|当前條目的内容正在依照en:United States Marine Corps Force Reconnaissance的内容进行翻译。（2014年1月6日）
'Force Recon' 的識別徽章。
|別稱||Force Recon, FORECON|
布魯斯邁爾斯（Bruce F. Meyers）
約瑟夫泰勒（Joseph Z. Taylor）
|格言||Celer, Silens, Mortalis
- 1 歷史
- 2 任務
- 3 編制
- 4 訓練任務計畫
- 5 裝備
- 6 相關的媒體作品
- 7 註釋
- 8 參見
- 9 參考來源
- 10 外部連結
Weapons Planning Group (Code 121)[编辑]
The Reconnaissance/Surveillance Section of the Weapons Planning Group, Landing Force Development Center at Quantico introduced Force Recon to new technological methods of achieving their objective. Many of the tests and evaluations that were tried, resembled the tests of MCTU #1. However, MCTU #1 were testing in methods of inserting reconnaissance teams "deep" in the battlefield. The Weapons Planning Group (Code 121) provided the basis of equipment and instruments that would become instrumental to recon Marines. Beacons for helicopter guidance, 雷射指標器s for the 導引 of ordnance, 雷射測距儀s, and many more were tested.
During the 越戰, one of the reconnaissance officers of Code 121, then- Major Alex Lee, brought most of his testing experiences to 第三武裝偵察連, when he was assigned as the commanding officer in 1969-1970. He formed Force Recon's missions that are still distinct today: remote sensor operations. The Surveillance and Reconnaissance Center (SRC) [predecessor to the 監視偵察情報群 (SRIG)] was formed within the 第三陸戰隊兩棲部隊 (IIIMAF). The obsolete pathfinding operations were taken over by the newer beacons and homing devices.
武裝偵察部隊能比和他們相似的偵察兵執行更遠的內陸作戰，penetrating deeper into enemy territory from their assigned littoral (coastal) region within a force commander's 戰術責任區。 . They operate at such great distances that they are beyond the boundaries, or fan, of any artillery and/or 海軍艦砲支援; unlike their Division Recon brethren, whose operations are primarily within the artillery and gunfire support fan. Silence and stealth are vital in reducing chances of compromising their position—if a single round is fired, the mission is deemed to have failed.
- remote sensors operations–placing remote sensors and beacons are vital for the marking friendly/hostile boundaries and areas for helicopter pilots, for assault or infantry transport, becoming detrimental for combat or logistic support; this mission has made pathfinding operations obsolete.
- initial terminal guidance (ITG)–setting up/preparing 著陸區 (LZ) and 傘降區 (DZ) for forward operating sites Marine fixed or rotary wing aircraft, possible future landing spots for parachute entry, or waterborne locations (登陸部隊, 由艦至岸) operations.
- 策劃近接空中支援（Close air support，CAS）
- 軍需品的酬載傳輸（payload delivery）。
In the past, early Force Reconnaissance companies in the 陸戰隊 had made numerous titular changes to its 編制表, so much so that it can be 困難 to describe its primary command structure in detail. However, the companies initially were designed to function under the echelon of the 海軍或海軍陸戰隊部隊指揮官 (例如 under the 直接作業管制 of the 兩棲特遣部隊指揮官 and 登陸部隊指揮官, and 艦隊陸戰隊 during 兩棲 登陸作戰s 或 expeditionary engagements—to 提供 timely intelligence without exhausting their reconnaissance assets from the Marine Division without hampering their valuable support to its 步兵團.
Due to these changes, FORECON has been detached and reported to multiple commanders of 陸戰師, the 指揮單位s （CE） of the 陸戰隊空地特遣隊s, and the immediate commander of the 陸戰隊遠征軍（MEF）. They were re-organized or reserved for 特種偵察 assignments that would otherwise help shape the outcome of his battlefield. These companies, for a few times in their existence had either folded into the Marine Division, its Regiment's 偵察營, or dissolved entirely to only resurface during conflicts, 或 when other similar reasons had arisen.
