美国宪法第一条

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美國憲法
Great Seal of the United States

憲法原文
序言

憲法正文
IIIIIIIVVVIVII

憲法修正案
權利法案
IIIIIIIVV
VIVIIVIIIIXX

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XI ∙ XII ∙ XIII ∙ XIV ∙ XV
XVI ∙ XVII ∙ XVIII ∙ XIX ∙ XX
XXI ∙ XXII ∙ XXIII ∙ XXIV ∙ XXV
XXVI ∙ XXVII


美国宪法第一条确定由联邦国会来作为美国联邦政府中的立法部门,包括其由联邦众议院联邦参议院两院组成及两院议员的选举方式、任职资格、任期及人数等。同时还规定了立法程序,列举了立法机构的权力,最后还说明了联邦国会和各州相应权力的限制。

概览[编辑]

第一款:立法权属于国会[编辑]

All legislative Powers herein granted shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House of Representatives.

  • 译文:本宪法授予的全国立法权,属于由参议院和众议院组成的合众国国会[1]

本“授权条款”将所有的立法权授予国会。尽管某些州还允许流行的公民投票,但是按照本条款,只有国会才有权立法,人民不可直接立法。宪法第二章第三章也有授权条款,只是受权的机构不同。宪法此处建立了一种分权制,也就是某机构不得执行任何属于其他机构的权力。

国会不得将其立法权委任给任何其他的政府机构,这项原则称为不得委任学说。但是,美国最高法院又确实规定国会可以将某些权力委任给执行机构,只要适用“可信赖原则”。

第二款:联邦众议院[编辑]

第1节:众议员的组成和选举方式[编辑]

The House of Representatives shall be composed of Members chosen every second Year by the People of the several States, and the Electors in each State shall have the Qualifications requisite for Electors of the most numerous Branch of the State Legislature.

  • 译文:众议院由各州人民每两年选举产生的众议员组成。每个州的选举人须具备该州州议会上人数最多一院选举人所需的资格[1]

第2节:众议员的选举资格[编辑]

No Person shall be a Representative who shall not have attained to the Age of twenty five Years, and been seven Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State in which he shall be chosen.

  • 译文:第二款 凡年龄不满二十五岁,成为合众国公民不满七年,在一州当选时不是该州居民者,不得担任众议员[1]

宪法中对众议员的代表资格做了三条规定:至少25岁,在一州当选时必须是该州公民,并且之前7年必须是美国公民。宪法中并没有规定议员必须是其所代表的具体选区的公民,不过实际情况上除一些少数例外情况外通常如此[2]

第3节:各州众议员和直接税份额分配[编辑]

Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States which may be included within this Union, according to their respective Numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons, including those bound to Service for a Term of Years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons. The actual Enumeration shall be made within three Years after the first Meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent Term of ten Years, in such Manner as they shall by Law direct. The number of Representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty Thousand, but each State shall have at Least one Representative; and until such enumeration shall be made, the State of New Hampshire shall be entitled to chuse[sic] three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode-Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New-York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three.

  • 译文:众议员名额和直接税税额,在本联邦可包括的各州中,按照各自人口比例进行分配。各州人口数,按自由人总数加上所有其他人口的五分之三予以确定。自由人总数包括必须服一定年限劳役的人,但不包括未被征税的印第安人。人口的实际统计在合众国国会第一次会议后三年内和此后每十年内,依法律规定的方式进行。每三万人选出的众议员人数不得超过一名,但每州至少须有一名众议员;在进行上述人口统计以前,新罕布什尔州有权选出三名,马萨诸塞州八名,罗德岛州和普罗维登斯种植地一名,康涅狄格州五名,纽约州六名,新泽西州四名,宾夕法尼亚州八名,特拉华州一名,马里兰州六名,弗吉尼亚州十名,北卡罗莱纳州五名,南卡罗莱纳州五名,乔治亚州三名[1]

第4节:空缺[编辑]

When vacancies happen in the Representation from any State, the Executive Authority thereof shall issue Writs of Election to fill such Vacancies.

