|当前條目的内容正在依照en:442nd Infantry Regiment (United States)的内容进行翻译。（2014年1月23日）
|別稱||紫心營（Purple Heart Battalion）|
|格言||全力以赴（Go For Broke）|
- 1 背景
- 2 訓練與組織
- 3 與100營的重聚
- 4 首次接戰
- 5 反坦克連
- 6 佛日山脈
- 7 迷路大軍
- 8 General Dahlquist and legacy of the rescue
- 9 Champagne Campaign
- 10 522野戰砲兵營
- 11 The Gothic Line
- 12 Service and decorations
- 13 單位戰歌
- 14 After the war
- 15 Demobilization and rebirth
- 16 著名成員
- 17 相關媒體作品
- 18 相关条目
- 19 註解
- 20 參考來源
由于担心日本人入侵時日裔美籍士兵的忠诚度，美國戰爭部建议在第298和第299團的日裔美籍士兵重組為“夏威夷临时營（Hawaiian Provisional Battalion）”且派送到本土，是項提议被批准。1942年6月5日，夏威夷临时營為了訓練啟航。6月10日，他們在奧克蘭登岸，兩天後送往威斯康辛州的麥考伊營。6月15日，這個營被命名為第100獨立步兵營—夏威夷語的“One Puka Puka”。
Rainfall, snow, cold, mud, fatigue, 戰壕腳, and even exploding trees plagued them as they moved deeper into the Vosges and closer to the German frontlines. The 141st continued fighting—in all directions.
When we realized we were cut off, we dug a circle at the top of the ridge. I had two heavy, water-cooled machine guns with us at this time, and about nine or ten men to handle them. I put one gun on the right front with about half of my men, and the other gun to the left. We cut down small trees to cover our holes and then piled as much dirt on top as we could. We were real low on supplies, so we pooled all of our food.
- —SSgt. Jack Wilson of Newburgh, Indiana.
Airdrops with ammo and food for the 141st were called off by dense fog or landed in German hands. Many Germans did not know that they had cut off an American unit. “We didn’t know that we had surrounded the Americans until they were being supplied by air. One of the supply containers, dropped by parachute, landed near us. The packages were divided up amongst us.” Only on 29 October was the 442nd told why they were being forced to attack the German front lines so intensely.
The fighting was intense for the Germans as well. Gebirgsjager Battalion 202 from Salzburg was cut off from Gebirgsjager Battalion 201 from Garmisch. Both sides eventually rescued their cut-off battalions.
As the men of the 442nd went deeper and deeper they became more hesitant, until reaching the point where they would not move from behind a tree or come out of a foxhole. However, this all changed in an instant. The men of Companies I and K of 3rd Battalion had their backs against the wall, but as each one saw another rise to attack, then another also rose. Then every Nisei charged the Germans screaming, and many screaming “Banzai!” Through gunfire, artillery shells, and fragments from trees, and Nisei going down one after another, they charged.
Colonel Rolin’s grenadiers put up a desperate fight, but nothing could stop the Nisei rushing up the steep slopes, shouting, firing from the hip, and lobbing hand grenades into dugouts. Finally the German defenses broke and the surviving grenadiers fled in disarray. That afternoon the American aid stations were crowded with casualties. The 2nd platoon of Company I had only two men left, and the 1st platoon was down to twenty.” On the afternoon of 30 October, 3rd Battalion broke through and reached the 141st, rescuing 211 T-Patchers at the cost of 800 men in five days. However, the fighting continued for the 442nd as they moved past the 141st. The drive continued until they reached Saint-Die on 17 November when they were finally pulled back. The 100th fielded 1,432 men a year earlier, but was now down to 239 infantrymen and 21 officers. Second Battalion was down to 316 riflemen and 17 officers, while not a single company in 3rd Battalion had over 100 riflemen; the entire 100th/442nd Regimental Combat Team was down to less than 800 soldiers. On 13 October 1944 when attached to the 36th Infantry, the unit was at 2,943 rifleman and officers, but in only three weeks 140 were killed and 1,800 were wounded, while 43 were missing.