剩下的陸戰隊員 in both 武裝偵察連 molded into 新建的「D」連 在內 the 偵查營分隊, 編成了深入偵察排（DRP），DRPs 是設計 to maintain 與 preserve the '深入偵察' assets to 陸戰隊空地特遣隊（MAGTF）指揮官。
編制表（T / O）[编辑]
||本部勤務 (H&S) 排
|*they supplement their respective 陸戰隊空地特遣隊 (MAGTF) when the primary active companies are unavailable.|
- "The 最好的 form of 福利 for 我們的 陸戰隊員 和 水手 is first class 訓練; this 會減少 不必要的 傷亡". —MTP 引用自 by S-3 of FORECON companies.
訓練任務計畫有五個階段, and is based on a two-year platoon 週期. 訓練 is 不間斷 and 持續, and functions as if it were a 循環. Before 武裝偵察部隊 特戰人員 are "特種作戰能力" they follow the Company's MTP, which underlines the 訓練 protocol of the 部署前訓練方案（PTP） .
- 第三階段：MEU (SOC) 訓練
- 第四階段：MEU (SOC) 部署
- 第五階段：MEU (SOC) 後期部署
第一階段 武裝偵察部隊的在 訓練任務計畫 takes place within the MEU's 部署前訓練方案 (PTP) 特種作戰能力#初期訓練階段. In order for 陸戰隊員 to become 武裝偵察特戰兵, it is required to complete each course as they progress through the '額外管道' although there are other senior and veteran 陸戰隊員 that have already served with 武裝偵察部隊, choosing to stay attached to the company only to repeat the 2-year platoon cycle continuously. Whichever the case, they both will attend 他們的 個別的 學校: the candidates traverse through the accession 管道, as the 偵察兵 veterans attend specialized schools—both participating 在訓練任務計畫的第一階段.
- 等級 "C"的求生、迴避、抵制審訊及逃脫(SERE)課程— Navy Remote Training Sites; NAS Brunswick, Rangeley, Maine, and 北島海軍航空站, 華納泉.
- 美國海軍陸戰隊戰鬥潛水課程—佛羅里達州巴拿馬城海軍支援機構內的海軍潛水救難訓練中心（Navy Diving Salvage and Training Center）。
- Multi 任務 Parachute 課程—CPS Complete Parachute Systems, 亞利桑那州柯立芝。
- 特戰訓練群 (SOTG)—彭德爾頓營的第1遠征軍、勒瓊營的第2遠征軍、巴特勒營的第3遠征軍。
During the "Individual Training Phase", the candidates are undergoing the accession pipeline to become qualified MOS 0321 (Reconnaissance Man). After further training, the already-billeted Force Recon operators (who had already completed the required courses in the accession pipeline [basic recon, parachutist and diving, and SERE/HRP courses] attain MOS 0326 (Reconnaissance man, parachute and combatant diver qualified) and may continue to remain with FORECON after the 3-year rotation cycle. They may be selected for additional advanced cross-service training from other schools provided by the Special Operations Forces (SOF) units. Although these specialized schools are not necessarily required, they are highly encouraged.
Many Marine Corps 'training liaisons' represent the Marines at many cross-services schools, to ensure training slots and openings are met and filled by the Marines that requested, or were recommended, for advanced training. Some of these courses may not be able to facilitate the Marine students, the instructors of these schools resort to complement the Marines' requested syllabus by designing subsidiary courses of the similar. This argument becomes clear on whether Marines may, or may not, actually attend the Basic Underwater Demolitions/SEAL (BUD/S). Nonetheless, in the past, selected operators within Force Recon had attended the courses of instructions provided by BUD/S Instructors and their completion is documented in their military Service Record Book (SRB) or Officer Qualification Record (OQR).
- Tactical Air Control Party- one per team
- 美國陸軍遊騎兵學校-All team leaders and above
- 美國陸軍偵察與監視精英班—All team leaders and above
- 美國陸軍探路員課程—All team leaders and above
- US Army Static Line Jumpmaster School—minimum two per platoon
- Military Free Fall Jumpmaster School—minimum two per platoon
- Mountain Leaders (Summer/Winter) Course—one per team
- USMC Scout Sniper 課程—minimum one per team
- HRST Master Course—minimum two per platoon
- Dive Supervisor Course- minimum two per platoon
- LAR V Technician Course—two per platoon
The second phase of the MTP also takes place during the MEU's PTP Initial Training Phase.