  • 译文:任何一州代表出现缺额时,该州行政当局应发布选举令,以填补此项缺额[1]

第5节:议长、其他官员和弹劾[编辑]

The House of Representatives shall chuse[sic] their Speaker and other Officers; and shall have the sole Power of Impeachment.

  • 译文:众议院选举本院议长和其他官员,并独自拥有弹劾权[1]

第三款:参议院[编辑]

第1节:参议员的人数组成和选举[编辑]

The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, chosen by the Legislature thereof, for six Years; and each Senator shall have one Vote.

  • 译文:合众国参议院由每州州议会选举的两名参议员组成,任期六年;每名参议员有一票表决权[1]

第2节:参议员的选举方式及出现空缺时的措施[编辑]

Immediately after they shall be assembled in Consequence of the first Election, they shall be divided as equally as may be into three Classes. The Seats of the Senators of the first Class shall be vacated at the Expiration of the second Year, of the second Class at the Expiration of the fourth Year, and of the third Class at the Expiration of the sixth Year, so that one third may be chosen every second Year; and if Vacancies happen by Resignation, or otherwise, during the Recess of the Legislature of any State, the Executive thereof may make temporary Appointments until the next Meeting of the Legislature, which shall then fill such Vacancies.

  • 译文:参议员在第一次选举后集会时,立即分为人数尽可能相等的三个组。第一组参议员席位在第二年年终空出,第二组参议员席位在第四年年终空出,第三组参议员席位在第六年年终空出,以便三分之一的参议员得每二年改选一次。在任何一州州议会休会期间,如因辞职或其他原因而出现缺额时,该州行政长官在州议会下次集会填补此项缺额前,得任命临时参议员[1]

第3节:参议员当选资格[编辑]

No Person shall be a Senator who shall not have attained to the Age of thirty Years, and been nine Years a Citizen of the United States, and who shall not, when elected, be an Inhabitant of that State for which he shall be chosen.

  • 译文:凡年龄不满30岁,成为合众国公民不满9年,在一州当选时不是该州居民者,不得担任参议员[1]

第4节:副总统任参议院议长及其投票权限制[编辑]

The Vice President of the United States shall be President of the Senate, but shall have no Vote, unless they be equally divided.

  • 译文:合众国副总统任参议院议长,但除非参议员投票时赞成票和反对票相等,无表决权[1]

第5节:临时议长及其他官员选举[编辑]

The Senate shall chuse [sic] their other Officers, and also a President pro tempore, in the Absence of the Vice President, or when he shall exercise the Office of the President of the United States.

  • 译文:参议院选举本院其他官员,并在副总统缺席或行使合众国总统职权时,选举一名临时议长[1]

第6节:弹劾案审判权[编辑]

The Senate shall have the sole Power to try all Impeachments. When sitting for that Purpose, they shall be on Oath or Affirmation. When the President of the United States is tried, the Chief Justice shall preside: And no Person shall be convicted without the Concurrence of two thirds of the Members present.

  • 译:参议院独自拥有审判一切弹劾案的权力。为此目的而开庭时,全体参议员须宣誓或作代誓宣言。合众国总统受审时,最高法院首席大法官主持审判。无论何人,非经出席参议员三分之二的同意,不得被定罪[1]

第7节:弹劾案判决的权限范围和罪名成立后的惩罚[编辑]

Judgment in Cases of Impeachment shall not extend further than to removal from Office, and disqualification to hold and enjoy any Office of honor, Trust or Profit under the United States: but the Party convicted shall nevertheless be liable and subject to Indictment, Trial, Judgment and Punishment, according to Law.