General Dahlquist and legacy of the rescue[编辑]
General Dahlquist’s actions and orders received mixed reviews. Many Nisei veterans disliked or disrespected General Dahlquist believing that Dahlquist only saw the Nisei as cannon fodder, or expendable soldiers. Although they respected his courage, seeing him stand in the open issuing orders while a battle ensued, even though his aide Lieutenant Lewis—the eldest son of Nobelist Sinclair Lewis—was killed, his command ability was questioned. Lt. Allan Ohata was ordered to send his men straight up the hill, but refused to send his men into a suicide charge. Dahlquist demanded compliance but Ohata risked loss of rank and decorations and court-martial, insisting on attacking "their way". Dahlquist's order to take Biffontaine was also questioned, because it was a farming town with only a few hundred inhabitants, was out of reach of artillery protection, and outside radio contact with command.
On 12 November General Dahlquist ordered the entire 442nd to stand in formation for a ceremony, and seeing K company's 18 men and I company's eight, demanded of Colonel Miller, “I want all your men to stand for this formation.” Miller responded, "That's all of K company left, sir" (of 400, originally).
Many years later Lieutenant Colonel Gordon Singles, a white officer and former commander of the 442nd, ran into General Dahlquist. Colonel Singles was filling the role of Brigadier General at Fort Bragg (North Carolina), when General Dahlquist arrived as part of a review. When General Dahlquist recognized Colonel Singles he offered the colonel his hand and said, "Let bygones be bygones. It's all water under the bridge, isn't it?" Colonel Singles, in the full presence of the entire III Corps, continued to salute General Dahlquist (as military protocol dictated) but refused to shake Dahlquist's hand.
Following the war, the 442nd was repeatedly commemorated for efforts at the Vosges Mountains. A commissioned painting now hanging in The Pentagon depicts them as they fought to reach the “Lost Battalion”. A memorial was erected in Biffontaine by Gerard Henry, later the town mayor. Another memorial was established in Bruyeres to commemorate the liberation of the city. At first a narrow road led to that monument but today the road named “The Avenue of the 442nd Infantry Regiment" is wide enough to fit four tour buses.
Following the tough battle through the Vosges Mountains, the 442nd was sent to the Maritime Alps and the French Riviera. It was a walk in the park compared to what they had experienced in October. Little to no action occurred in the next four months as they rested.[來源請求] The 442nd guarded and patrolled a twelve to fourteen-mile front line segment of French-Italian border. This part of the 442nd’s journey gained the name "Champagne Campaign" because of the available wine, women, and merry times.[來源請求] The 442nd experienced additional losses as patrols sometimes ran into enemy patrols, or sometimes soldiers stepped on enemy and allied land mines. Occasionally, soldiers of the 442nd captured spies and saboteurs.
The 442nd is also known for accomplishing what no other U.S. Army unit had done before: the capture of an enemy submarine.[來源請求] A Nisei soldier noticed what looked like an animal in the water but upon closer look it was actually a one-man German submarine. The German and the submarine were captured and handed over to the U.S. Navy. On 23 March 1945, the 442nd Regimental Combat Team sailed back to Italy and returned to the Gothic Line.[來源請求]
From 20 to 22 March, the 442 and the 232 shipped off to Italy from France but the 522nd Field Artillery Battalion was sent to another part of Europe. They traveled 600英里（970千米） through the Rhone Valley and stopped at Kleinblittersdorf on the east bank of the Saar River. The 522nd aided the 63rd Division on the Siegfried Line defenses south of St. Ingbert from 12–21 March. The 522nd became a Roving Battalion, supporting nearly two dozen army units along the front traveling a total of 1,100英里（1,800千米） across Germany and accomplishing every objective of their fifty-two assignments. The 522nd was the only Nisei unit to fight in Germany. On 29 April scouts of the 522nd located a satellite camp of the infamous Dachau concentration camp next to the small Bavarian town of Lager Lechfeld, adjacent to Hurlach. Scouts from the 522nd were among the first Allied troops to release prisoners from the Kaufering IV Hurlach satellite camp, one of nearly 170 such camps, where more than 3,000 prisoners were held.
“As we came around the way, there were a lot of Jewish inmates coming out of the camp, and I heard that the gate was opened by our advanced scouts. They took a rifle and shot it. I think it was a fellow from Hawaii that did that. I think it was a Captain Taylor, Company B was one of them, but another person from Hawaii, he passed away. They opened the gate and all these German, I mean, Jewish victims were coming out of the camp.”
“Then, when we finally opened the Dachau camp, got in, oh those people were so afraid of us, I guess. You could see the fear in their face. But eventually, they realized that we were there to liberate them and help them.”
