提及,认为其水平高超可以加入五大管弦乐团的名单与之并列。这些乐团包括洛杉矶爱乐乐团[8] 旧金山交响乐团[8]亚特兰大交响乐团[9] 匹兹堡交响乐团[10] 休斯顿交响乐团[10] 巴尔的摩交响乐团[11] 国家交响乐团 (美国)[12] 明尼苏达管弦乐团[13] 以及圣路易斯交响乐团[14]

参考[编辑]

  1. ^ Kirshnit, Fred, "New York Drops Off the List Of 'Big Five' Orchestras", New York Sun, December 5, 2006. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  2. ^ Walsh Michael; Griggs, Lee; Shepherd, James; "Music: Which U.S. Orchestras Are Best?", Time, April 25, 1983. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  3. ^ History of the New York Philharmonic (official website). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  4. ^ History of the Boston Symphony Orchestra (official website). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  5. ^ History of the Chicago Symphony Orchestra (official website)
  6. ^ History of the Philadelphia Orchestra (official website). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  7. ^ History of the Cleveland Orchestra (official website). Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Mark Swed, "Time to get on the stick", Los Angeles Times, August 14, 2005. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  9. ^ Glynn, Mary Ann, "Maestro or Manager? in Joseph Lampel, Jamal Shamsie, Theresa K. Lant (eds.), The business of culture, Routledge, 2006, p. 65. ISBN 0805855823
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 Time, "Orchestras: The Elite Eleven", Apr. 8, 1966. Retrieved 16 April 2010.
  11. ^ Kosman, Joshua, "New Music for a New Century", The Arts Today, USIA, Vol. 3., No. 1, June 2008, p. 25. ISBN 1428967346
  12. ^ Kosman, Joshua, "New Music for a New Century", The Arts Today, USIA, Vol. 3., No. 1, June 2008, p. 25. ISBN 1428967346
  13. ^ Time, "Orchestras: Big Five Plus One?", November 10, 1967. Retrieved 18 July 2010.
  14. ^ Dyer, Richard, "The Big 5 orchestras: Do they still reign supreme?" The Boston Globe, August 29, 1993. Retrieved via subscription 18 July 2010.

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