  • 译文:弹劾案的判决,不得超出免职和剥夺担任和享有合众国属下有荣誉、有责任或有薪金的任何职务的资格。但被定罪的人,仍可依法受起诉、审判、判决和惩罚[1]

第四款:国会选举[编辑]

第1节:选举时间、地点的确定方式[编辑]

The Times, Places and Manner of holding Elections for Senators and Representatives, shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by Law make or alter such Regulations, except as to the Places of chusing[sic] Senators.

  • 译文:举行参议员和众议员选举的时间、地点和方式,在每个州由该州议会规定。但除选举参议员的地点外,国会得随时以法律制定或改变这类规定[1]

第2节:国会工作日程[编辑]

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every Year, and such Meeting shall be on the first Monday in December, unless they shall by Law appoint a different Day.

  • 译文:国会每年至少开会一次,除非国会以法律另订日期外,此会议在12月第一个星期一举行[1]

第五款:程序[编辑]

第1节:国会议事法定人数及权限[编辑]

Each House shall be the Judge of the Elections, Returns and Qualifications of its own Members, and a Majority of each shall constitute a Quorum to do Business; but a smaller Number may adjourn from day to day, and may be authorized to compel the Attendance of absent Members, in such Manner, and under such Penalties as each House may provide.

  • 译文:每院是本院议员的选举、选举结果报告和资格的裁判者。每院议员过半数,即构成议事的法定人数;但不足法定人数时,得逐日休会,并有权按每院规定的方式和罚则,强迫缺席议员出席会议[1]

第2节:议事及开除议员的规则[编辑]

Each House may determine the Rules of its Proceedings, punish its Members for disorderly Behavior, and, with the Concurrence of two thirds, expel a member.

  • 译文:每院得规定本院议事规则,惩罚本院议员和扰乱秩序的行为,并经三分之二议员的同意开除议员[1]

第3节:会议记录[编辑]

Each House shall keep a Journal of its Proceedings, and from time to time publish the same, excepting such Parts as may in their Judgment require Secrecy; and the Yeas and Nays of the Members of either House on any question shall, at the desire of one fifth of those present, be entered on the Journal.

  • 译文:每院应有本院会议记录,并不时予以公布,但它认为需要保密的部分除外。每院议员对于任何问题的赞成票和反对票,在出席议员五分之一的请求下,应载入会议记录[1]

第4节:休会[编辑]

Neither House, during the Session of Congress, shall, without the Consent of the other, adjourn for more than three days, nor to any other Place than that in which the two Houses shall be sitting.

  • 译文:在国会开会期间,任何一院,未经另一院同意,不得休会三日以上,也不得到非两院开会的任何地方休会[1]

第六款:报酬、特权及任职限制[编辑]

第1节:报酬和法律保护[编辑]

The Senators and Representatives shall receive a Compensation for their Services, to be ascertained by Law, and paid out of the Treasury of the United States. They shall in all Cases, except Treason, Felony and Breach of the Peace, be privileged from Arrest during their Attendance at the Session of their respective Houses, and in going to and returning from the same; and for any Speech or Debate in either House, they shall not be questioned in any other Place.

  • 译文:参议员和众议员应得到服务的报酬,此项报酬由法律确定并由合众国国库支付。他们除犯叛国罪、重罪和妨害治安罪外,在一切情况下都享有在出席各自议院会议期间和往返于各自议院途中不受逮捕的特权。他们不得因在各自议院发表的演说或辩论而在任何其他地方受到质问[1]

第2节:与行政部门分隔[编辑]

No Senator or Representative shall, during the Time for which he was elected, be appointed to any civil Office under the Authority of the United States, which shall have been created, or the Emoluments whereof shall have been increased during such time; and no Person holding any Office under the United States, shall be a Member of either House during his Continuance in Office.

  • 译文:参议员或众议员在当选任期内,不得被任命担任在此期间设置或增薪的合众国管辖下的任何文官职务。凡在合众国属下任职者,在继续任职期间不得担任任何一院议员[1]

第七款:议案[编辑]

第1节:征税议案[编辑]

All Bills for raising Revenue shall originate in the House of Representatives; but the Senate may propose or concur with Amendments as on other Bills.