“They were all just skin and bones, sunken eyes. I think they were more dead than they were alive because they hadn’t eaten so much because, I think, just before we got there the S.S. people had all pulled back up and they were gone. But, we went there, and outside of the camps there were a lot of railroad cars there that had bodies in them. I had the opportunity to go into the camp there, but you could smell the stench. The people were dead and piled up in the buildings, and it was just unbelievable that the Germans could do that to the Jewish people. I really didn’t think it was possible at all actually.”
The only thing the Nisei could really do was give them clothing and keep them warm. Nisei soldiers began to give the Jewish inmates food from their rations but were ordered to stop because the food could overwhelm the digestive systems of the starved inmates and kill them.[來源請求] As they continued past the subcamp, they discovered the path along which Jewish inmates near Waakirchen had been driven on a death march to another camp.
“No, my first encounter was these lumps in snow, and then I didn’t know what they were, and so I went and investigated them and discovered that they were people, you know. Most of them were skeletons or people who had been beaten to death or just died of starvation or overworked or whatever. Most of them I think died from exposure because it was cold.”
They discovered more subcamps and former inmates wandering the countryside. Following the German surrender, from May to November, the 522nd was assigned to security around Donauwörth, which consisted of setting up roadblocks and sentry posts to apprehend Nazis that were trying to disappear. The 522nd returned to the United States in November 1945.
The Gothic Line[编辑]
On 23 March 1945 the 100/442 shipped out from Marseille and traveled to Leghorn, Italy, attached to the 92nd Division. The Fifth Army had been stalemated at the Gothic Line for the prior five months. The 442nd faced extremely tough terrain, where the saw-toothed Apennines rose up from the Ligurian Sea. Starting from the northeast, the peaks hugged the east coast of Italy and stretched diagonally southward across the Italian boot. To the west, on the other side of the mountains, was the wide flat Po River Valley that led to the Austrian Alps—the last barrier to Germany. For nine months German Field Marshal Albert Kesselring directed the construction of the Gothic Line along the top of the Apennines. The Todt Organization (known for its fortifications at Monte Cassino) used 15,000 Italian slave laborers. They drilled into solid rock to make gun pits and trenches, which they reinforced with concrete. They built 2,376 machine gun nests with interlocking fire.
On the Italian front, the 442nd had contact with another segregated American unit, the 92nd Infantry Division, as well as troops of the British and French colonial empires (West and East Africans, Moroccans, Algerians, Indians, Gurkhas, Jews from the Palestine mandate) and the non-segregated Brazilian Expeditionary Force which had in its ranks ethnic Japanese.
General Mark W. Clark welcomed the 442 and presented his plan to break the Gothic Line. General Clark had a disagreement with Supreme Commander Eisenhower. Clark had to negotiate for the return of the 100th and 442nd because Eisenhower wanted them for the Battle of the Bulge and General Devers, commander of the Sixth Army Group, needed fresh troops. General Clark got his wish. The 442nd and 100th, minus the 522nd, along with the 92nd Division, mounted a surprise diversionary attack on the left flank. They intended to shift enemy attention to it from the interior, allowing the Eighth Army to cross the Senio River on the right flank and then the Fifth Army on the left.
In front of the 442nd lay mountains code-named Georgia, Florida, Ohio 1, Ohio 2, Ohio 3, Monte Cerrata, Monte Folgorita, Monte Belvedere, Moente Carchio, and Monte Altissimo. These objectives hinged on surprising the Germans. The 100th went after Georgia Hill and the 3rd Battalion attacked Mount Folgorita. On 3 April the 442nd moved into position under the cover of nightfall to hide from the Germans who had good sight lines from their location on the mountains. The next day the 442nd waited. At 0500 the following morning they were ready to strike. A little over 30 minutes later objectives Georgia and Mount Folgorita were taken, cracking the Gothic Line. They achieved surprise and forced the enemy to retreat. After counterattacking, the Germans were defeated. During this time, 2nd Battalion was moving into position at Mount Belvedere, which overlooked Massa and the Frigido River.
The 442nd made a continuous push against the German Army and objectives began to fall: Ohio 1, 2, and 3, Mount Belvedere on 6 April by 2nd Battalion, Montignoso 8 April by 3rd Battalion, Mount Brugiana on 11 April by 2nd Battalion, Carrara by 3rd Battalion on 11 April, and Ortonovo by the 100th on 15 April. The 442 turned a surprise diversionary attack into an all-out offensive. The advance came so quickly that supply units had a hard time keeping up.