Training Cell (T-Cell)[编辑]
The Training Cell (T-Cell) is regulated by the experienced staff non-commissioned officers (SNCOs) of FMF Recon company's Operations Section (S-3). This removes the responsibility of coordinating training from the platoon headquarters, and permits them to train with their men (rather than to just oversee the training).
- "Fight as you train, train as you fight!"—quote by unknown.
An additional and no less important advantage to the T-Cell is that it acts as a training ground for future platoon sergeants. Those assigned to the T-Cell are all highly trained and experienced operators. Some have deployed as platoon sergeants, and some have not. Experienced FORECON operators within T-Cell monitor, evaluate and improve the training to ensure that exercises meet real-world conditions.
- Advanced Long Range Communications Package (3 weeks)—It is conducted by the Company Communications Section. As the term Deep reconnaissance indicates, the platoon will operate well forward of other forces. In order to report observations, call for fires or extract, all members need to have a complete and thorough knowledge of the sophisticated communication equipment carried. It includes manual Morse code, and long-range high frequency (HF), satellite, multi-band, and digital communications.
- Weapons and Tactics Package (3 weeks)—Involves 5000-8000 rounds fired from the M4 carbine equipped with a Special Operations Peculiar Modification kit and the MEU(SOC) Pistol (.45 ACP). A live fire and maneuvering exercise in immediate action (IA) drills within close range of rotary wing support, as well as transportation, is conducted on the third week. As the Marines become familiar with their weapons, they conduct field exercise, force-on-force, live-fire drills using a militarized version of the Simunitions kit called the Special Effects Small Arms Marking Systems, or SESAMS. The Marking Cartridge ammunition contains a sabot and a small, plastic round encasing a colored detergent or paint, usually red or blue.
- Threat Weapons Familiarization Package(1 week)—Concludes "knowledge of weapons" with identification and operation of threat weapons used by adversaries of the United States. Threat Weapons include assault, automatic and mobilized weapons.
- Force Fires Package—Gives the Marines a working knowledge of fixed and rotary wing close air support and Naval Gun Surface Fire (NGSF) by using the AN/PEQ-1A Laser Acquisition Marker (SOFLAM) to "paint" their targets.
- Mobile Reconnaissance Package—Covers operating and maintaining the M998 HMMWV and the Interim Fast Attack Vehicle. Rapid deployment of FORECON requires fast mobilization. The current IFAV is a replacement of the two earlier FAVs, the M-151A2 and the Chenowth FAV that were employed in the 1980s and 1990s.
- Advanced Airborne Package—Extremely important to Force Recon for inserting Marines behind enemy lines. In this three-week period, Marines will transition from conventional Low Level Static Line Low Level Static Line (LLSL) insertions into the hallmark HAHO techniques. Usually it consists of consecutive night jumps with night combat equipment, but HAHO training is done in the Paraloft of the S3 Section using a complex virtual reality-based (VR) computer system. While wearing a VR headset device, the Marines hang suspended from the Paraloft ceiling that resembles the MC-5 Ram Air parachute. Many simulations are factored in this Virtual Reality Parachute Simulation; it allows the Marine to jump at high altitudes and visually check his main canopy for proper deployment, alleviate malfunctions, to cutaway and deploy a reserve parachute, then employ guidance and control to an unmarked drop zone (DZ).
- Combat Trauma Package—Examination of first aid and medical treatment that can prepare Marines in many realistic scenarios where Marines can become casualties. This package is built for Marines to give them confidence and knowledge to apply medical attention to themselves or others while operating in hazard environments whether they are engaged in combat or not.
- Amphibious Training Package (2 weeks)—While Marines were introduced to amphibious reconnaissance from the BRC, the T-Cell outlines the Amphibious Training package before they are attached to a MEU(SOC), this package refines their ability to conduct amphibious operations, and conventional and selected maritime special operations capabilities incorporating all their skills for Marines to work as a team. Refreshes long-range nautical navigation, and refines the platoon SOP for conducting hydrographic surveys. Launch and recovery is from a variety of naval vessels, including surface combatants and submarines. This training takes place at 海豹灘 and 聖地牙哥, 加州 on the west coast; and 昂斯洛灘, 北卡罗来纳州 on the east coast.