  • 译文:所有征税议案应首先在众议院提出,但参议院得像其他议案一样,提出或同意修正案[1]

第2节:从提出议案到生效成为法律的程序[编辑]

Every Bill which shall have passed the House of Representatives and the Senate, shall, before it become a Law, be presented to the President of the United States; If he approve he shall sign it, but if not he shall return it, with his Objections to that House in which it shall have originated, who shall enter the Objections at large on their Journal, and proceed to reconsider it. If after such Reconsideration two thirds of that House shall agree to pass the Bill, it shall be sent, together with the Objections, to the other House, by which it shall likewise be reconsidered, and if approved by two thirds of that House, it shall become a Law. But in all such Cases the Votes of both Houses shall be determined by yeas and Nays, and the Names of the Persons voting for and against the Bill shall be entered on the Journal of each House respectively. If any Bill shall not be returned by the President within ten Days (Sundays excepted) after it shall have been presented to him, the Same shall be a Law, in like Manner as if he had signed it, unless the Congress by their Adjournment prevent its Return, in which Case it shall not be a Law.

  • 译文:众议院和参议院通过的每一议案,在成为法律前须送交合众国总统总统如批准该议案,即应签署;如不批准,则应将该议案连同其反对意见退回最初提出该议案的议院。该院应将此项反对意见详细载入本院会议记录并进行复议。如经复议后,该院三分之二议员同意通过该议案,该议案连同反对意见应一起送交另一议院,并同样由该院进行复议,如经该院三分之二议员赞同,该议案即成为法律。但在所有这类情况下,两院表决都由赞成票和反对票决定;对该议案投赞成票和反对票的议员姓名应分别载入每一议院会议记录。如任何议案在送交总统十天内(星期日除外)未经总统退回,该议案如同总统已签署一样,即成为法律,除非国会休会而使该议案不能退回,在此种情况下,该议案不能成为法律[1]

第3节:总统批准[编辑]

Every Order, Resolution, or Vote to which the Concurrence of the Senate and House of Representatives may be necessary (except on a question of Adjournment) shall be presented to the President of the United States; and before the Same shall take Effect, shall be approved by him, or being disapproved by him, shall be repassed by two thirds of the Senate and House of Representatives, according to the Rules and Limitations prescribed in the Case of a Bill.

  • 译文:凡须由参议院和众议院一致同意的每项命令、决议或表决(关于休会问题除外),须送交合众国总统,该项命令、决议或表决在生效前,须由总统批准,如总统不批准,则按照关于议案所规定的规则和限制,由参议院和众议院三分之二议员重新通过[1]

第八款:国会权力[编辑]

列举的权力[编辑]

国会的立法权力被列举在第八款中:

The Congress shall have power To lay and collect Taxes, Duties, Imposts and Excises, to pay the Debts and provide for the common defence[note 1] and general Welfare of the United States; but all Duties, Imposts and Excises shall be uniform throughout the United States;

To borrow Money on the credit of the United States;

To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

To establish a uniform Rule of Naturalization, and uniform Laws on the subject of Bankruptcies throughout the United States;

To coin Money, regulate the Value thereof, and of foreign Coin, and fix the Standard of Weights and Measures;

To provide for the Punishment of counterfeiting the Securities and current coin of the United States;

To establish Post Offices and post Roads;

To promote the Progress of Science and useful Arts, by securing for limited Times to Authors and Inventors the exclusive Right to their respective Writings and Discoveries;

To constitute Tribunals inferior to the supreme Court;

To define and punish Piracies and Felonies committed on the high Seas, and Offenses against the Law of Nations;

To declare War, grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal, and make Rules concerning Captures on Land and Water;

To raise and support Armies, but no Appropriation of Money to that Use shall be for a longer Term than two Years;

To provide and maintain a Navy;