The Nisei drove so hard that beginning on 17 April the Germans decided to destroy their fortifications and pull back to make a final stand at Aulla. The last German defense in Italy was Monte Nebbione, directly south of Aulla. San Terenzo lay East of Mount Nobbione and became the launching point for the Aulla assault. The final drive of the 442nd began on 19 April and lasted until 23 April, when the 3rd Battalion finally took Mount Nebbione and Mount Carbolo. Following the fall of San Terenzo, 2nd Battalion hooked right around the mountains and Task Force Fukuda (consisting of Companies B and F from 2nd Battalion) flanked left from Mount Carbolo creating a pincer move onto Aulla. On 25 April Aulla fell and the German retreat was cut off. In the days that followed, Germans began to surrender in the hundreds and thousands to the Fifth and Eighth Armies. This was 442nd's final World War II action. On 2 May the war ended in Italy followed six days later by Victory in Europe.
The 442nd is commonly reported to have suffered a casualty rate of 314 percent, informally derived from 9,486 Purple Hearts divided by some 3,000 original in-theater personnel. The official casualty rate, combining KIA (killed) with MIA (missing) and WIA (wounded and removed from action) totals, as a fraction of all who served, is 93%, still uncommonly high. Many Purple Hearts were awarded during the Vosges Mountains campaign and some of the wounded were victims of trenchfoot. But many trenchfoot victims were forced—or willingly chose—to return to their unit even while classified as "wounded in action". Wounded soldiers often escaped from hospitals to return to the fight.[來源請求]
Service and decorations[编辑]
The 442nd Regimental Combat Team was the most decorated unit for its size and length of service in the history of American warfare. The 4,000 men who initially came in April 1943 had to be replaced nearly 2.5 times. In total, about 14,000 men served, ultimately earning 9,486 Purple Hearts. The unit was awarded an unprecedented eight Presidential Unit Citations. Twenty-one of its members were awarded Medals of Honor. Members of the 442nd received 18,143 awards, including:
- 21 Medals of Honor (the first awarded posthumously to Private First Class Sadao Munemori, Company A, 100th Battalion, for action near Seravezza, Italy, on 5 April 1945; the others upgraded from other awards in June 2000). Recipients include:
- Barney F. Hajiro
- Mikio Hasemoto
- Joe Hayashi
- Shizuya Hayashi
- Daniel K. Inouye
- Yeiki Kobashigawa
- Robert T. Kuroda
- Kaoru Moto
- Sadao Munemori
- Kiyoshi K. Muranaga
- Masato Nakae
- Shinyei Nakamine
- William K. Nakamura
- Joe M. Nishimoto
- Allan M. Ohata
- James K. Okubo
- Yukio Okutsu
- Frank H. Ono
- Kazuo Otani
- George T. Sakato
- Ted T. Tanouye
- 52 杰出服役十字勋章 (including 19 Distinguished Service Crosses which were upgraded to Medals of Honor in June 2000)
- 1 陆军杰出服役勋章
- 560 银星勋章s (plus 28 Oak Leaf Clusters for a second award)
- 22 Legion of Merit Medals
- 15 Soldier’s Medals
- 4,000 銅星勳章 (plus 1,200 Oak Leaf Clusters for a second award; one Bronze Star was upgraded to a Medal of Honor in June 2000. One Bronze Star was upgraded to a Silver Star in September 2009.)
- 9,486 紫心勋章s
Four-Forty-Second Infantry— We're the boys of Hawai'i nei— We'll fight for you And the Red, White and Blue, And go to the front... And back to Honolulu-lulu. Fighting for dear old Uncle Sam Go for broke! HOOH! We don't give a damn! We'll round up the Huns At the point of our guns, And vict'ry will be ours! GO FOR BROKE! FOUR-FOUR-TWO! GO FOR BROKE! FOUR-FOUR-TWO! And vict'ry will be ours!
The song may have originally been written for the 100th Battalion and entitled One-Puka-Puka in place of Four-Forty-Second, thus explaining the reference to Hawaii nei (Beautiful Hawaii) and the vow to go back to Honolulu.
After the war[编辑]
The stellar record of the Japanese Americans serving in the 442nd and in the Military Intelligence Service (U.S. Pacific Theater forces in World War II) helped change the minds of anti-Japanese American critics in the U.S. and resulted in easing of restrictions and the eventual release of the 120,000 strong community well before the end of World War II.
