美國法院

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美國法院美國聯邦法院與各州或領地的州法院兩系統所組成。美國的聯邦法院是由美國聯邦政府司法部門所構成,並依據美國憲法聯邦法律來運作。美國各州與領地擁有個別的州/領地法院,並依據各自的州/領地憲法與州/領地法律來運作。

在聯邦法律中的「美國法院」(Courts of the United States)一詞專指美國聯邦政府的聯邦法院,而並不包括各州法院,這是因為美國的聯邦制明確的將聯邦與各州政府的運作分隔,因此各州可以自由的選擇各式各樣的法院系統,而不需要與聯邦法院或其他州有著相同的系統。聯邦法院除了專門法院外可分為三級。所有的州法院都至少分為了兩級,而幾乎所有州與聯邦法院都有著「初審上訴終審」的三級系統。[1]少數的州有兩個終審法院分別管理民事與刑事案件。

全美國98%的案件都是由各州的各級法院所審理。大部分的州將小型違規案件,例如交通違規,歸屬於擁有特別司法管轄權的法院;並將較嚴重的案件歸屬於擁有原屬司法管轄權的法院。[2]美國聯邦法院審理兩個或以上的州之間的糾紛、違犯聯邦法律、國際條約、美國憲法海洋商業法破產法等有關案件。[3]全美國內80%的案件為民事而20%為刑事案件。[2]民事案件通常包括民權專利權、以及社會安全保險,而刑事案件則包括逃漏稅務責任、搶劫、偽造文書、以及毒品案件。[2]

美國法院常使用「巡迴」一詞。該詞為英語「circuit」的直接翻譯,其意義為地區之意。由於美國幅員廣大人口稀少,因此不能廣設法院,只能在重要地點設法院置法官。為了服務距離法院遙遠地區民眾的司法需求,法官必須離開法院所在地並「巡迴」其司法管轄地區。此詞因此使用至今,而今日的美國法官有時仍須要離開原法院到其司法管轄範圍內的其他法院巡迴審理案件。

以下為美國境內的法院列表。

美國聯邦法院[编辑]

美國十二個上訴法院的管轄地區範圍圖。

以地理分配之司法管轄權的法院[编辑]

以專業事務分配之司法管轄權的法院[编辑]

過去的美國聯邦法院[编辑]

各州法院[编辑]

  • 州最高法院
    • 州法院

阿拉巴馬州[编辑]

阿拉巴馬州法院包括:

位於阿拉巴馬州內的聯邦法院

位於阿拉巴馬州內過去的聯邦法院

阿拉斯加州[编辑]

阿拉斯加州法院包括:

位於阿拉斯加州內的聯邦法院

亞利桑那州[编辑]

亞利桑那州法院包括:

位於亞利桑那州內的聯邦法院

阿肯色州[编辑]

阿肯色州法院包括:

位於阿肯色州內的聯邦法院

位於阿肯色州內過去的聯邦法院

加利福尼亞州[编辑]

加利福尼亞州法院包括:

位於加州舊金山的加利福尼亞最高法院大廈

位於加利福尼亞州內的聯邦法院

位於加利福尼亞州內過去的聯邦法院

科羅拉多州[编辑]

科羅拉多州法院包括:

位於科羅拉多州內的聯邦法院

康乃狄克州[编辑]

康乃狄克州法院包括:

位於康乃狄克州內的聯邦法院

德拉瓦州[编辑]

德拉瓦州法院包括:

位於德拉瓦州內的聯邦法院

佛羅里達州[编辑]

佛羅里達州法院包括:

位於佛羅里達州塔拉哈西的佛羅里達最高法院總部。

位於佛羅里達州內的聯邦法院

位於佛羅里達州內過去的聯邦法院

喬治亞州[编辑]

喬治亞州法院包括:

位於喬治亞州內的聯邦法院

位於喬治亞州內過去的聯邦法院

夏威夷州[编辑]

位於夏威夷州檀香山的夏威夷最高法院。

夏威夷州法院包括:

位於夏威夷州內的聯邦法院

愛達荷州[编辑]

愛達荷州法院包括:

位於愛達荷州內的聯邦法院

伊利諾州[编辑]

位於伊利諾州芝加哥得金斯聯邦大樓(Dirksen Federal Building)的美國第七巡迴上訴法院。

伊利諾州法院包括:

位於伊利諾州內的聯邦法院

位於伊利諾州內過去的聯邦法院

印第安那州[编辑]

File:E Ross Adair Bldg 2005.jpg
E·羅斯·阿達爾聯邦大樓為美國印地安那北區地區法院偉恩堡分院所在地。

印第安那州法院包括:

位於印第安那州內的聯邦法院

位於印第安那州內國去的聯邦法院

愛荷華州[编辑]

愛荷華州法院包括:

位於愛荷華州內的聯邦法院

位於愛荷華州內過去的聯邦法院

堪薩斯州[编辑]

堪薩斯州法院包括:

位於堪薩斯州內的聯邦法院

肯德基州[编辑]

肯德基州法院包括:

位於肯德基州內的聯邦法院

位於肯德基州內過去的聯邦法院

路易西安那州[编辑]

位於路易西安那州紐澳良的美國第五巡迴上訴法院。

路易西安那州法院包括:

位於路易西安那州內的聯邦法院

位於路易西安那州內過去的聯邦法院

緬因州[编辑]

位於緬因州內的聯邦法院

馬里蘭州[编辑]

位於馬里蘭州內的聯邦法院

位於馬里蘭州內過去的聯邦法院

麻塞諸塞州[编辑]

位於麻塞諸塞州波士頓的約翰·亞當斯法院大廈(John Adams Courthouse),為麻塞諸塞最高司法院麻塞諸塞上訴法院所在地。

司法院

行政法院

位於麻塞諸塞州內的聯邦法院

密西根州[编辑]

纽约州[编辑]

參考文獻[编辑]

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参见[编辑]