To make Rules for the Government and Regulation of the land and naval Forces;

To provide for calling forth the Militia to execute the Laws of the Union, suppress Insurrections and repel Invasions;

To provide for organizing, arming, and disciplining, the Militia, and for governing such Part of them as may be employed in the Service of the United States, reserving to the States respectively, the Appointment of the Officers, and the Authority of training the Militia according to the discipline prescribed by Congress;

To exercise exclusive Legislation in all Cases whatsoever, over such District (not exceeding ten Miles square) as may, by Cession of particular States, and the Acceptance of Congress, become the Seat of the Government of the United States, and to exercise like Authority over all Places purchased by the Consent of the Legislature of the State in which the Same shall be, for the Erection of Forts, Magazines, Arsenals, dock-Yards, and other needful Buildings;—And

To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

  • 译文:国会有权:
  • 规定和征收直接税、进口税、捐税和其他税,以偿付国债、提供合众国共同防务和公共福利,但一切进口税、捐税和其他税应全国统一;
  • 以合众国的信用借款;
  • 管制同外国的、各州之间的和同印第安部落的商业;
  • 制定合众国全国统一的归化条例和破产法;
  • 铸造货币,厘定本国货币和外国货币的价值,并确定度量衡的标准;
  • 规定有关伪造合众国证券和通用货币的罚则;
  • 设立邮政局和修建邮政道路;
  • 保障著作家和发明家对各自著作和发明在限定期限内的专有权利,以促进科学和工艺的进步;
  • 设立低于最高法院的法院;
  • 界定和惩罚在公海上所犯的海盗罪和重罪以及违反国际法的犯罪行为;
  • 宣战,颁发捕获敌般许可状,制定关于陆上和水上捕获的条例;
  • 招募陆军和供给军需,但此项用途的拨款期限不得超过两年;
  • 建立和维持一支海军;
  • 制定治理和管理陆海军的条例;
  • 规定征如民兵,以执行联邦法律、镇压叛乱和击退入侵;
  • 规定民兵的组织、装备和训练,规定用来为合众国服役的那些民兵的管理,但民兵军官的任命和按国会规定的条例训练民兵的权力,由各州保留;
  • 对于由某些州让与合众国、经国会接受而成为合众国政府所在地的地区(不得超过十平方公里),在任何情况下都行使独有的立法权;对于经州议会同意、由合众国在该州购买的用于建造要塞、弹药库、兵工厂、船坞和其他必要建筑物的一切地方,行使同样的权力;以及制定为行使上述各项权力和由本宪法授予合众国政府或其任何部门或官员的一切其他权力所必要和适当的所有法律[1]

商业条款[编辑]

The Congress shall have Power [...] To regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes;

  • 译文:国会有权:管制同外国的、各州之间的和同印第安部落的商业[1]

国会的其他权利[编辑]

必要和适当条款[编辑]

The Congress shall have Power [...] To make all Laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into Execution the foregoing Powers, and all other Powers vested by this Constitution in the Government of the United States, or in any Department or Officer thereof.

  • 译文:国会有权……制定为行使上述各项权力和由本宪法授予合众国政府或其任何部门或官员的一切其他权力所必要和适当的所有法律[1]

第九款:对国会的限制[编辑]

这一款提出了对国会权力的限制:

The Migration or Importation of such Persons as any of the States now existing shall think proper to admit, shall not be prohibited by the Congress prior to the Year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a Tax or duty may be imposed on such Importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each Person.

The Privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in Cases of Rebellion or Invasion the public Safety may require it.

No Bill of Attainder or ex post facto Law shall be passed.

No Capitation, or other direct, Tax shall be laid, unless in Proportion to the Census or Enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

No Tax or Duty shall be laid on Articles exported from any State.

No Preference shall be given by any Regulation of Commerce or Revenue to the Ports of one State over those of another: nor shall Vessels bound to, or from, one State, be obliged to enter, clear, or pay Duties in another.

