羞恥徽章

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中世纪的“羞耻面具”

羞恥徽章Badge of shame)通常指以公开羞辱,排斥,迫害为目的,要求特定的团体或个人佩戴的某种符号。例如,在英国,根据1697年的济贫法,领取教区救济的贫民在公开场合时于被要求在右手袖子上佩戴蓝色或红色布制成的徽章,以示其生活为羞辱。[1]历史上另一个著名的例子是中世纪欧洲一些国家的犹太人被迫佩戴的佩戴黄色犹太星徽章,[2]纳粹德国统治期间,在纳粹影响下的欧洲国家内的犹太人也被逼佩戴这种识别标记。[3]该词语也用来指代其它与羞辱有关的符号。《圣经》中耶和华该隐立的记号(mark of Cain)有作为羞辱的代名词的解释。[4][5][6][7]这个词也作为比喻,尤其是用于贬义,形容一个人或一个群体可耻。[8]

参考资料[编辑]

  1. ^ Dependency, Shame and Belonging: Badging the Deserving Poor, c.1550-1750*.. 
  2. ^ Jewish History 1250–1259 : 1257 Badge OF Shame (Italy). The History of the Jewish People. Jewish Agency. [2007-11-06]. (原始内容存档于3 November 2007). "…the badge of shame was imposed locally and infrequently in Italy until the Bull of Pope Alexander IV enforced it on all papal states." 
  3. ^ D'Ancona, Jacob. The City Of Light. New York: Citadel. 2003: 23–24. ISBN 0-8065-2463-4. "But the wearing of a badge or outward sign — whose effect, intended or otherwise, successful or not, was to shame and to make vulnerable as well as to distinguish the wearer…" 
  4. ^ Feinsilber, Mike; Webber, Elizabeth. Merriam-Webster's dictionary of allusions. Springfield, Mass: Merriam-Webster. 1999: 95. ISBN 0-87779-628-9. "As the term [mark of Cain] is used today, the idea of a protective mark has been lost; only the negative sense of a mark of shame or criminality remains." 
  5. ^ R. Swinburne Clymer. Rosicrucian Fraternity in America. Kessinger Publishing, LLC. : 207. ISBN 0-7661-3019-3. "Did we not say that when Mr. Lewis wrote his first history of A.M.O.R.C. that he also wrote his confession, placing on it the badge of shame—the mark of Cain—that revealed its real purpose and spurious nature?" 
  6. ^ Clayton Kendall. What Really Happened in the Garden of Eden?: And Rebuttal To: Eve, Did She or Didn't She?. New York: Vantage Press. 2007: 122. ISBN 0-533-15291-7. "In light of this horror, some of the more ardent rulers and princes of this 'Christian' church related this [yellow] badge of shame to the mark of Cain as Christ killers英语Christ killers…" 
  7. ^ Maclean, Marie. 9. ‘Better to reign in Hell…’. The name of the mother: writing illegitimacy. New York: Routledge. 1994: 164. doi:10.2307/3734056. ISBN 0-415-10686-9. "The work of Jean Genet, poet, playwright and novelist (1910-86) and Violette Leduc, innovator in prose narrative (1907-72) reverts to the ancient traditions of bastardy as excess, a badge of shame and evil, a latter-day mark of Cain, which at the same time distinguishes the bastard from the herd and confers a sort of perverse and even grandiose power." 
  8. ^ Hinshaw, S. Mark of Shame: Stigma of Mental Illness and an Agenda for Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press, Incorporated. 2006. ISBN 978-0-19-530844-0.