- Combatant Dive Package—Designed for concentrating on the unit's capabilities in the water. They will learn more about the LAR-V rebreather as they have been taught at the USMC Combatant Dive Course. The T-Cell will introduce the Diver Propulsion Device (DPD) and the "buddy line", a 15–20-英尺 (4.6–6.1-米) pipe made from composite plastics that every Marine is attached to when diving. This ensures that the team remain close together as the water may be impossible for visuals contact in subsurface swimming.
Other training packages are available to mold the Marines into a fully functional Recon unit, including long range patrolling in desert areas, such as Twentynine Palms or MCAS Yuma, mountainous terrain and other environments relevant in peacetime or conflict. At the end of Phase 2 Training, the platoon is completely stood up in all aspects of the long-range reconnaissance mission. More importantly, they have spent 6-months of 'platoon-oriented' training together.
This 6-month training 階段 emphasizing more in the direct action, or "black operations". It is conducted by the Special Operations Training Group (SOTG). This phase takes place during the MEU's PTP Intermediate Training Phase. These courses involves both aspects of maritime and urbanized environments and how to apply close quarters combat and science in demolition, gas/oil platform (GOPLAT) training, cordon and search, Visit, Board, Search, and Seizure (VBSS), shipboard assaults training and humanitarian operations. The recon operators get the chance to train in unfamiliar urban areas and maritime structures.
Once the SOC Certification Final Training Phase is finished, the MEU with the detached Force Recon platoon as a functionable special operations capable force. Then they sail on a six-month deployment. This long deployment is known as the 'Deployment Phases' to Force Recon, they sail from either three locations, off the east or west coast, or Okinawa. The I MEF on the west would deploy its Marine Expeditionary Units (MEUs) to the western Pacific and the II MEF's MEUs on the east coast sails across the Atlantic Ocean to either the Mediterranean Sea or the Persian Gulf. The III MEF's 31st MEU in Okinawa is to be used as a contingency for reinforced support of an area spanning from southwest Asia to the central Pacific. The III MEF is the only MEF of the FMF that is permanently fully deployed at all times.
While Force Recon is afloat, they still remain focused on their self-disciplined training sessions. They conduct small arms live fire training on the deck of the ships and physical fitness training. In many cases, foreign maritime forces alike participate in joint exercises or training maneuvers, such as the Royal Thai Marine Corps, British Royal Marines, and Australian Forces. But while they may be training, the MEU are capable of projecting fully forward deployed operational task forces. Thus, epitomizing the infamous Marine Corps slogan, "force-in-readiness".
最終階段稱為「後期部署」. After 18-months of training and deployment, the platoon is granted 30-days of military leave. Once a Force Recon operator has finished deployment, they have a decision to make. What makes Force Recon unique from Division Recon, and the other SOFs, is the career style that is emplaced in the Force Recon company structure. They can choose to stay with the Force Recon Company and continue their assignment with the MEU, recycling its loop cycle; or they can get release from the FORECON company and go back to their original assignment, whether it being administration, motor transport, or infantry. However, on average, approximately 50% of the platoon will leave, their time in Force having expired.
|美國海軍陸戰隊數位迷彩 、美國海軍陸戰隊通用戰鬥服（荒漠 · 疏林）||綠色||制服|
|CIRAS (陆地或 海事)||-||戰鬥配備|
|諾梅克斯材料的制服 （荒漠 · 疏林）||黑色||制服|
In addition to the 潛水員水下呼吸器（SCUBA）equipment used in 兩棲任務-基本工作, Force Recon maintains and operates parachutes. This is the main difference and separation from Division Reconnaissance—all FORECON operators are required to be parachutists. The 跳伞裝備 is stored in the 武裝偵察部隊的 Parachute Loft.