However, the unit’s exemplary service and many decorations did not change the attitudes of the general U.S. population to people of Japanese descent after World War II. Veterans were welcomed home by signs that read “No Japs Allowed” and “No Japs Wanted”, denied service in shops and restaurants, and had their homes and property vandalized.
Anti-Japanese sentiment remained strong into the 1960s, but faded along with other once-common prejudices, even while remaining strong in certain circles. Conversely, the story of the 442nd provided a leading example of what was to become the controversial model minority stereotype.
Revolution of 1954[编辑]
According to author, historian Tom Coffman, men of the 442nd dreaded returning home as second-class citizens. In Hawaii these men became involved in a peaceful movement. It has been described as the 442nd returning from the battles in Europe to the battle at home. The non-violent revolution was successful and put veterans in public office in what became known as the Revolution of 1954.
One notable effect of 442nd's service was to help convince Congress to end its opposition towards Hawaii's statehood petition. Twice before 1959, residents of Hawaii asked to be admitted to the U.S. as the 49th state, but each time Congress was opposed the idea, in part due to discomfort over the idea of having a co-equal state that had a majority non-white population.[來源請求] The exemplary record of the Japanese-Americans serving in the 442nd and the loyalty showed by the rest of Hawaii's population during World War II overcame those fears and allowed Hawaii to be admitted as the 50th state (Alaska was granted statehood just prior).
In post-war American popular slang, the phrase "going for broke" was adopted from the 442nd's unit motto "Go for Broke", which was derived from the Hawaiian pidgin phrase used by craps shooters risking all their money in one roll of the dice.
Demobilization and rebirth[编辑]
The 442nd RCT was de-activated in Honolulu in 1946, but reactivated in 1947 in the U.S. Army Reserve. It was mobilized in 1968 to refill the Strategic Reserve during the Vietnam War, and carries on the honors and traditions of the unit. Today, the 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry, is the only infantry unit of the Army Reserve. The battalion headquarters is at Fort Shafter, Hawaii, with subordinate units based in Hilo, American Samoa, Saipan, and Guam. The only military presence in American Samoa consists of the Battalion's B and C companies
In August 2004, the battalion was mobilized for duty in Iraq, stationed at Logistics Support Area Anaconda in the city of Balad, which is located about 50 miles northwest of Baghdad. Lt. Colonel Colbert Low assumed command of the battalion only a few weeks after the battalion arrived at Logistical Support Area Anaconda. As of January 2006, the 100th had returned home with the exception of some 100 artillery personnel. One soldier was killed by an improvised explosive device attack. A total of 4 members of the battalion were killed in action before they returned home in January 2006. During the year long deployment one of Charlie Company's attachment platoon, call sign, Cobra Black 2 distinguished themselves by discovering over 50 weapons caches. Their proven techniques in plotting the enemy's likely caches sites allowed Cobra Black 2 to systematically detect and destroy some of the largest stores of mortars, rockets, IED's and ammunition in the Area of Operation in and around LSA Anaconda. Their success led to a dramatic decrease in IED attacks and indirect fire into LSA Anaconda. Unlike the soldiers of World War II who were predominantly Japanese Americans these soldiers came from as far away as Miami, Florida, Tennessee, Alaska and included soldiers from Hawaii, Philippines, Samoa and Palau.
- State Route 23 between U.S. Route 101 and State Route 118 is named the Military Intelligence Memorial Freeway;
- State Route 99 between Fresno and Madera is named the 100th Infantry Battalion Memorial Highway;
- State Route 99 between Salida and Manteca is named the 442nd Regimental Combat Team Memorial Highway.
A nationwide campaign to urge the U.S. Postal Service to issue a commemorative postage stamp to honor the contributions of the Japanese American soldiers of World War II was begun in 2006 in California.
- 戴爾·石本, actor in many films, TV shows, and commercials
- 伊藤進, Emeritus Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy, Harvard Medical School (1960–1990)
- 菊池功, graphic designer, illustrator, carver, and painter. Illustrated Welcome Home Swallows and Blue Jay in the Desert.
- 金永玉; the only Korean American officer during his service in 442nd Infantry. First officer from an ethnic minority in U.S. history to command an Army combat battalion.