No Money shall be drawn from the Treasury, but in Consequence of Appropriations made by Law; and a regular Statement and Account of Receipts and Expenditures of all public Money shall be published from time to time.

No Title of Nobility shall be granted by the United States: And no Person holding any Office of Profit or Trust under them, shall, without the Consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office, or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince, or foreign State.

  • 译文:现有任何一州认为得准予入境之人的迁移或入境,在1808年以前,国会不得加以禁止,但对此种人的入境,每人可征不超过十美元的税。
  • 不得中止人身保护状的特权,除非发生叛乱或入侵时公共安全要求中止这项特权。
  • 不得通过公民权利剥夺法案或追溯既往的法律。
  • 除依本宪法上文规定的人口普查或统计的比例,不得征收人头税或其他直接税[3]
  • 对于任何一州输出的货物,不得征税。
  • 任何商业或税收条例,都不得给予一州港口以优惠于他州港口的待遇;开往或开出一州的船舶,不得被强迫在他州入港、出港或纳税。
  • 除根据法律规定的拨款外,不得从国库提取款项。一切公款收支的定期报告书和账目,应不时予以公布。
  • 合众国不得授予贵族爵位。凡在合众国属下担任任何有薪金或有责任的职务的人,未经国会同意,不得从任何国王、君主或外国接受任何礼物、俸禄、官职或任何一种爵位[1]

第十款:对各州的限制[编辑]

第1节:契约条款[编辑]

No State shall enter into any Treaty, Alliance, or Confederation; grant Letters of Marque and Reprisal; coin Money; emit Bills of Credit; make any Thing but gold and silver Coin a Tender in Payment of Debts; pass any Bill of Attainder, ex post facto Law, or Law impairing the Obligation of Contracts, or grant any Title of Nobility.

  • 译文:任何一州都不得:缔结任何条约,参加任何同盟或邦联;颁发捕获敌船许可状;铸造货币;发行纸币;使用金银币以外的任何物品作为偿还债务的货币;通过任何公民权利剥夺法案、追溯既往的法律或损害契约义务的法律;或授予任何贵族爵位[1]

===第2节 任何一州,未经国会同意,不得对进出口货物征收任何进口税或关税,但为执行本州检查法所绝对必要者,不在此限。任何一州对进出口货物所征全部关税和进口税的纯收益均应充作合众国国库之用;所有这类法律得由国会加以修正和监督。

第3节:船税、军队和盟约[编辑]

No State shall, without the Consent of Congress, lay any Duty of Tonnage, keep Troops, or Ships of War in time of Peace, enter into any Agreement or Compact with another State, or with a foreign Power, or engage in War, unless actually invaded, or in such imminent Danger as will not admit of delay.

  • 译文:任何一州,未经国会同意,不得征收任何船舶吨位税,不得在和平时期保持军队或战舰,不得与他州或外国缔结协定或盟约,除非实际遭到入侵或遇刻不容缓的紧迫危险时不得进行战争[1]

注释[编辑]

  1. ^ 根据存放在国家档案和记录管理局的手写副本,这里用的就是英式英语拼写的“defence”(参见National Archives transcription and [http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/charters/charters_downloads.html 国家档案和记录管理局网站上此文献的照片)

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 1.12 1.13 1.14 1.15 1.16 1.17 1.18 1.19 1.20 1.21 1.22 1.23 1.24 1.25 1.26 1.27 1.28 1.29 李道揆. 《美国政府与政治》. 商务印书馆. 1999: 775–799. 
  2. ^ E.g., 17 Annals of Cong. 870–902, 904–20, 927–47, 949–50, 1059–61, 1231–33, 1234–38 (1807) (House seated William McCreery despite him not satisfying Maryland law requiring Representatives to reside in their district).
  3. ^ 这一句的内容之后由1909年7月12日提出,1913年2有3日批准的第十六条修正案修正。

外部阅读[编辑]


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