Parachute pack systems—The 降落傘 is one of the 註冊商標 of Force Recon, throughout its existence the operators have extensively used a wide variety of parachutes. 1950年代中期, they used the T-10, then later adopting the Capewell canopy release which provided a cut-away to reduce the deadly effect of drag. The T-10 became the most frequented parachute; which had two variants, one for low-level static line (LLSL) and the other for 軍事自由落體跳傘（MFF） descends. They had numerous parachutes listed under the 裝備表 （T/E） that had been contained in the Paraloft. Even in its formative days in the 陸戰隊戰術實驗組, the operators and testers of the 海軍空降小隊（NPU） at 埃爾森特羅美國海軍航空設施 had tested and sported numerous parachutes, adding modifications and suggestions that soon were adopted by other parachutists. By the 1990年代，MC-4和MC-5型衝壓空氣翼傘（Ram Air Parachutes） became the feasible choice, as it allows more detailed and accurate landing in smaller areas, easy to control—especially during oscillation of the canopy. Plus, it was formed to modulate between the LLSL and MFF without having to consort to a different pack.
These are parachutes that are still contained in the T/E of the Parachute Loft, however some may not be currently in use:
- MC-series* (MC-4, MC-5) [* Ram Air]
- * Canopies (Main & Reserve): Surface area 370平方英尺（34平方米）
- * Altitude range: 3,000英尺（910米） AG> to 30,000英尺（9,100米） ft MSL
- * Forward speed: 15–25 MPH
- * Rate of descent: 4–18 ft/sec
- * Maximum Load: 700磅（320千克）
- Multi-Mission Parachute System (MMPS) [currently being implemented—replacing the older MC-5]
Parachutist Individual Equipment Kit (PIEK)—The PIEK contains all the Force Recon's parachutist clothing and equipment assigned by Force Recon's Paraloft. They are used for the high-altitude MFFs (HAHO or HALO) and LLSL parachute operations. Due to extreme cold encountered during high altitude parachute operations, the parachutist must have protection from the environment.
- Flyer's Kitbag—used to carry operator's rucksack, ammunition, communications, etc.
Single Action Release Personal Equipment Lowering Equipment (SARPELS)—The Force Recon operators are equipped with a complete equipment lowering system for both LLSL and MFF parachute operations. It allows them carry various configurations of all their individual mission-essential equipment, usually contained within their Flyer's Kitbag. SARPELS provides easy access to their weapons and equipment upon parachute landing and has a single-action release capability. It can be front or rear mounted, whichever is preferred. Once they have descended to about 100英尺（30米） above the surface, they use the SARPEL to release their gear (weapons/kitbag), dropping it below them while still attached to their harness by a 25-英尺 (7.6-米) rope. It is used to minimize injuries in landing due to heavy load of equipment. The parachustists must maneuver themselves in order not to drop onto their gear during 降落傘下降著陸。
- SARPELS Cargo Carrier
- Horizontal & Vertical Cargo Carrier Securing Straps
- Single Action Release Handle
- MFF Equipment Attaching Strap
- 15-英尺 (4.6-米) LLSL Lowering Line
- 8-英尺 (2.4-米) MFF Lowering Line
- （英文） YouTube上的「Electra Glide in Blue」视频：1973年上映，中國大陸譯名為憂鬱騎警。
- ^ 美國海軍陸戰隊上校，其自傳歷史抄本可見於美國國會圖書館：Interview with Bruce F. Meyers，2005-05-21。（英文）
- ^ 美國海軍陸戰隊的名人，陸戰隊戰術實驗組與他有關。
- ^ 聯合特遣部隊是聯合國在1992至1993年間在索馬利亞內戰的維和計畫，聯合國官方名稱為『聯索行動』，詳見聯合國中文網頁：联索行动（简体中文）
- ^ 伊拉克自由行動作戰紀要可參考：附錄三：「『自由伊拉克行動』作戰全程紀要」，張翊國，2004。（正体中文）
- ^ 武裝偵察部隊的譯名是按照字面直譯，若按照其任務特性與編制，亦可譯為強力偵察連（強偵連）或武力偵察隊。武裝偵察於美軍軍語的對應字是armed reconnaissance，目前暫時參照台灣探索頻道的節目介紹翻譯。
- ^ Meyers, Bruce F. Fortune Favors the Brave: The Story of First Force Recon. 安那波利斯: 美國海軍學會出版. 2000.