- 松永正幸, U.S. Representative from Hawaii (1962–1976); U.S. Senator from Hawaii (1977–1990)
- 連恩·中野- portrayed a Nisei soldier in Go For Broke
- 田尻慎吉, Sculptor, member of the COBRA art movement, 1955 Golden Palm Winner at Cannes, Purple Heart
- The Gallant Men：1962-1963年，由美國國家廣播公司製播的電視劇，台視於1963-1964年播出時譯為「八勇士」，因有主要角色有八位，參見臺灣電視公司節目列表#1963年。
- 小子難纏（The Karate Kid）：電影中男主角的師父（森田則之飾演）曾服役於442團並獲得獎章，之後由希拉里·斯旺克主演的續集新小子難纏（The Next Karate Kid）中師父仍有登場。
- ^ Asian-Americans i the United States Military during the Korean War. State of New Jersey. [14 February 2011].
- ^ 2.0 2.1 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry. GlobalSecurity.org. 23 May 2005 [27 September 2008]（原始内容存档于11 September 2008）.
- ^ Title unknown. [2012-09-01].
- ^ 美國民主基本文獻-是松(Korematsu)訴美國政府案，美國在台協會，2014-01-20查閱。另根據美國聯邦法規，其公務員在職務上之出版物，在全世界均屬公有領域，故摘錄。
- ^ 本譯名可能不準確，或校際勝利志工團亦可，暫採意譯。
- ^ 該詞語解釋見美國國家歷史博物館的介紹。（英文）
- ^ 口號為「全力以赴」（Go For Broke，日语：当たって砕けろ！）
- ^ regimental combat team，RCT
- ^ 群是一個大於營，但小於旅的編制，故亦可譯為加強團。
- ^ Shirey 1990，第34页
- ^ heavy barrage，或譯重彈幕攻擊，指用一種使用火砲構成的綿密砲擊，可參見彈幕(軍事)。
- ^ 12.0 12.1 Go For Broke National Education Center - Preserving the Legacy of the Japanese American Veterans of World War II. Goforbroke.org. [17 August 2012].
- ^ Crost 1994，第149页
- ^ Shirey 1990，第36页
- ^ Go For Broke National Education Center video archive. Harry Abe, Film #348, Tape 2, 28:00 min.
- ^ Shirey 1990，第37页
- ^ Shirey 1990，第38页
- ^ Go For Broke - Maps. [2012-09-01].
- ^ 於軍事術語中，一個有獨立執行任務特性的隊伍是使用同樣的字，表示原本非其所屬，必須看其直屬上級單位的規模翻譯。如上文中的442團的medical detachment為醫療支隊。
- ^ Go For Broke National Education Center - Preserving the Legacy of the Japanese American Veterans of World War II. Goforbroke.org. [2012-08-17].
- ^ Sterner 2008，第56–57页
- ^ Video: Armistice Day In France Etc. (1944). 環球新聞片. 1944 [21 February 2012].
- ^ Steidl 2000，第43页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第60页
- ^ Shirey 1990，第57页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第62页
- ^ Shirey 1990，第51, 54页
- ^ Crost 1994，第182, 183页
- ^ 29.0 29.1 Remembrances 1992，第139页
- ^ 參見阿拉摩之戰
- ^ Carl E Lundquist，10月8日至10月28日就任，他的前一任是Clyde E Steele，同年的8月29至10月7日，比他在職時間長上一些。當時36師歷任各主官姓名可見於：36th INFANTRY DIVISION，美國陸軍歷史網，2014-01-24查閱。（英文）
- ^ 1921-現在。他的自述可見於 YouTube上的「Charles Coolidge, Medal of Honor, WWII」视频，Medal of Honor: Oral Histories，2011-09-27日，2014-01-24查閱。（英文）
- ^ command post
- ^ Steidl 2000，第61–62页
- ^ 時任36師師長
- ^ 1892-1971，根據THE 100/442D REGIMENTAL COMBAT TEAM'S RESCUE OF THE LOST BATTALION: A STUDY IN THE EMPLOYMENT OF BATTLE COMMAND第52頁所載。
- ^ Steidl 2000，第66页
- ^ Crost 1994，第185, 187页
- ^ Steidl 2000，第80页
- ^ Steidl 2000，第83页
- ^ Steidl 2000，第72页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第83页
- ^ Steidl 2000，第89页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第83, 85页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第82页
- ^ Crost 1994，第190页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第95页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第91页
- ^ Keynote Address by Young O. Kim. 100thbattalion.org. 3 July 1982 [2012-08-17].
- ^ France. 100thbattalion.org. 23 March 1945 [2012-08-17].
- ^ Sterner 2008，第89页
- ^ Crost 1994，第201页
- ^ 53.0 53.1 Shirey 1990，第99页
- ^ Crost 1994，第239页
- ^ Go For Broke National Education Center - Preserving the Legacy of the Japanese American Veterans of World War II. Goforbroke.org. [2012-08-17].
- ^ Joseph Ichiuji testimonial at Museum of Tolerance–Go For Broke Foundation
- ^ Tom Kono testimonial at Museum of Tolerance–Go For Broke Foundation
- ^ Minoru Tsubota testimonial at Museum of Tolerance–Go For Broke Foundation
- ^ George Oiye testimonial at Museum of Tolerance–Go For Broke Foundation
- ^ Go For Broke - Gothic. [2012-09-01].
- ^ Ready 1985a
- ^ Ready 1985b
- ^ Shirey 1990，第249–250页
- ^ Remembrances 1992，第145页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第107页
- ^ Sterner 2008，第117页
- ^ Go For Broke - Veterans. [2012-09-01].
- ^ 100th Battalion, 442nd Infantry. [2012-09-01].
- ^ Steffen 2010
- ^ Williams 2000
- ^ Scott, John L. Japanese Actor No Longer Villain. Los Angeles Times. 3 October 1967: (C1).
- ^ Chang 1985
- ^ Tanaka 2005
- ^ About USIP: History: Selected Biographies: United States Institute Of Peace. [2008-09-23]. （原始内容存档于9 July 2008）.
- ^ 原劇第四集1小時40分左右，為了保護戰友夏木，以自身為肉盾，受槍擊後傷重不治。
- ^ YouTube上的「Go For Broke! (1951)」视频（英文）
- Asahina, Robert. (2007). Just Americans: The Story of the 100th Battalion/442nd Regimental Combat Team in World War II. New York: Gotham Books. ISBN 978-1-59240-300-4
- Chang, Thelma. I Can Never Forget: Men of the 100th/442nd. Honolulu, HI: Sigi Productions. November 1985. ISBN 0-9630228-0-6.
- Crost, Lyn. Honor by Fire: Japanese Americans at War in Europe and the Pacific. Novato, CA: 要塞出版. 1994. ISBN 0-89141-521-1.
- Katz, Robert. The Battle for Rome: The Germans, the Allies, the Partisans, and the Pope, September 1943–June 1944. New York: Simon & Schuster. August 2003. ISBN 0-7432-1642-3.
- McCaffrey, James M. Going for Broke: Japanese American Soldiers in the War Against the Nazis (University of Oklahoma Press; 2013) 408 pages; a history of the 442nd Regimental Combat Team
- Moulin, Pierre. (1993). U.S. Samurais in Bruyeres - People of France and Japanese Americans: Incredible story Hawaii CPL Editions. ISBN 2-9599984-0-5
- Moulin, Pierre. (2007). Dachau, Holocaust and US Samurais - Nisei Soldiers first in Dachau Authorhouse Editions. ISBN 978-1-4259-3801-7
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- Ready, J. Lee. Forgotten Allies: The European Theatre. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company. 1985b. ISBN 978-0-89950-129-1.
- Remembrances: 100th Infantry Battalion 50th Anniversary Celebration 1942-1992., 100th Infantry Battalion Publication Committee. 1992
- Shirey, Orville C. Americans: The Story of the 442d Combat Team 3. Washington: Infantry Journal Press. 1990.
- Steffen, Jordan, White House honors Japanese American WWII veterans, 洛杉磯時報. 6 October 2010
- Steidl, Franz. Lost Battalion. Novato: Presidio Press. 2000.
- Sterner, C. Douglas. Go For Broke. Clearfield: American Legacy Historical Press. 2008.
- Tanaka, Diane. Colonel Young Oak Kim (U.S. Army Ret.), 86; Decorated U.S. WWII And Korean War Veteran, 新聞稿. Go For Broke National Education Center. 29 December 2005 [23 September 2008].
- Williams, Rudi. 21 Asian American World War II Vets to Get Medal of Honor, 新聞稿. 美國國防部. 19 May 2000 [2008-09-23].