- ^ 即海豹部隊前身
- ^ Fleet Training Publication 167
- ^ Ray W. Stubbe, AARUGHA!: History of Specialized and Force-level Reconnaissance Activities and Units of the United States Marine Corps, 1900-1974, Fleet Marine Reference Publication 12-21 (MCB Quantico, HQMC: Historical Division, 1981).
- ^ 10.0 10.1 Lee, Alex. Force Recon Command: 3rd Force Recon Company in Vietnam, 1969—70. New York City: Random House Publishing Group. 1995. ISBN 0-8041-1023-9.
- ^ 根據《國軍簡明美華軍語辭典》2009年版第1124頁之『美軍軍階對照表』所載，美軍陸戰隊的Lance Corporal（LCPL）譯為上等兵，Corporal（CPL）譯為下士，但此譯法與中文維基准下士條目並不相同，特此註明。
- ^ Fleet Marine Force Manual (FMFM) 2-1, Intelligence, (Sep 1980).
- ^ tactical area of responsibility，縮寫：TAOR
- ^ naval gunfire support，軍語縮寫：NGFS
- ^ Marine Corps Warfighting Program (MCWP) 2.15.1, Remote Sensor Operations.
- ^ （Personal Security Detail，PSD）
- ^ （In-Extremis Hostage Rescue，IHR）
- ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 18.3 18.4 18.5 18.6 18.7 18.8 Patrick A. Rogers, Strong Men Armed: The Marine Corps 1st Force Reconnaissance Company, theaccuraterifle.com Part II: Volume 4, Number 1 (Manchester, CT: Feb 2001)
- ^ Marine Expeditionary Unit（Special Operations Capable），縮寫： MEUSOC
- ^ table of organization，T/O
- ^ direct operational control
- ^ （Commander, Amphibious Task Force，CATF）
- ^ （commander, landing force，CLF）
- ^ 引用错误：无效
- ^ 引用错误：无效
- ^ Melton, Cpl. Ken. 2nd MSOB activates, Force Recon evolves. 2006-08-11.
- ^ 1st MSOB stand up marks evolution of 1st Force Recon. United States Marine Corps. 2006-12-13 [2008-11-23]. （原始内容存档于2008-06-15）.
- ^ Military.com
- ^ （Active Reserve，AR）
- ^ 美軍陸戰隊編制，連有勤務排，營級以上有勤務連，以上類推。
- ^ Mission Training Plan
- ^ Pre-deployment Training Program
- ^ 軍職專長代碼（Military Occupational Specialty code）
- ^ High Risk Personnel (HRP) Course，詳見該基地網站的介紹（英文）
- ^ Operational Requirements Document, Underwater Reconnaissance Capability
- ^ Special Operations Training Group
- ^ MCO 3502.3A, Marine Expeditionary Unit (Special Operations Capable) Predeployment Training Program
- ^ supplemental radio，軍語縮寫：SUPRAD
- ^ Combat Integrated Releasable Armor System，暫譯為「整合型戰鬥可拆解護甲系統 」。
- ^ 參見聚酰胺。
- ^ 整合通信保密（Integrated COMSEC）
- 特種業務單位（Special Activities Division，SAD）
- 美國海軍陸戰隊軍職專長代碼列表：如美國海軍陸戰隊武裝偵察部隊的代碼為0358，美國海軍陸戰隊空地特遣隊武裝偵察部隊（United States Marine Air-Ground Task Force Reconnaissance）的代碼為0321。
- 軍武介紹之美軍陸戰隊武裝偵查隊和特戰司令部 force recon/marsoc，2011-05-26。2014-01-06查閱。（正体中文）
- 世界上戰力最強的蛙人，中国军网，2012-02-09 。2014-01-06查閱。（繁体中文）
- （英文）Headquarters : United States Marine Marine Corps Force Recon Association
- （英文）ShadowSpear Special Operations Marine Force Reconnaissance
- （英文）SpecialOperations.com Marine Recon Page
- （英文）Marine 3rd Recon Bn., 31st MEU(SOC)
- （英文）Recon Marines
- （英文）Global Security USMC Unit Listings
- （英文）SpecWarNet: USMC Recon Battalions